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124 Cards in this Set

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why study history
its important for a cop to know the history of policing due to current political climate. it is essential to understand background of america's enimes forgin and domestic. "those who do not remeber history are condemned to repeat it." identify successful laws from the past and use them.
Babylon
18C-6C B.C. Mesopotamia, fertal crest between tigris and Euphrates (Iraq).
kings power was absolute.
king hammurabi
BABYLON. created extensive legal code known as code of hammurabi. sense of judgement based on personal responsibility. (punishment fines and obligations.) lex talionis. addressed all aspects of family social business life and property transcations.
lex talinonis
the law of retailiation. death penalty frequently used
code of hammaribi
egypt
may have had an organzied police force. may have been first to use dogs. medicine and surgery. Hur Moheb created an organzied police force to protect trade on the nile
the greeks in egypt
greeks adopted a policy of tolerance toward egyptian society. mounted police corp patroled desert, guarded borders, patroled canals rivers, and bought goods for the government. commanded by a police cheif. tax collectors/bodyguards paid in land/money
hebrews
mosiac law- the law of moses. 10 commandments. committed to the elimination of class distinctions. foundation of legal systems through out the westurn world.
greeks
created principal of democracy. "rule by the people."
romans
laws of the 12 tables
practorian guards-kings body guard
vigiles- freemen acting as firefighters
praetorian guard
roman. kings body guard
vigiles
roman. freemen acting as firefighters
french police
made a frankpledge. fuedalism. Lous XIV established police force and lieutenat of police to protect paris. Eugene Francious Vidoeq
Eugene Francis Vidoeq
france. a former convict became head of small detective unit under napolean. stocked his unit w/ former criminals "it takes a theif to catch a theif."
Britian
tything system.
Reeve
Magna Carta
Bow street runners
robert peel
thything system
britian. a group of 10 families living in close proximity to provide self protect and security
reeve
britain. cheif law enforcement officer of the magistrate.
magna carta
signed by king john in 1215. statement of democratic principles limited the power of the king and granted citizens certain guarentees including a chruch free form the monarchy. includes due process phrase
bow street runners
britian. men who under Henry Fielding, resonded to criminal incidents and apprehened knwon theifs. Fielding supported 24hr police
Robert peel
britain. establish the London metropoliatn police, it was a centralized police force. startedc 24hr policing, wear uniform and tophat, no weapons other than a truncheon. "Father of modern municipal policing."
orgins
greek: Polis-city
Roman: Politia - civil administration
French: Police
English: "marine police"- used to protect merchandise in london ports
early policing
generally a private matter, citizens were responsible to protect themselves
6 C athens- unpaid magistrates
5 C rome- questors- trackers of murder 1st specialized investigation unit
praetoriais guard****
****very frist police officers. rome. hand picked by empor augusus from the miliatry to portect him.
vigliles
began as firefightrers eventually agined law enforcement rights. first civil officers missioned to protect civilians
1st C licotrs
rome. appointed to protect magistrates and hand out sentences
13th C provost`
created to enforce law and supervise nightwatch
marechausee
mounted to mantian peace on highway. gendererie nationale- to pol.ice outside of french major cities
king alfred the great. to prevent dutsch invasion england
1. mutual pledge- group citizens together to protect each other (tithying 10 familys, consible 10 tithysings)
2. Hue and cry- a yell for assistance to which other citrizens ere expected to respond
3. constable- responsible for 10 tythings.
4. shire=county. shire reeve watched out for county
Statute of Winchester 1285*****
1. watch and ward- required all ment to serve on night duty
2. hue and cry- pronounced by watch and ward. it was a crime to ignore it
3. parish constivles
4. weapons requirement
3 dutys of the nightwatch****
***1. patrol streets from dusk-dawn
2. fire watch/ clear garbage/ light lamps
3. enforce laws
14 c. justices of the peace
england. to assis the sheriff. executed warrents, served summons and secured prisoners
theif takers
england. private citizens paid by the kind for every criminal they arrested.
beadles
england. assited constibles. everyone was corrupt.
hnery fielding
laid framework for policing. crime report, bow street runners, checked 4 stolen property in pawn shops. established a civilian horse partorl in london
Sir robert peel
englands home secutary. lodon metroplitan poloice act. created first large scale, uniformed, organized, paid, civil police force. used a beat system
9 basic pinciples***
1. prevent crime and disorder
2. depend upon public approval
3. willing cooperation in volentary observance (must obey law to keep publics respect)
4. use of fore up, public coperation down
5. absolute impartiality- no discrimination
6. force is last resort
7. usurp function of judiciary- ur not the judge
8. police are part of public
9. absence of crime and disorder to test police efficency****
history
aggregate of past events
underst/identify
cj parctionsers need to understand their field
babylon
code of hammarabi 282 reguluations.
egypt
police unites estblished for protection of the tombs
pretorian guard
had different departments eventually
greeks
rights of the masses
romans
law of 12 tables. Pretorina guard, vigiles
France:
frankpledge
british
magna carta
rattle watch
ny. a group of men armed w/ rattles to warn of their presence
new england
sheriffs that were very amacture. chruch, family and community generally all that was needed to maintain social order
pennsylvaina
strong religious influence.
virginia
business venture. produced tobacco, depended on slave labor.
slave patrols
visited plantations to seach for nay weapons, corpol punishement.
us nightwatch
walking rounds stating time and weather conditions in a moderate tone
appointment of federal marshalls
1789, first law enforcement postiontion in us. to support federal courts and carryout lawful orders from president/magistrate
why philidelphia established a police force?
steven Giraid left city large sum of money.
why boston established a police force?
