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56 Cards in this Set

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What is a Primary Sex Characteristics?
Characteristics (e.g., different chromosomes, sex hormones, internal and external genitalia) that are needed to accomplish sexual reproduction.
What is a Secondary Sex Characteristics?
Characteristics (e.g., breasts, finer skin, and more subcutaneous fat for females; facial hair, deep voice, and
greater musculature for males)
develop later, and these serve to further distinguish the two sexes anatomically and to facilitate courtship and mate selection.
What is a Tertiary Sex
Characteristics?
Social behaviors and the situations in which they are displayed, which men and women typically learn in particular historical and cultural circumstances.
What are some effect sizes of Men and Women Differences? Are these differences large/meaningful? In social behaviors, do males and females differ in degree or kind?
Communication:
1)Women score higher than men on…
– expressing emotions (-.52)
– Decoding nonverbal behaviours (-.43)
2)Men are more likely to interrupt! (.33)

Social Support/Coping:
Women are more likely than men to seek emotional support (-.41) and to ruminate (-.39)

Sexuality:
1)Men are more likely to…
– Be sexually permissive (.57)
– Masturbate (.96)
2)Women are more likely to
– feel anxious, guilty, and fearful about sex (-.35)

Distinguish between males and females on primary and secondary sex characteristics.
Differences on tertiary sex characteristics – behaviors, attitudes, and experiences – are not as readily apparent.

When it comes to social behaviors, males and females differ in degree not in kind.
Why do males and females differ? 2 views?
1) Social constructionist: Human sexuality is shaped by culture and socialization.
2) Essentialist: Biology is main source of causal explanations of sexuality; although situation factors may shape expression.
What are the four ways males and females differ in sexuality? Explain each?
Differential Sexual Plasticity.
Sexuality and Aggression.
Sexual Desires.
Sexuality and Relationships.
Which better (greater or less
plasticity)? What are the potential implications of women’s sexuality being more ‘plastic’ than men’s?
– Individually?
– Dyadic/interpersonal?
– Societal?
– Clinically? (therapy)
-Individual – plasticity = better ability to adapt to new social conditions and demands.
-Dyadic – sexual compromise might be easier for women, but men do more.
-Societal – “…more productive and effective to control female than male sexuality.”
-Clinical – therapy may be more effective for women, but only to extent that relationship context taken into account. Sexual self knowledge should be easier for men.
What are the Differential Sexual Plasticities among men and women, 3 hypothesis?
Hypothesis 1: Within-person variance in sexual behaviour will be greater among women than men.
-More variation in women than in men in total degree of sexual activity over time.
-Women more flexible in sexual
orientation.

Hypothesis 2: Sociocultural factors will have a greater impact on women’s sexuality
than on men’s sexuality.
-Greater variability in women’s sexual customs across cultures.
-Women shift more in sexual attitudes with acculturation.

Hypothesis 3: Women are less consistent in behavior and attitude then men.
-Women more likely to show attitude behaviour inconsistency.
– Engage in activities against values.
– Engage in undesired sexual activity.
What are the ways males and females differ in sexual desires?
-Men have more sexual desires (thoughts, higher sex drive, spend money on sex more).
-Men want sex more.
-Men more likely to masturbate.
What are the ways males and females differ in Sexuality and Relationships?
-Women emphasize committed relationships as context for sex more than men.
-Women more likely to romanticize. Sexual fantasy about partner.
-Lesbian partners were friends before. Gays more likely to cheat.
What are the male and females differences in Sexuality and Aggression?
-Men's sexual concepts characterized by dimension of aggression, women have no aggressive dimension with sex.
-Coersive sex mostly males, women not so much.
Whats the reason and age teenagers have sex? How often do people have sex in committed relationship?
love, fitting in, please partner...before 20. Depends on length (over time less), age (older less), passion gone, sexual orientation (gay men have sex most, lesbians least). After time, everyone less.
Who cheats more in a relationship. Orientation, benefits (equality theory)? How does equality affect sexual satisfaction?
Gay men and men cheat more. Person who is underbenefited cheats more. More equality, more satisfied.
What is the key to good sex life? Who has better sex, orientation?
More communication, the more satisfaction. Gays and lesbians have better sex because communicate.
How did heterosexuals and gays respond to AID's training? Condom use? Why?
Gays respond well and use more condoms, heterosexual don't respond. Effectiveness not related to condom use. Hetorosexuals think wont happen to them, alcohol = less use of condom.
What is the difference between heterosexual and homosexual relationships? Satisfaction, Support from family, Conflict, Stability?
-Similar in satisfaction trajectory, happy start then decreases with time.
-Homosexual get less support from family and friends.
-Homosexual couples better at conflict resolution.
-Homosexual couples are less stable but research is questionable.
What are the three Perspectives on relationship violence? What are the questions that all three ask?
1)Patriarchal (Feminist, Gender Paradigm):
• Question: Why do men beat their wives?
2)Psychosocial:
• Question: Why are some individuals violent toward their partners?
3)Dyadic:
• Question: Why are some relationships at risk for violence?
What is the Historical basis of the Patriarchal view? What is violence then in this view? What is the problem with this view? 2 problems.
A social organization involving men’s systematic subordination & control of women.
• Men internalize patriarchal norms.
• Partner violence an acceptable means for men to maintain control and domination of wives.

