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120 Cards in this Set

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Describe the body type of nematodes
unsegmented and cylindrical or threadlike
What is the infectious agent for Ascariasis?
Ascaris lumbricoides
What is the largest human roundworm?
Ascariasis
What color is the Ascaris lumbricoides?
white or pink
What is the reservoir for Ascariasis?
Humans and eggs in soil
In the Life cycle for Ascariasis, how long after eggs are passed in hosts feces do the second stage larva develop inside of the egg?
In three weeks
What is the mode of transmission for Ascariasis?
Ingesting eggs in contaminated food or soil
What is the incubation period for Ascariasis?
4-8 weeks
Pneumonitis, Wheezing, Coughing, and a severe complication of bowel obstruction are signs and symptoms of what nematode?
Ascariasis
How are patients diagnosed with Ascariasis?
Identifying eggs in feces
Where are adult Ascaris lumbricoides worms found?
In the mouth, nose and anus
What is the treament for Ascariasis?
Mebendazole (Vermox)
Ancylostomiasis is another name for what nematode?
Hookworm Disease
Uncinariasis ia another name for what nematode?
Hookworm Disease
Necatoriasis is another name for what nematode?
Hookworm Disease
What are the infectious agents for Hookworm Disease?
Necator americanus
Ancylostoma ceylonicum
Ancylostoma duodenale
What is the reservoir for Necator americanus?
Humans
What is the reservoir for Ancylostoma duodenale?
Humans
What is the reservoir for Ancylostoma ceylonicum?
Cats and Dogs
Where does Ascariasis occur?
Tropical and sub-tropical regions
In the life cycle of Ascariasis, how does the filariform larva enter the Host?
The filariform larva enters the host through hair follicles, pores, broken skin
In the life cycle for Ascariasis, once the parasite has entered the host, where does it move to?
The parasite moves to the heart and lungs via the lymphatic system
What is the mode of transmission for Ascariasis?
Infective larvae penetrate the skin
What are signs and symptoms of Ascariasis?
Anemia, Gastroenteritis

Children with heavy infections mat develop hypoproteinemia and may be retarded in mental and physical growth
What is used to treat Ascariasis?
Mebendazole (Vermox)
Strongyloides stercoralis is the infectious agent for what nematode?
Strongylodiasis
In the life cycle of Strongyloides stercoralis after the juvenile parasites are passed in feces what do they molt into?
Juvenile parasites molt into either infective filariform larva and penetrate the skin of the host
or
Free-living rhabditiform larvae
In the life cycle of Strongylodiasis where do juvenile mature into parasitic females?
Juveniles mature into parasitic females in the small intestines
What is the mode of transmission for Strongyloidiasis?
Direct contact with fecally contaminated soil
What is incubation period for Strongyloidiasis?
2-4 weeks
Abdominal pain resemblng ulcer and Pruritic dermatitis radiating from the anus are signs and symptoms for which nematode?
Strongyloidiasis
How is Strongyloidiasis diagnoses?
By identifying larva in feces or sputum
What medication is used to treat Strongyloidiasis?
Thiabendazole (Mintezol)
What nematode is also known the whipworm disease?
Trichuriasis
Tricuris trichiura is the infectious agent for which nematode?
Trichuriasis
What is the reservoir for Trichuriasis?
Humans
In the Life cycle for Trichuriasis, what is the infective stage?
The first stage larva develops inside the egg in the weeks
In the Life cycle for Trichuriasis, how long does the larva remain near the crypts of Lieberkuhn?
For 3-10 days
In the Life cycle for Trichuriasis where does the parasite move to after reaching adolescence?
Reaching adolescence it moves to the cecum
In the Life cycle for Trichuriasis, how long from ingestion until the adult matures and lays eggs?
It is 30-90 days
What is the mode of transmission for Trichuriasis?
Ingesting contaminated vegetables
It is not transmitted person to person
Bloody muciod stools and Anemia and clubbing fingers in children are the signs and symptoms for what nematode?
Trichuriasis
What medication is used to treat Trichuriasis?
Mebendazole (Vermox)
What is Trichinosis also known as?
Trichinellosis
Trichinella spiralis is the infectious agent for what nematode?
Trichinosis
What is the reservoir for Trichinellosis?
Dogs and cats
Where does Trichinosis occur?
Worldwide
What does host ingest to become infected with Trichinellosis?
Hosts ingest raw or undercooked pork containing infective juvenile larva
In the Life cycle for Trichinosis, after how long can sexes be differentiated?
18-24 hours
In the life cycle for Trichinosis, after female deposits juvenile larva, what in the body do they enter?
The juvenile larva enter lymphatics and blood stream
In the Life cycle for Trichinosis, after juvenile larva enter the lymphatics and blood stream, where are they carried?
These are carried to :
Muscles where they encyst
Organs where they are absorbed
What is the mode of transmission for Trichinosis?
Eating raw or partially cooked pork
What is the incubation period for Trichinellosis?
8-15 days
What are early signs and symptoms for Trichinellosis?
Muscle soreness
Swollen upper eyelids
Retinal hemorrhage, photophobia, fever, cardiac and neurological complications are signs and symptoms of which nematode?
