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60 Cards in this Set

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this group of people: mobile, hunter/gatherers; fairly small; social environment not complex; harshest environments
group of people: lived in fertile locations, hunted but practiced shifting agriculture; built villages but constantly moved them; never built great empires
group of people: practiced permanent and sustainable form of agriculture; established large empires
Spanish arrived in Mesoamerica in _____. Conquered it with only a couple hundred men by ____. B/c of prior events
1519, 1521
an indigenous group, swept down in Central Mexico. capitol city: Tula (50 miles from mexico city); enormously powerful, prosperous, legendary. creators of mesoamerican culture.
Toltecs believed in this mystical redeemer who had been cast out by other gods and promised to return and reclaim his rule over Toltecs one day. Aztecs believed same but had specific year he'd return.
Toltec crumbled when...
Spanish sacked Tula and burnt it. People disbursed.
In their early days, the aztecs were a group of...
unsophisticated thugs, no one wanted them around
Aztecs established a home on ____ ______, an island there. The capitol city was _________. They built an empire that managed to control most of Mesoamerica.
Lake Texcoco, Tenochtitlan
How did the Aztecs enforce their rule?
*violence, fear, intimidation
*practices of human sacrafice on a massive scale
Aztecs religious views?
*traditions v. pessimistic, time divided into suns. believed lived during 5th sun in which empire would crumble. goal: to delay by appeasing the gods. so sacraficed most impt thing they had, human beings.
When did Incas of Peru become a power?
after year 1,000\
*1530 (9 mill people- less than aztecs)
Incas of Peru used force and intimidation, but were different from the Aztecs how?
they made conquered people part of their dominant culture- imposed their religion on them.
Language of the Incas of Peru?
"question: what you up to"
basic unit of social organization for the Incas in which they claimed descent from certain ancestors and had own set of lands that coordinated; obligated to help members of thier _______. Eventually replaced family member with Inca official to oversee this _______. Mutual respect/obligation between subject and ruler. People had no choice but to cooperate in the Inca state.
"hey, lu! i'm you're aunt. it's our mutual family respect."
What was the situation between the Moors and the Iberians at first?
The Moors were better at everything (farming, tech) than the Iberians, but the Iberians had a healthy respect for them. The Moors broke up large estates and reestablished smaller parts of land. Over time though, the policies started reversing.
The Moors invaded Iberia. The movement of the Iberians trying to kick the Moors off the peninsula. Eventually became religious war. 800 years long.
*military values (courage, honor) became central to Iberians. Being a soldier was the best way to get rich, be revered, presigious; economic motivation.
The Reconquest (711-1492)
Soldiers in the reconquest (Iberians) became entitled to the land and resources they gained in war. would give 1/5 of gain to the king.
"Spoils of War"
How was the Reconquest a religious crusade for the Iberians?
Christians believed that God approved of their conquest against the Moors. Gave them religious justification for.
In an effort to unify government, Ferdinand and Isabella made what kind of laws?
policies to create homogenous state, largely antisemetic.
1478, aimed at Jews and Conversos (who practiced their religious faiths behind closed doors). Thousands were burned alive. Hundreds of thousands fled spain (huge part of middle class)
Spanish Inquisition
By 16th C,
*Spain unified
*Moors kicked Iberians out of Iberian peninsula
When did Ferdinand and Isabella agree to send Columbus on expedition and why?
1492, to enrich spain- spice trade, economics. He found Haiti but was convinced he found Asia.
term refers to the impact on indigenous americans. total disaster, diseases. 90-95% of people in discovered parts of latin america died
Vision of the Vanquished
the first person to circle the globe
Magellan (1519-1522)
gellin around the world
Spanish conquistador, sent with men to investicgate mainland. forbidden to engage in military conquest. argued was much more worthwhile to do, so he convinced men of such. acquired mexican female translator. eventually took over Aztecs
Hernan Cortes
Aztec king, terrified, disturbed by Cortes and conquistadors
independent city/state within Aztec empire that kept Aztecs at bay with good soldiers. Cortes formed military alliance with them.
