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106 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How long ago was the first colonization of America by people in Asia?
40,000 years ago.
What was one revolutionary result of the development of agriculture?
the feasibility of the division of labor.
What was a serious weakness of slash and burn farming?
It soon exhausted the soil.
How long lasted the classic period in ancient America?
From 1 AD to 1,000 AD.
The post classic period inancient America was characterized by...
the rise of genuin cities.
The Olmec civilization was characterized by...
the carving of stone sculpture that featured colossal heads.
What factor greatly aided Aztec imperial expansion?
The geographical advantages of the Valley of Mexico for defense and offense.
Which was the dominant mexoamercian state in the classic period?
Which was the main integrating force in Aztec Society?
The priesthood.
The mayan agricultural system was based on what?
A mix of Slash and burn farming and more intensive agricultural methods.
Our knowledge of Mayan history has been enhanced by the discovery that...
Many of the sculpture gliffs record important events in the life of Mayan rulers.
The Central Andean area in inca times was characterized by...
A rich variety of environments making possible extensive food production.
What was the Mochica culture of classic peru noted by?
A red and black pottery characterized by realistic modeling.
Who was the emperor credited with many reforms and innovations in the Inca state?
Pachacuti Inca.
What was the name of the record keeping device possessed by the Incas?
The Inca state may be best described as...
A class structure state in which commoners were explited by the ruler's nobility.
What was one of the serious weakness of the Inca empire?
A cronic discontent and revolts on the part of conquered peoples.
Who were the Ayllu?
A kinship group, the members of which married whith in the groups.
Where was social stratification most developed?
The State
Economic life in aztec Mexico rested ona base of..
Intensive and extensive agriculture.
The Triple Alliance was an agreement to share the spoils of conquest among-----This facilitated aztec domination of mesoamerica
the Texcoco, Tenochtitlan, and Tlacopan.
In the classic mesoamerican world networks of commercial trade linked the great cities of:
Montealban, Teotihuacan,and Tical
a mojor muslim contribution to spain's economic life was
the introduction of new crops and irrigation.
In its first phase the reconquest had the dominant character of the struggle of
christian nobles to regain their lost lands and its serfs.
A turning in the reconquest was
the christian victory at Las Navas de Tolosa.
A major economic result of the reconquest was
the supremacy of sheep racing over agriculture en Castile.
The Mesta was
the powerful guild of sheep racers.
One method used by Queen Isabella to curve the power of the aristocracy was
appointment of officials from the lower nobility and the middle class.
In 1492 the Cathlic soverigns ordered the expulsion of
all conversos and jews.
In her work of refoming the chuch
Isabella hada vauvavle ally in a faction of the regular clergy called observants.
Fueros were
chracters of liberties granted to towns granted by the kings
spain's military supremacy in 16th century Europe was
based on the new style spanish Army created by Gonzalo de Cordoba
Hermandades were
military asociations created by castilian towns to defend their municipal authority.
Conversos were
Jews who converted to christianity to avoid persecution
A major of Prince Henry the navigator's african project was
to find the sources of Muslim gold.
A conflict between columbus and the oppontnets of "His Enterprise of the Indies" arouse from the opponent's claime that
the size of the ocean between Europe and aSia was greated than Columbus believed
Magellan's voyage of 1519 to 1522 resulted in
the spanish acquisition of the Philipines
The discoveror of the pacific was
Vasco Nuñez de Balboa
Befor Cortes marched into tenochtitlan
he had to defeat the Tlaxcalans
The last Aztec ruler was
Pedro de Alvarado provoked an Aztec uprising by
ordering a massacre of leading aztec chef and warriors
A factor that aided the spansih conquest of Mexico was
Moctezuma's belief that cortes was the returing god Questsalquatl
Theprincipal base of explorations leading to the conquest of Peru was
the town of Panamon.
Atahualpa made a serious errorby
understimating the offensive capacity of the small Spanish force
The last Inca of the royal line was
Tupac Amaru
The struggle btwn the Almagros and the Pizarros involved
a dispute over Cuzco
The principal source of royal revenue from the indies was
The major colonial mining center vefore 1700 was
Teh term asiento was
a contract btwn the corn and a forign company that permited the sale fo black slaves in the spansih colonies.
A ajor cause of the encomienda's decline was
the catastrophic decline of the Indian population.
Labor for the obrajes was
often obtained by ensnaring Indians through an offer of liquor or money.
Beginning in the reign of Phillip II the sale of colonial offices by the crown became
the standard practie.
