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97 Cards in this Set

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Royal Patronage
patronato Real
the authority give to kings to approve or disapprove the appointment of all clergy in reconqured lands.
In Spain.
Reconquest
Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba
First Spaniard on Mainland
Set Sail in 1517
Found Mayan Ruins off Yucatan
Picked Cortez to lead expedition
Maya
Hernando Cortez
1519 landed near Veracruz
Burned his ships to prevent men from escaping.
Found Aztecs, was thought to be Quetzalcoatl.
Took Moctezuma captive in Tenochtitlan
Leveled Tenochtitlan
Maya
Francisco Pizarro
Part of Balboa's expedition
Found Incas, and was thought to be Viracocha.
Kingdom was divided in civil war.
Founded Lima
Inca
Nicolas Federmann
Representative of the German Banking house of Welser
Tried to colonize Venezuela since 1528
German
Pedro Alvares Cabral
Found Bahia, Brazil in 1500
Portugal
1500
Pedro de mendoza
founded Buenos Ares
Spain
Father Miguel Hidalgo
Didn't want peninsular dominance in america
Leader of revolutionary war
Mexico
Didn't want peninsular dominance in america
Mariano Morero
Didn't want peninsular dominance in america
Leader of revolutionary war Argentina
Bernardo O'Higgins
Didn't want peninsular dominance in america
Leader of revolutionary war
Chilie
Francisco de Miranda
Didn't want peninsular dominance in america
Leader of revolutionary war Venezuela
Simon Bolivar
Didn't want peninsular dominance in america
Leader of revolutionary war
Venezuela
concervative
strong national governments
power centered in the capital cities
oligarchies
Catholic Church
Caudillismo
arbitrary rule by a strongman or chief
Mainly though violent means but also by candidato unico and golpe de estado and continuismo
Benito Juarez
Pure-blooded Indian
From Oaxaca and moral
Mexico president, liberal
Partido Revolucionario INstitucional
Mexico
PRI Institutional Revolutionary Party
"one-party democracy"
Three Major sectors: Business, Labor, Peasantry
National Action Party
PAN
Mexico
conservative right wing party
IN 1999 let voting occur for new president
Vincente Fox Quesada
Zapatista
rebellion of a group of highland Maya Indians in chiapas
small publicized
United Provinces of Central America
1823
Had bad communicationChiapas, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica
Didn't last long
Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front
FMLN
Marxist rebels
represented the interest of the growing rural landlass class
war between them and right-wint Salvadoran military took 75,000 lives during 1980s
William Walker
American filibuster Adventurer
Brought by liberals in Nicaragua in 1855
Was "elected" president of the republic
Was taken out by both the liberal and conservatives.
Sandinistas
1979 in Nicaragua put themselves in power
leftists group
built up military
US invaded
Violeta Barrios de Chamorro
widow of murdered newspaper editor
won Nicaraguan election in 1990
Defeated Daniel Ortega
Daniel Ortega
Nicaragua
Sandista Party
Defeated by Violeta Barrios de Chamorrow in 1990
Oscar Arias Sanchez
Coast Rica
won 1987 Nobel Peace Pricec for help in Sandinista-contra war
Colonel Omar Torrijos Herrera
Dictator in Panama from 1968-1981
Made new treaty w/Jimmy Carter in 1977 that returned Panama Canal to Panama in 2000
Gerneral Manual Antonio Noriega
Panama
Dictator after Herrera
Employed by CIA and drug lords at same time
declared war on US, and US invaded
Jose Marti
Exiled poet from US in Cuba
Killed in revolutionary war
People's National Party
PNP
Led by Michael Manley
Jamaica
Michael Manley
Jamaica
Led People's National Party
attempted to develop a modified socialist welfare state, and try become near Cuba
Partido Revolucionario INstitucional
Mexico
PRI Institutional Revolutionary Party
"one-party democracy"
Three Major sectors: Business, Labor, Peasantry
National Action Party
PAN
Mexico
conservative right wing party
IN 1999 let voting occur for new president
Vincente Fox Quesada
Zapatista
rebellion of a group of highland Maya Indians in chiapas
small publicized
United Provinces of Central America
1823
Had bad communicationChiapas, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica
Didn't last long
Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front
FMLN
Marxist rebels
represented the interest of the growing rural landlass class
war between them and right-wint Salvadoran military took 75,000 lives during 1980s
William Walker
American filibuster Adventurer
Brought by liberals in Nicaragua in 1855
Was "elected" president of the republic
Was taken out by both the liberal and conservatives.
