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38 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Newton's First Law
1. (Law of inertia): A body at rest remains at rest and a body in motion continues to move at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an external force.
Newton's Second Law
2. A force F acting on a body gives it an acceleration a which is in the direction of the force and has magnitude inversely proportional to the mass m of the body: F=ma
Newton's Third Law
3. Whenever a body exerts a force on another body, the latter exerts a force of equal magnitude and opposite direction on the former. (This is known as the weak law of action and reaction.)
Kepler's First Law
1. The orbits of the planets are ellipses with the sun at one focus.
Kepler's Second Law
2. A line from the planet to the sun sweeps over equal areas in equal intervals of time. This is equivalent to the statement of conservation of angular momentum.
Kepler's Third Law
3. (T1/T2)²=(a1/a2)³, where T is the orbital period in years and a is the semimajor axis in AU. Also known as the harmonic law.
Conservation Law

Angular Momentum
Angular momentum is conserved if the net external torque on the system is zero.
Conservation Law

Linear Momentum
Linear momentum is conserved if the net external force acting upon a system is zero, and in inelastic collisions.
Conservation Law

Energy (classical)
Energy is conserved in elastic collisions.
Conservation Law

Energy, Mass (quantum)
Energy, mass is conserved except on short time scales for which they may violate in accordance with the energy-time uncertainty principle.
Conservation Law

Electric charge
Electric charge is always conserved.
Conservation Law

Baryon Number
Baryon number is always conserved.
Conservation Law

Color is always conserved.
Conservation Law

Lepton Number
All lepton numbers are conserved.
Conserservation Law

Strangeness is conserved in strong interactions, changes by one unit in weak interactions.
Conservation Law

Isospin is conserved in strong interactions.
Conservtion Law

Isospin Z Component
Isospin Z component is conserved in strong interactions.
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
0. If two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, then they must be in thermal equilibrium with each other.
First Law of Thermodynamics
1. dE=dQ-dW=Tds-PdV, where dE is the energy change, dQ is the change in heat, dW is the work done, T is the temperature, dS is the change in entropy, P is the pressure, and dV is the volume change. (dQ is an exact differential)
Second Law of Thermodynamics
2. The second law of thermodynamics prohibits the construction of a perpetual motion machine of 'he second kind.' A consequence is the result that dQ=<TdS
Third Law of Thermodynamics
3. As temperature goes to 0, the entropy S approaches a constant S0.
Combined Law of Thermodynamics
Combining the first and second laws gives the combined law of thermodynamics

dE-TdS+PdV =< 0

In terms of the Gibbs free energy,

dG =< 0
The Ideal Gas Law
PV = nRT

where n is the number of moles and R is the universal gas constant

PV = NkT

where N is the number of atoms and k is Boltzmann's constant
Boyle's Law
For a fixed amount of gaseous substance at constant temperature,

PV = constant
Charles' Law
For a fixed amount of gaseous substance at constant pressure,

V/T = constant
Avogadro's Hypothesis
At constant temperature and pressure

V/N = constant

where N is the number of atoms in the volume V.
The Strong Law of Action and Reaction
For every action force, there is a corresponding reaction force which is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. Furthermore, the forces are central forces, i.e., they act along the line joining the particles.
Law of Reflection
The angle of incidence, measured relative to the normal, is equal to the angle of reflection, measured relative to the same normal.
Ohm's Law

Where V is the voltage drop across the resistance R carrying the current I.
The Hubble Law
Hubble proposed in 1929 that almost all galaxies were moving away from the Milky Way. He postulated that recessional velocity v was directly proportional to distance r,


H is the Hubble constant.
Joule's Law
Joule's law gives the amount of heat Q liberated by current I flowing through a resistor with resistance R for a time t,

Q = Pt = I²Rt
Hooke's Law
For a spring below the elastic limit, the restoring force F exerted by the spring is given approximately by

F = -kx

where k is the stiffness constant of the spring and x is its displacement.
Lenz's Law
An induced current flows in a direction to create a magnetic field which will counteract the change in magnetic flux.
Mersenne's First Law
1. When the tension on a string remains the same but the length L is varied, the period of the vibration is proportional to L. This is also known as Pythagoras's law.
Mersenne's Second Law
2. When the length of a string is held constant but the tension T is varied, the frequency of oscillation is proportional to sqrt(T).
Mersenne's Third Law
3. For different strings of the same length and tension, the period is proportional to sqrt(w), where w is the weight of the string.
Dalton's Law
Dalton's law states that the pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the gases of which it is composed.
Steno Law
The angles between equivalent faces of crystals of the same substance, measured at the same temperature, are constant.