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### 25 Cards in this Set

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 Shape of planetary orbits ELLIPSES widest length of an ellipse MAJOR AXIS half of the major axis SEMIMAJOR AXIS one of the foci of orbits within the Solar System SUN the points about which an ellipse is drawn FOCI (plural for FOCUS) the flatness of an ellipse ECCENTRICITY the eccentricity of a circle 0 when does an orbiting body move faster? PERIHELION; point closest to focus point in orbit closest to Sun PERIHELION point in orbit furthest from Sun APHELION Kepler's first law of motion ORBITS = ELLIPSES Kepler's second law of motion FASTEST POINT IN ORBIT IS AT PERIHELION Kepler's third law of motion PERIOD OF ORBIT INCREASES RAPIDLY WITH RADIUS OF ORBIT Newton's first law of motion INERTIA Newton's second law of motion F=m x a Newton's third law of motion EVERY ACTION HAS AN EQUAL AND OPPOSITE REACTION resistance to change in motion INERTIA a constant acceleration directed toward the center of a body GRAVITY Newton's view of gravity A FORCE OF ATTRACTION BETWEEN TWO BODIES, AFFECTED BY DISTANCE AND MASS The speed required to leave the gravity of a planet ESCAPE VELOCITY If mass increases, the gravity of the mass... INCREASES If distance from a mass increases, the effect of gravity from the mass... DECREASES planets with the least eccentric orbits VENUS, NEPTUNE direction of orbit for most moons and planets COUNTERCLOCKWISE planets with most eccentric orbits MERCURY, PLUTO