A function of the family, nothing to do with women, they are the victims, men don't have psychological problems its a learned norm.

-Based on premise that violence against women is a societal norm, at least among men. In reality very few people see men hitting women as ok!
-Based on premise that men have and should have greater power than women in marriage. But women do just as much abuse of men-same male female as female-male violence. Can't account for same sex partner violence (lesbian high).
Rates of violence by gender:
Archer (2000) Meta-analysis?
-Women slightly more likely than men to use violence against partners.
-Women tend to use such acts more frequently
-Note: Gender difference primarily in young couples. Older couples same violence rates.
Where do you find the most severe cases of violence? Least common pattern?
Most severe violence in mutually violent relationships.
• Least common pattern: Male severe violence against non-violent woman.
What does partner violence
actually look like in Western society? Gender and violence, who gets injuered more, same-sex relationships, Women and violence, Biodirecational, when is violence most common, when is it lowest, age, over time, stability, who more likley to leave the relationship?
-Both women & men suffer consequences.
-Women more likely to be seriously injured.
-Comparable rates of violence in same-sex relationships.
-Women as likely to be violent as men.
-Bidirectional.
-Violence most common in dating & cohabiting
relationships.
-lowest in marital relationships.
-Levels of violence decrease with age.
-Within couples, levels tend to decrease over time.
-Relationships with violence very likely to end (many time rate of average relationship).
-Women more likely to end relationship.
What is the Psychosocial perspective? What are the prolbems with this approach?
-Looks at men and women individually. Men abuse because they are struggaling somehow.
• Low self-esteem, dependency, neuroticism.
• Poor communication skills; social skills.
• Personality disorders; pathology.
• Difficult childhood relationships (family violence).
• Attachment anxiety.
• Substance abuse.
• Stress.

