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107 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Coined the term riniscita

(An Italian artist and art historian)
An example of Perpendicular Gothic from the 16th century; evidence of the lasting impacts of the Middle Ages.
King's College Chapel, Cambridge, 1547
England and France were born as nations following this event
Hundred Years' War
Unified Spain in 1469
Marriage between Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille
While other areas of Europe were consolidating into nations (Swedish Empire, France, England, Spain...), these two areas were comprised of many small states
Italy and Germany
Italian territory long disputed by both the Houses of Anjou and Aragon
Kingdom of Naples
Which House eventually took control of the Kingdom of Naples in 1435?
House of Aragon
What other Italian territory did the House of Aragon also control?
The Papal States acted as a buffer between __________
The feudal south and the commercial north
The Papal States also joined _________
Adriatic Sea (east) to Mediterranean (west)
The Renaissance first flourished where?
The city-states of northern Italy
Specifically what city-state did the Renaissance first appear in?
From the late thirteenth century until 1447, this family had despotic rule over Milan
Viconti family
After the Viconti family's rule, Milan became _______
A republic
Who made himself Duke of Milan by starving the city into submission?
Francesco Sforza
Family that controlled Ferrara
Este family
Family that controlled Mantua
Ganzaga family
Known as the most immoral of popes
Alexander VI (Borgia family)
Pope Leo X belonged to what family?
The three outstanding republics of Italy
Florence, Venice, Siena
Although a republic by name, Siena was actually a _________
Florence's Councils were dominated by _________
The Medici family
Venice, even though it boasted a constitution with a system of checks and balances, was actually a _______
Mercantile oligarchy
The most stable Italian state
Faction that favored and relied on the old Imperial connection (aka Holy Roman Emperors)
Faction that opposed the Holy Roman Empire and looked to the papacy for support
This bourgeois (middle-class citizens) in Italy of this guild sufforted a sharp decline during the Renaissance
Woolen guild
Instead, what country took control of the woolen trade?
Guilds during the Renaissance:
A) Grew in influence rapidly
B) Grew in influence slowly
C) Lost influence rapidly
D) Lost influence slowly
D) Lost influence slowly

- lost control of their own members and lost influence in society at large. Still were important during the Renaissance, however.
Neither freeholders or leaseholders, but people who controlled land for X amount of years in exchange for services
Serfdom _______ in Western Europe and _______ in Europe East of the Elbe (Eastern Germany and Slavic areas)
Decreased; Increased
Layman who wrote the Divine Comedy
Dante (1261-1321)
Made the language of their native Tuscan that of Italy; pioneered writing in Italian vernacular
Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio
Pioneered vernacular writing in England
Wycliffe and Chaucer
Pioneered vernacular writing in France
Pioneered vernacular writing in Spain
Means a literary refinement and mental cultivation that goes far beyond academic discipline. (Has origins with Cicero)
Wrote The Courtier
Italian city with tripartite constitution
Three classes of Milan's tripartite
1) The great nobles
2) The lesser nobles (knights + squires)
3) The non-nobles (plebeians)
The first despots of Milan
The Della Torre family (most of the 13th century)
The Della Torre family were the leaders of what faction?
Guelf (pro-Pope, anti-Holy Roman Emperor)
What family seized power in Milan from the Della Torres?
Viconti family