Phillip II favored the secular over the regular clergy b/c
he disliked the independence of spirit shown by the regulars regarding mattirs like the Indian policy.
The wealthiest religious order in the spanish colonies was
the society of Jesus or Jesuits
The great majority of cases tried by the colonial inquisition had to do with
offenses against morality
The ditin\guising feature of the colonial aristocracy was
The law of the indies assigned mestizos of legitimate birth
equal status with whites.
Crown policy toward inidnas favored
thier systematic segregation from the white community
The patronato real refferst to
royal control over ecclecialtical affairs in Spain and the colonies.
The treaty of utrach
gave menorca and Gibraltar to Britain.
The Bourbon reform reached its climate under
Charles III
One reason for the failure of the Bourbon reforms to achieve their goals wa
opposion of conservatives to a much needed land reform
Colonial manufacturing in the late 18th century
suffered a decline from foreign goods
The intendant system was introduced in the late 18th century to
increase royal revenues from the colonies
In the second half of the 8th century
an anti-creole reaction reduced creole representation in high official posts
The greatest poet of colonial Spanish America was
Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz
The clergy who made the most skillful effort to reconcile church dogma and enlightment ideas were
the Jesuits
The creole effort to establish the spiritual primacy of the colonies over spain was
reflected in cults shuch as the Virgin of Guadalue
Indian strategies for resisting Spanish oppression included
The active use of Spanish legal codes for puposes of defense and offense.
a distincive feature of the comunero revolt and program was its effortto
form a common front of almost all colonial groups against Spanish authorities.
Some spanish writers attributed alleged creole indolence and incapacity to the nobxious effects of
the american climate and soil.
The success of a slave revolt in Haiti
damped interst in independence among elites
One imp;ortant consquence of spain's alliance with napoleon against England was
Spain's openning of spanish-american parts ot trade with neutral nations.
The Venezuelan constitution of 1811
abolished indian tribute.
a distinctive feature of Bolivar's military leadership was
his advancement of soldiers for merit without regard to social background or color
The liberation of new granada was achievd by
the dicisive Patriot Victory at Boyaca.
What distinguished the Hidalgo revolt in Mexico from other Latin american revolutions was
the large scale participation of the Indian and mixed blood worker (proletariat)
Iturbide's program for Mexican Independence proposed
the civil equality of creoles and Peninsulares
The Latin American wars of Independence
left existing economic and social structures basically intact.
The colonial elite that emerged from the wars of indepence with the greatest powr was
The wealthy land owners.
The rese of caudillismo reflected among other things
intensified tendencies towarde regionalism as a resutl of economic stagnation
The new Latin american republican constitutions contained
literacy and property qualifications that barred most lower class people form voting.
The primary aim of the Mexican REforma was
to eradicate feudal vestiges and implant capitalism.
The majority of conquistadors were
The motives of the spanish of the spanish conquistadors was
their desire to gain wealth
a factor that contributed to the fall of the Indian empires were
the diseases introduced by Spaniards
The encomienda was
the assignmet to a colonist of a group of indians to serve him with tribute and labor.
the requerimento required the indans on pain of war to
acknowledge the supremacy of the church and the sovereignty of Spain.
Bartolome de las Csas proclaimed that
all spanish conquest and wrs in the new world were illegal
the new laws of the Indies
provided that all encomindas were to seize stop on the death of the holder
Black slaves were principally employed in
plantation agriculture
The colonial economy was
a mixture of feudal and capitalist elemnets
the most successful pratical attacks in Spanish Amercia were made by
francis drake
The triumph of Porfirio Diaz was
also the triumph of positivism
A charcteristic of the neo colonial order was
that one or a few products became the basis of each country's prosperity
Under porfirio Diaz the mos favored groups were
important landowners and foreign investors
Usurpation of Indian lands under diaz accelerated as a ressult of
the passage of the land laws of 1883,1890,and 1894.
The achievemnet of independence divided supporters of the old social order from
those who wanted a new more democratic order
Indian tribute and forced labor
reapeardd in many countires under different names
following independence Indians continued to differ in
speech, social organization and psychology from the white and mestizo groups
By 1875 slavery had disappeared everywhere in Latin america except
in Brazil and Cuba
A major factor responsible for the disappearance of slvery in teh 19th century was
Great Britain's hostile behavior to slavery.
established a protective relationship between and upper class godfather and his lower status godchild.
After independence the influence of the church declined as a result of
a new and relatively tolerant climate of opinion.
After independence the position of women
probably worsened in civil status.
The massive influx of European immigrants into latin America after 1880
didn't significantly weakened the prevailing aristrocatic ideology