Spanish tried to sneak out of Tenochtitlan with an organized plan, but the aztecs caught them an killed 450 of Cortes' men. This was called _______. many drowned
"Sad Night" or "Night of Tears"
*worshipped sun god
*acqueducts, farmland out of impossible landforms, took civ. to new heights
*extraordinary network of roads, had runners, allowed them to rule Ecuador, amazing cities
an urbanized area that is also a prominent archaelogical site. this is where they are trying to bury the mummies. shells brought from ecuador were valued more than gold. (Incas)
atta boy, getting rocks
the leader of the Incas, the Spanish set up a meeting with himand were able to attack the incas and kill thousands of them
Tupac Amaru
he led the spanish conquest against the incas
Francisco Pizarro
an area where a small group of survivors fled to and lived for 40 years (Incas)
village of la bamba
1530, a mysterious illness took thousand of inca lives
he held spanish throne after Ferdinand's death
Charles IV
The spanish crown was afriad to give colonists free reign in the americas because:
1) work indians to death
2) make them unhappy
3 institutions in Colonial Spanish Americas:
1. crown
2. church
3. colonists
the most pro-indian of the institutions
goal: to save souls
involved assigning indians to specific colonies. basically, a form of slavery
the idea that soldiers who participated are entitled to the spoils of war
"The Requirement"
refers to the crown's legally documenting their purpose so that the spanish would be enslaved if they refused it. enraged the church. conflict between 3 institutions.
this Spaniard's complaints influenced the way spanish viewed colonization. argued that religious conversion was the spanish's only goal in colonization; opposed what spanish were doing; was a conquistador, made public arguments, wanted to create an ideal sort of christian community
Bartolome de Las Casas
New Laws of the Indies (1542)
*new set of laws that were supposed to reinsert crown's interest in the indies
1) prohibited any further enslavement of the indigenous people
2) all existing encomiendas could no longer be handed down to next generation
replaced encomienda; a labor draft. unlike encomienda, workers were paid. impressive labor arrangement; all indians work for part of the year
a system that created debt for servitude
Wage Labor
established 1524, they answered only to the king. located in spain; supreme institution that deal with the colonies. ie. approved all major expenditures of colonies, laws
Council of the Indies (1524)
below the council of the indies, there was one for each territory; responsible for implementing/interpreting laws handed down by royalty. assisted by the audiencias
advisory bodies/court of appeals. did not have to listen to viceroys but usually did
didn't have to listen but usually did
Provencial administration in spanish colonies:
each viceroy divided into states with governors, etc --> town councils- closed, highly corrupt, and dominated by wealthiest; oversee markets, tax collection, approve/disapprove marriages, local duties
*extremely effective system, no major rebellions until v. end and no large standing army
*was enormously flexible
*allowed viceroys to decide which laws they wanted to obey; ignored protective laws, implemented ones they could profit from indig labor from
*a system that tolerated abuses
The Spiritual Conquest of the Americas
unlike Aztecs, the indig people were not allowed to worship their old gods, just one God. they outwardly did so, but behind closed doors, did own thing
caste system in americas based heavily on ______
white spaniard born in the colonies
white spaniards born in spain (only they could hold polit office/church office)
indigenous white. crown encouraged unions between spanish and indigenous at first b/c were so few spanish women. later discouraged
Portugese began settlement of americas when?
Portugese; his voyage got caught up in big storm, didn't hug africa; gave Portugal foothold in the Americas; at first didn't know had landed in same piece of land as spanish
*these early expeditions confirmed that he had found significant piece of territory (Brazil)
Pedro Cabral (1500)
Council of State
Portugal's private colonization system; this bureaucracy looked much like Spain's. Located in Portugal, had a governor general, governor, and local officials. Smaller than spain's b/c many less Port settlers
3 stages of Brazil's colonial economy:
1. focused on Brazil's exports (brazil wood)- first 100 years 1500-late 1500's
2. Sugar became trade. Rise of african slavery. became portugal's most impt colony.
3. late 17th C, gold rush. thousands of settlers come, move into interior, away from coast. sugar came back late 18th C
organized settlements of runaway slaves in the wilderness
*best known one was called ______, and was in the NE, huge, entirely self-sufficient. 90 miles of territory, resisted destruction from colonial militia for 100 years. destroyed in 1694