Archbishop Ottone Visconti in 1277
The Viconti family headed what faction?
Ghibellines (anti-Pope, pro-Holy Roman Emperor)
The Visconti family rule in Milan was characterized by this
Territorial aggression
The Viscontis were in constant conflict with the papacy. What were the two major weapons that the Pope used against the Visconti?
Excommunication and Crusades
In 1354, these two brothers of the Visconti family became the joint rulers of Milan
Galeazzo (western areas) and Bernab (eastern areas)
Galeazzo's son, who took control of his domains when he died in 1378.
Gian Galeazzo
Harsh gaming laws, where a man could be hanged for killing boar, were associated with what person?
Bernab (Visconti)
Attained complete control of Milan in 1385
Gian Galeazzo
Buildings that Gian Galeazzo sponsored
The cathedral of Milan
The Certosa (Carthesian monastery)
How was Gian Galeazzo associated with the French claim to Milan?
His daughter Valentina married the brother of a French king. One of their descendants later became king of Franch.
Gian Galeazzo was never able to complete his takeover of Florence, which he laid seige to in 1402 due to what?
His death
What city was the only one complete untouched by Gian Galeazzo's domination of Northern Italy?
Took control of Milan after Gian Galeazzo's death
Giovanni Maria (his eldest son)
Took control of Milan after Giovanni Maria's death in 1412
Filippo Maria (Giovanni's brother and last of the Visconti rulers)
After Filippo Maria's death in 1447, who was hired by the Milanese people to defend their city?
Francesco Sforza
Instead of defending Milan, what did Francesco Sforza do?
Laid siege to Milan and took control of it in 1450
Who assisted Francesco Sforza's takeover of Milan?
Cosimo de' Medici
What ended conflct between Italian states, becoming the basis of a league of the states, and maintained peace between the states until 1494?
The Peace of Lodi, 1454
Joint effort between these states maintained peace in Italy between 1454 and 1494
Florence, Milan, and Naples
What state did Sforza secure for Milan from France?
Who took control of Milan in 1466 after Franceso Sforza's death?
Galeazzo Maria (his son)
How did Galeazzo Maria die?
Killed by republican-loving conspirators in a church in 1476 (Galeazzo Maria leaned towards absolutism)
Official rule of Milan was left to Galeazzo Maria's son, Gian Galaeazzo upon his death. What man, who was a brother of Galeazzo Maria, had the real control of Milan?
Ludovico the Moor
What two famous artists did Ludovico sponsor?
Leonardo da Vinci and Bramante (architect)
What foreign power did Ludovico bring to Italy to intervene?
(Charles VIII)
Why did Ludovico bring the French rule to Italy?
His wife (a Borgia - i think - from the ruling family of Naples) broke up the alliance between Naples, Milan, Florence. And, Lorenzo the Magnificent died in 1492, and Naples became a threat to Ludovico's rule.
What was the consequence of Ludovico bringing French rule to Italy?
Brought the beginning of invasions that ended Italian freedom and subjected it to foreign domination for centuries.
Who settled the area of Venice in the 5th century?
Refugees from the mainland fleeing from Hunnish and German invaders
What was the mainstay of Venice's wealth and industry
Sea trade
Venice had trading priveledges with:
1) Byzantines
2) Germans
3) Mohammedans
This group took power in Venice by the 6th century
Merchant aristocracy
What is a doge?
The presiding officer of Venice's merchant oligarchy
What was the Small Council?
A council of 6 people that acted as a permanent advisory to Venetian government
What was the Great Council?
A council of over 2000 people that held the power in Venice and from which all other governmental bodies were formed. (including Senate)
What was the result of the "closing" of the Great Council in 1297?
Only members of about 200 of the great merchant families in Venice could be on the Great Council
A political uprising in 1310 in Venice, though repressed, led to the formation of what?
The Council of Ten
What was the purpose of the Council of Ten?
To protect the Venetian government against conspiracy plots
Most famous conspiracy plot in Venice
That of Marubi Faliero, the doge of Venice at the time, in 1355 (unsuccessful)
How was Venice able to exert control over the Byzantine empire?
It directed the Fourth Crusade (1204) from an attack to regain the Holy Land to an attack on Constantinople.
What did this control allow Venetian merchants to do?
Extend the area of their trade influence into Russia, the Crimea, and Asia Minor
Who was Venice's main rival during the 13th and 14th centuries?
Genoa (also was into sea trade)
Between what years were Genoa and Venice in conflict with each other?
1294 to 1381
What events allowed Venice to dominate Italian sea trade by the end of the 14th century?
Genoa was struggling with internal problems and fell under French domination by 1396
What Venetian lived in the Mongol Empire as an official of the Great Khan from 1275 to 1292?
Marco Polo
During what century was Venice at its height?
15th century
What gold coin minted in Venice was valued for its reliable worth?
The ducat (minted since 1284)
What led to a decline in Venice beginning at the 16th century?
1) The advance of the Ottoman Turks into eastern Europe; Venetian colony in Constantinople destroyed in 1453; by 1540 the Morea and most Greek islands were lost to the Turks
2) Portuguese found an all-water route to the East in late 15th century
3) Plague outbreak
4) Shortage of timber for shipbuilding
Long after the rest of Italy had been subjected to Spanish power, Venice remained free. When was Venice finally conquered?
At the end of the 18th century by Napoleon
The last great medieval emperor of Italy
Frederick II (died 1250)
Reliable coinage of Florence first minted in 1252
The gold florin
Florence was dominated by what faction?
Guelf (pro-pope, anti-Holy Roman Empire)
Benefits of Florence's good relations with the papacy
1) Banking business of the papacy
2) Merchant priveledges in areas of Papal influence
The magnates (aristocratic rulers) of Florence were taken over by who/what in 1282-83?
The merchant and banker class
The ruling class of Florence (after 1283) comprising of guilds of merchants and bankers
Popolo (translated = "people")
The lesser guilds of Florence
Popolo minuto ("little people")
The greater guilds of Florence
Popolo grasso ("fat people")
How many guilds were there in Florence?
How many lesser guilds (popolo minuto) were there in Florence?
How many greater guilds (popolo grasso) were there in Florence?
What comprised the executive body of Florence's government?
6-8 priors
How were the priors chosen?
Choosen by lot (slightly skewed in favor of the greater guilds)
How long did the serving term of a prior last?
2 months
Who had no political power whatsoever in Florence?
The workers (not members of any guilds/not allowed to form their own guilds)
The merchants and bankers that took control of Florence in 1282 were able to consolidate their position by creating what?
The Ordinances of Justice of 1293.
What did the Ordinances of Justice of 1293 do?
Penalized the former ruling class of magnates