assault of william lloyd garriosn and the road street riot led to police reforms
why ny established police
rivalries among 3 departments created need for unity
allan pinkerton
founded private police to protect railroads. known as pinkertons northwest police
jim crow laws
seperated the races
black codes
gave blacks no voice.
civil rights act of 1866
specified rights of citizens reguardless of race and allowed lawsuits against a person who deprived another of their civil rights
14th amendment
equal protection under the law
15th amendment
voting rights of blacks
civil rights act of 1875
outlawed exclusion of blacks from hotles, theaTRE, RAILROADS and other public accomidations
plessy v. fergions
seperate but equal is consitituional
progressive moverment
reformed courts, schools and urban insitutiions, destoryed the system of machine politics.
internation association of chiefs of police
helped detain criminals, civil service standards, adopting a police telegraphy
lola greene baldwin
americas first policewoman
colonial america
most important law enforcement offical was sheriff. citys=marshal
first american city to have polcie
boston
texas rangers
first state police
state w/ out state police?
hawaii
boston police strike 1919
didnt get paid enough, rioting and looting allmost immediatly. militia brought in, stirkers were fired. public lost respect for police
prohibition
volsted act--18th amendment. increased organized crime, repealled in 21st amendment
august vollmer
university training as part of police training. considered the father of modern american policing. created use of tests
o.w. wilson
one officer cars
J. Edgar Hoover
developed fbi academy, national crime information center (ncic) established ucr
kefawer committe
publcicized senate hearings, discovery of nationwide organzied crime network and its connection to law enforcement
mapp v. ohio
applied exclusionary rule to states.
escabedo v. illinois
right to consel at interrogation
miranda v. arizona
police notification of consitituional rights
brown v. board of education
desegregated schools
new england
no need for police because civilians were really religious
slave patrols
1837, charleston, caught runaways and made sure they were being logy assisted in regulating their activities. later became the police force--roots of racism
wickersham commission****
***first national study of crminal justice. remove corrupint influence of politics. head of department should be selected for compitence. Height/weight requirements
charateristics of us law enforcement:
fragmented b/c there is no national police.
federalism
dual system of government.
how many police agecies in the US
there is no exact number because agencies are allways openining and closing
largest police department in us today?
NYPD
sheriffs department
generally operated by county governments. primary responsiblity for jail operations and court related duties
specific police authority
highway patrol,enviromental enforcement agencies, bureau ofr liquor control, fish and wildlife, state narcotics units
general police authority
state police, county police, municipal police, county sheriffs department, township/villages.
state agencies respoisibilitys
accident investigation, patrol/first response, narcoics/vice, homeland security, fingerpirnt, death investigation, property, ballistics
special law enforcement agencies
transit police, park districk, alcoholic beverage control, campus police.
federal agencies
approximatly 60. established under the necessary and proper clause. fragmented
federal bureau of investigations
department of justice. responsible for criminal investigation and the enforcemnt of more 200 federal crimes. protect us from terror attacks, protect civil rights, major white collar crime etc
drug enforcement agency
department of justice. investigate major narcotics violators, prevent and control drug traffiking
the us marshal service
department of justice. receving transporting and custordy of all federal agencies. oldest federal law enforcement agency
the internal revenue service
enforcing nations tax laws. money laundering.
The bureeau of alcohol, tobacco, firearms and explosives
maintains 4 national response teams. tresury department
us postal inspection servcie
founded by benjamin franklin. 200 federal statues realting to the postal service
customs and border partorl
detect and prevent sumggling, illegal immiagration. find contrabnd. nations 2nd oldest law enforcement agency 1789
us secret service
counterfieting, financial crimes, computer fraud. protect the president, vice president and their immediate familys
private policing
private detectives, hospital security, railraod police. generally have no more authority than private citizens.
bowman v state
private polie do not have to give miranda warnings b/c they were not involved in state action
burdeau v. mcdowell
constituion does not protect popel from arrests, searches and seizures conducted by private persons.
charateristics of law enforcement
fragmented
no national police force
decentralized- law enforcemnet is generally a lcola problem
sworn v. not sworn
sworn have taken an oath of office--authority to arrest/detain. not sworn-- no police powers
department of homeland security
coast guard, secret service, citizenship/immigration
department of justice
fbi, dea, atf and e, marshalls
proprietary security
employees of the company work security
contractual security
hires security guards from an outside agencie
organization theory
a body of reserach and practice that looks at organizational arrangements in a structuarl sence
progressive reform
hire and premote by merit, not by who you knew.
max webber
suggested that orgainzations represented the natural trend in society toward rationalization. essential aspect of organziation was hierachy represented by the emergence of buerocracy. clear lines of authority
fredrick winslow taylor
sceintific management theory- breaking down work into its smallest parts. wanted to link skill and productivity to pay. examined the way people worked and the way organization is sturctured.
luther gulick
effective communication is essential. small span of control for employes. unity of command should apply form the top to the bottom. you report to only one individual. dominance of an idea- set of values could dominate the mangaemtn of an organiztion and direct is activitys. structuring authority-use of hierarchy
organization by product
officers need to produce a result, such as drug arrests
organziation by fucntion
grouping employees together according to the major fucntions that they serve.
goal displacement
learn to focus on rules rather than service.
trained incapacity
learn what to do and what not to do
human relations theory
examined the impact of individuals and small groups on organziations. motivation/leadership
contemperary management theory
systems theory- enviroment may affect agency
contingency theory-connot rely on any 1 partcular theory
problem oriented policing
efforts are goranzied around a particular problem
team policing
teams are created based upon specific areas (geographic or problem)
divison of labor
personnel, area, time, fucntion/purpose
span of control
number of subordinate that an individual can effectvely superise. 6-10 for law enforcement
***delegation of authority
delegates task not responsiblity.
unity of command
only report to one supervsior