Sandinistas
1979 in Nicaragua put themselves in power
leftists group
built up military
US invaded
Violeta Barrios de Chamorro
widow of murdered newspaper editor
won Nicaraguan election in 1990
Defeated Daniel Ortega
Daniel Ortega
Nicaragua
Sandista Party
Defeated by Violeta Barrios de Chamorrow in 1990
Oscar Arias Sanchez
Coast Rica
won 1987 Nobel Peace Pricec for help in Sandinista-contra war
Colonel Omar Torrijos Herrera
Dictator in Panama from 1968-1981
Made new treaty w/Jimmy Carter in 1977 that returned Panama Canal to Panama in 2000
Gerneral Manual Antonio Noriega
Panama
Dictator after Herrera
Employed by CIA and drug lords at same time
declared war on US, and US invaded
Jose Marti
Exiled poet from US in Cuba
Killed in revolutionary war
People's National Party
PNP
Led by Michael Manley
Jamaica
Michael Manley
Jamaica
Led People's National Party
attempted to develop a modified socialist welfare state, and try become near Cuba
Edward Seaga
Led Jamaica Labour Party JLP
wants close ties to America
Jamaica Labour Party
JLP
wanted close ties to America
Led by Edward Seaga
Toussaint L'Overture
Haiti
Was willing to become self-governign part of France if slavery was abolished
Was kidnapped and killed
Led Haiti to independance in 1804
Francois Duvalier
Haiti
"Papa Doc"
Brutal Dictaorship
Cited blacks to kill middle/upper class
rewrote constitution to make him president for life
Security group called Tontons Macoutes
Tontons Macoutes
Personal Security killing force for Fancois Duvalier, "papa doc"
Haiti
Rafael Trujillo
Dominican Republic
harsh dictator
didn't modernize country
killed in 1961
Popular Democratic Party
Puerto Rico
PPD
Founded by Luis Munoz Marin
Rules today in PR
Aligns with US Democrats
Luis Munoz Marin
founded Popular Democratic Party in PR
New Progressive Party
PNP
Puerto Rico
wants statehood
goes with Republicans
Romulo Bentacourt
Venezuela
Democratic Action AD Party
implemented social and agrarian reform
War of the Pacific
Conflict over Nitrate Fields
Chile beat Bolivia and Peru
American Popular Revolutionary Alliance
APRA
Peru
Founded in 1924 by Victor Raul Haya de la Torre
wanted it to be more like Mexico
Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement
Peru
MRTA
leftist guerilla group who prospered in 1980s
imprisoned diplomats during a social event
Shining Path
Peru
Maoist Wint
responsible for 25,000 deaths and $20B in damages
Alberto Fujimori
Peru
elected President in 1990
Son of agricaultural engineer and japan immigrants
high voter approval but fixed election and resigned
Chaco War
turing point in Bolivia's social developmet
Nationalist Revolutionary Movement
Bolivia
MNR
formed in 1940 by intelectuals
General Augusto Pinochet
military dictatorship
killed thousands of subversives
undid much of social legislation
Concertacion por la Democracia
Accord for Democracy
center-left party
rules today
strong economic growth and full democracy
War of the Triple Alliance
Paraguay vs Argentina, Urugauy and Brazil
1865 because of closing of Bio-Bio River
1/2 of pop killed, almost all of the adult males
Juan Manuel de Rosas
Argentina
conservative
was exiled
Juan Domingo Peron
Argentina
imposed high taxes on privetly owned businesses
gave tax revenues to descamisados
wife was Evita
decamisados
rural-to-urban immigrants
"shirtless ones"
Dirty War
Argentina
30,000 killed
Marxist Terrorist
Dom Pedro II
Loved Brazil
father-figure ruler
ruled wisely and effectively for 5 decades
created the post of prime minister
established degree of freedom that hasn't be duplicated
Esado Novo
Brazil
"New State"
Vargas created
blend of faith and technology with socialism
Promoted Modernization
Chichimecs
In northern Mexico, SW USA
seminomadic hunting and gathering trib
low social achievement
Aztec
Called themselves Mexica
outcasts
Founded Tenochtitlan in 1325, biggest city in world at the time
adopted Toltec culture
400 settlements, 38 provences
human sacrifice 20-50 thousand a year
Cannibalizing occured
preoccupied with war, death, and trying to keep cosmic order
significant urban planning and development
Short-lived
Maya
Formed in 3000 AD
Pyramids and stone buildings
towns with 40-45 thousand people
fifty independent states
high pop densities
8-9 Century declined
sophisticated hieroglyphic writings
astromony and mathematics, including calendars
Chibcha
small agricultural villages
lacked political governce
wooden homes
Inca
had one of the most efficiently administerd kingdoms in world
people broken down into families that were governed in groups
every worker assigned a trade for life
suspension bridges, highways
postal service
masonry
Araucanian
South of the Inca Empire
"rebel or enemy"
Incas couldn't defeat them
Took on European horse
herded llams
Chono
not advanced
cold wind-batrtered islands
homs were just sticks
shellfish, sea mammels diet
dogswere domesticated
barefoot, but free from disease
Alacaluf
not advanced
cold wind-batrtered islands
homs were just sticks
shellfish, sea mammels diet
dogswere domesticated
barefoot, but free from disease
Yahgan
not advanced
cold wind-batrtered islands
homs were just sticks
shellfish, sea mammels diet
dogswere domesticated
barefoot, but free from disease
Ona
southernmost
hunters
Tehuelche
warlike, horse-oriented culture
hunters
Puelche
Pampa hunter
Charrua
Uraguay hunters
Ge
easternand central Brazil
unsophisticated hunters and gatherers
Ciboney
westernern Cuba and Hispanola
unsophisticated hunters and gatherers
Guarani
lowland forst
formed group Tupinamba
fisrt people encounted by Porutgueses missonaries
Arawaks
Caribbean Islands between 300 BC and 1000 AD
Island Caribs
Lesser Antilles
Tumbeiros
ships that carried over Blacks called "Slavers" or "coffin ships"
manumission
freedom given to slaves without anything in return
usually black mistresses, children, or other relative of master
Maroon
society formed during colonial period in NE Brazil Guyana colmbia, Mexico and Jamacia
Miscegenation
racial mixing
mestizos
European and American indian
(Spanish)
mamelucos
Euopean and American Indian
(Portugese)
Mulattos
Black and White
Zambos
Black and Brown