Problem: Individual focus!
-Generally look at men & women and perp and victim in isolation.
• But since abuse is reciplical, line between victim and perp are blurred.
• Predictors are usually identical.
• Problem of direction of cause and effects. If both are victim and perp, no claer cause and effect.
What is the Dyadic basis of partner violence?
• Violence arises in conflict situations (men don't hit out of nowhere).
• Reciprocity of abuse (bot abuse).
• Family background predicts receipt, as well as perpetration.
• New streams of research:
Interaction, longitudinal, & qualitative.
What are Interaction studies of violence? What did this kind of study find about when violence is most likely to arrise?
Bring couples into lab and video tape a talk about a problem.
Violence tends to arise in context of poor communication, and mutual aggression.
What have longitudinal studies found about childhood predictors of becoming violent? Family Background, Dispositions, are they similar for men and women?
Childhood/adolescent predictors of later violence:
• Family background: family violence; harsh punishment.
• Dispositions: conduct problems, negative emotionality.
• Similar predictors for men & women.
What did longitudinal studies find about Nonclinical and Clinical abouse groups level of male and female violence? Which gender is predictive of nonclinical and clincical?
• Nonclinical abuse group:
-Higher female violence.
-Female background predictive.
• Clinical abuse group:
-Equal severity of male & female violence
-Background of men & women predictive.
What did qualitative studies find about Persuit/distancing or demand/withdraw and abuse?
• Abuse often part of a coherent strategy to regulate distance.
• Pursuit: attempt to gain and/or maintain closeness.
• Distancing: attempt to gain and/or maintain distance.
Where might the Partiarchal Model fit best?
In cultures with High inequality, mens level of violence is higher.
What is the rate divorced couples seek therapy? How long do they wait? What is rate couples seek therapy?
-About 1/4 of divorcing couples seek therapy.
-Wait average of 6 years after onset of
serious problems.
-10% of married couples have sought treatment for relationship problems.
What types of therapy problems do Therapists Report? Most frequent? Most difficult to treat? Most damaging problems?
- Most frequent
What type of problems do married couples report? Are these the same as Newlywed? What does this tell us?
What two pursuing and distancing strategies lead to violence?
pursuing/distancing and pursuing/persuing.
Can you find clinical level abuse in community samples? What is the relation between male and female abuse and less and more severe cases of abuse? What is difference between men in nonabusive relationships, nonclinical abuse, and clinical abuse?What is the difference in women?
Yes.
Less severe= women to men, More severe= men to women.
Men in nonabuse and nonclinical level are same. But clincal level= psychopathology. Women similar level of aggressive personalities in all.
A Brief History of Couple Therapy?
--1929 - 1932 –Modern marriage counselling born.
What is Traditional Behavioural Couple Therapy (TBCT)? Goal, key components?
Goal: Behaviour change
Key components:
-Behaviour exchange (partners make a social contract, agree to do certain things).
-Communication skills training (4 horsemen)
-Functional Analysis
• Address their issues.
Problems with Traditional Behavioural Couple Therapy?
Many Couples don’t Respond to TBCT.
What is Insight-Oriented Marital (Couple)
Therapy? Goal, Key components?
Goal: insight into developmental and present of self and partner promotes intimacy. Focus and past and present!
Key Components of IOMT
-Developing a collaborative alliance.
-Promoting relevant relationship skills.
-Challenging cognitive components of relationship distress.
-Examining developmental sources of relationship distress.
Traditional Behavioural Couple Therapy versus Insight-Oriented Marital (Couple)
Therapy?
Both treatments showed improvment over doing nothing. But TBCT & IOMT are just the same. IOMT added no greater benifit.
What is Integrative Behavioural Couple Therapy (IBCT)? Goal, Key Components?
Goal: Acceptance and behaviour change.
Key Components:
-Behavioural Strategies
In Integrative Behavioural Couple Therapy: what is Empathic Joining? Reformation? Soft versus hard disclosure? Unified detachment? Practicing negative behaviors? Self-care?
Empathic Joining: both get to emotions at root of problem and join them together.
Reformation: understanding where partner is coming from developmentally.
Soft versus hard disclosure: using secondary emotions like I feel hurt instead of primary emotions like I am angrey.
Unified detachment: disect argument with an objective approach.
Practicing/faking negative behaviors: makes humor, not sure if partner is serious.
Self-care: don't rely on partner to meet all needs.
What is Integrative Behavioural Couple Therapy (IBCT) Outcome?
Same as other forms of therapy TBCT, and IOMT.
What is Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT)? Goal, Key Components?
Goal: foster secure bonding through focus on emotions.
Key Components:
What is Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) Outcome?
-Large effect size.
-Couples continue to improve after end of treatment.
-Treatment gains maintained at 2 year follow-up.
Problems with the Research on Therapy (Generally): Statistical vs. clinical significance?
Statistical vs. clinical significance.
-50% improve, but only 1/3 non-distressed.
-Effect sizes vary dramatically from study to study.
-Few differences between “schools” of
therapy
-Exceptions - Therapist/researcher allegiance.
-Lack of long term follow-up.
What attachment styles relate to abuse in men and women?
Anxious/preoccupied & fearful attachment styles link to abuse in men and women.
What are the 3 kinds of Predictors of Relationship Dissatisfaction? What are examples of each?
-Static predictors:
Age at marriage
Parental divorce /Family of origin experiences
-Life events / external stressors:
Transition to parenthood
Job loss
-Dynamic Predictors:
Aggression
Negative communication
Social support
Capitalization
Why Focus on Prevention? Couples seeking therapy? Treatment benefits? Last? Therapy versus prevention in # of couples can help?
- 80 – 90% of divorced couples do not seek therapy before separating and those who do tend to wait a long time.
- Only about half of all couples treated (TBCT)
benefit significantly.
- Treatment effects dissipate over time.
- Potential is great for reaching many couples.
Why Prevention Instead of Therapy? Social Stigma? Cost? Barriers? Motivation?
- Prevention is less stigmatizing / threatening.
-Prevention is less costly.
-May lower barriers to seeking treatment later.
-Targeting relationships early means couples may be more motivated to work on relationship issues.
What are the Two General Approaches to Relationship Education (prevention)? Explain both.
Relationship Inventories:
-Couples complete a series of questions regarding relationship beliefs and processes and then they are given individualized feedback.
Relationship Skills Training:
-Couples learn new skills to deal with relationship issues.
What is Prevention and Relationship Enhancement Program (PREP)? What is it based on? What does it focus on? PREP Aims to Counteract
Danger Signs, what are they 4? Explain them, what are they similar too?
-Based on TBCT (tred. Beh. couples therapy)
-Focuses on behavior exchange,
communication, and problem solving. CONFLICT!

