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### 38 Cards in this Set

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 Newton's First Law 1. (Law of inertia): A body at rest remains at rest and a body in motion continues to move at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an external force. Newton's Second Law 2. A force F acting on a body gives it an acceleration a which is in the direction of the force and has magnitude inversely proportional to the mass m of the body: F=ma Newton's Third Law 3. Whenever a body exerts a force on another body, the latter exerts a force of equal magnitude and opposite direction on the former. (This is known as the weak law of action and reaction.) Kepler's First Law 1. The orbits of the planets are ellipses with the sun at one focus. Kepler's Second Law 2. A line from the planet to the sun sweeps over equal areas in equal intervals of time. This is equivalent to the statement of conservation of angular momentum. Kepler's Third Law 3. (T1/T2)²=(a1/a2)³, where T is the orbital period in years and a is the semimajor axis in AU. Also known as the harmonic law. Conservation Law Angular Momentum Angular momentum is conserved if the net external torque on the system is zero. Conservation Law Linear Momentum Linear momentum is conserved if the net external force acting upon a system is zero, and in inelastic collisions. Conservation Law Energy (classical) Energy is conserved in elastic collisions. Conservation Law Energy, Mass (quantum) Energy, mass is conserved except on short time scales for which they may violate in accordance with the energy-time uncertainty principle. Conservation Law Electric charge Electric charge is always conserved. Conservation Law Baryon Number Baryon number is always conserved. Conservation Law Color Color is always conserved. Conservation Law Lepton Number All lepton numbers are conserved. Conserservation Law Strangeness Strangeness is conserved in strong interactions, changes by one unit in weak interactions. Conservation Law Isospin Isospin is conserved in strong interactions. Conservtion Law Isospin Z Component Isospin Z component is conserved in strong interactions. Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 0. If two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, then they must be in thermal equilibrium with each other. First Law of Thermodynamics 1. dE=dQ-dW=Tds-PdV, where dE is the energy change, dQ is the change in heat, dW is the work done, T is the temperature, dS is the change in entropy, P is the pressure, and dV is the volume change. (dQ is an exact differential) Second Law of Thermodynamics 2. The second law of thermodynamics prohibits the construction of a perpetual motion machine of 'he second kind.' A consequence is the result that dQ=