-Escalation: negative reciprocity.
-Invalidation: failure to take in others perspective.
-Negative Interpretations: negative mind-reading.
-Avoidance and Withdrawal: shutting down, stonewalling.
What are the Core PREP Skills, 2? Explain them. How do they counteract the 4 danger signs?
-Speaker/Listener Technique
1) Speak has floor but must share with listener. Speaker talks precise, using constructive griping.
2)Listener paraphrases without rebuttal.
3)Then switch.
-Constructive Griping (X, Y, Z statement)
Specific behavior X, Specific situation y, Specific way I felt z. e.g. you left your socks on the floor last night and I got annoyed.

Slows down the conversation to unnatural way of talking (stops escalation). Validate each other by paraphrasing. Can't mind-read. Must paraphrase to can't withdraw.
In Prevention and Relationship Enhancement Program (PREP) is Validation the same as Agreement?
No, agree can just say yeah I get it. Validation must show you know what partner is saying.
Does Prevention and Relationship Enhancement Program (PREP) work? Some previous research on PREP finds that increases in positive communication are related to declines in satisfaction! What does this mean? What did the new study find that improved on the last study?
-have higher relationship/sexual satisfaction
-more positive communication
-fewer negative communication patterns

Women experiences little or some positive change in behavior = gradual decline in satisfaction for couples. But... women experiencing extreme positive change in behavior = decline in satisfaction for couple.

New study randomized P's and used high and low risk couples:
-High risk participants in the PREP group were better off than control group at risk couples. But...
-Low risk PREP couples did
WORSE than low risk CONTROL couples. Harming low risk couples.
What is Compassionate and Accepting Relationship through Empathy (CARE)? Whats its focus? Based on? Whats its Goal (domains) explain? What are the 4 core skill? Explain.
-Focuses on empathy and acceptance strategies (based on IBCT)?
-increase empathy for one another in three domains
»Conflict-use core skills.
»Social Support-amplifying and supportive listening.
»Forgiveness-give benefit of doubt.

1)Amplification: using speaker-listener technique but in way to show you understand partner perspective AND FEELINGS. positive mind-reading! You feel like your hurt and need support...
2)Discussing soft feelings: secondary feelings, hurt, jealous...
3)Reformation: seeing your partners side.
4) Detaching from problems: look at conflict objectively and use humor.
What are modifiable and not modifiable risks in therapy and prevention. What should prevention and therapy target?
1)modifiable risks- social support, communication, capitalization... interventions should target these behaviors.
2)Not modifiable risks: parents divorced, ages at marriage... interventions
may benefit from targeting people with these risk profiles.
What are some guidelines for the best practice in relationship education? Risk? Encourage risk? Aggression? Change points? When to seek education? Special needs? Accessibility?
1)Assess the risk profile of couples- high risk need help, low risk can mess them up.
2)Encourage high risk couples to attend relationship education.
3)Assess and educate about aggression.
4)Offer relationship education at change points (newlyweds, baby, moving...)
5)Promote relationship education when distress is low before bad communication and problems get entrenched.
6)Match content to couples special needs.
7)enhance accessibility of programs.