Trichinella spiralis
With Trichinellosis, what temperature does the fever rise to and how long does it last?
Up to 104 degrees F
Stops after 1-6 weeks
Where does Dracunculiasis occur?
Africa and Asia
What is the reservoir for Dracunculiasis?
Human
How does the life cycle of Dracunculiasis begin?
Infected Human comes in contact with water
In the Life cycle for Dracunculiasis, what eats the larva that leaves the blister on the infected human?
Copepod from the genus Cyclops
In the life cycle for Dracunculiasis, how long after eating the larva does the copepod become infective?
3 weeks
In the life cycle for Dracunculiasis, how do humans become infected with the disease?
Humans ingest water infected with copepods
In the life cycle for Dracunculiasis, after larva exit the wall of the digestive tract where do they move to?
Larva exit the the wall of the digestive tract and move to the SQ tissue
What is the mode of transmission for Dracunculiasis?
Ingesting copepods in infected water
What is the pathogenicity of Dracunculiasis?
Infection of SQ tissue
How is Dracunculiasis diagnosed?
By visualizing the adult worm protruding from a skon lesion
How would you control Dracunculiasis?
Keep infected people from entering drinking water sources
How is Dracunculiasis treated?
Tetanus
Antibiotic ointment and bandage
Surgically remove the worm
What is the infectious agent for Bancroftian filariasis?
Wuchereria bancrofti
What is the infectious agent for Malayan od Brugian filariasis?
Brugia malayi
What is the infectious agent for Timorean filariasis?
Brugia timori
What is the reservoir for all species of filariasis?
Humans
What is the reservoir for B. malayi?
Cats and non-human primates in the Phillipines and Thailand
Where does W. bancrofti occur
Warm humid regions of the world
Where does B. malayi occur?
India, China, Korea
Where does B. timori occur?
Indonesia
How are Humans infected with the filariasis parasite?
Humans are infected with juveniles when bitten by an infected mosquito
In the life cycle of filariasis, once the juveile has entered the host, where does it migrate to?
Lymph nodes
In the life cycle for filariasis, where does the parasite molt twice and reach sexual maturity?
In the lymph nodes
In the life cycle for Filariasis, after the female produces microfilariae, where do they end up?
In the blood stream
In the life cycle for Filariasis, what does the mosquito ingest during her blood meal?
Microfilariae
In the life cycle for Filariasis, how long does it take for microfilariae to develop into infective juveniles?
1-3 weeks
What is the mode of tranmission for filariasis?
Bite of an infected mosquito
The bite of an infected mosquito of what species causes Bancrofti filariasis?
Culex, Anopheles, Aedes
The bite of an infected mosquito of what species causes Brugian or Malayan filariasis?
Mansoni, Anopheles, Aedes
The bite of an infected mosquito of what species causes Timorean filariasis?
Anopheles barbirostris
Microfilariae appear in the blood after 3-6 month with which type of filariasis?
Malayan
Microfilariae appear in the blood after 6-12 month with which type of filariasis?
Bancroftian
What are acute signs and symptoms of Bancroftian filariasis?
Recurrent filarial fever
Lymphadenitis
What are signs and symptoms of occult filariasis in Bancroftian filariasis?
Recurrent nocturnal asthma
Low-grade fever
What medication is used to treat filariasis?
Banocide
What is Loiasis also known as?
Calabar swelling
What is the reservoir for Loiasis?
Humans
Where does Loiasis occur?
African Rainforests
What is the infectious agent for Loiasis?
Loa loa
What is the mode of transmission for Loiasis?
Bite from an infected deer fly of the genus Chrysops
How long can Loa loa persist in humans?
up to 17 years
What is the infectious agent for Onchoceriasis?
Onchocerca volvulans
Whats is the reservoir for Onchocerciasis?
Humans
Where does Onchocerciasis occur?
South America
Central America
Africa
In the life cycle for Onchocerciasis, what ingests micofilariae during her blood meal?
Black fly
In the life cycle for River Blindness, after how long do microfilariae change into infective juveniles in thoracic muscles?
6-10 days
In the life cycle for Onchocerciasis, where in the black fly do juveniles migrate to?
Proboscis
In the life cycle of Onchocerciasis, what does the body form around the worms?
Nodules
In Onchocerciasis, what do nodules contain?
Worms and microfilariae
What is the pathogenicity of River Blindness?
Infection of SQ tissue
Pruritis rash, Dermatitis altered pigmentation and loss of skin elasticity and lymphadenitis are signs and symptoms of what parasite?
Onchocerciasis
What medication is used to treat Onchocerciasis?
Ivermectin (Mectizan)
Pinworm infection is an alternate name for what parasite?
Enterobiasis
Oxyuriasis is another name for what parasite?
Enterobiasis
What is the infectious agent for Enterobiasis?
Enterobius vermicularis
What is the reservoir for Enterobiasis?
Humans
Within how many hours do enterobius vermicularis eggs become infective?
6 hours
Where do Enterobiasis worms mature?
in the large intestine
Where do Enterobiasis eggs hatch?
In the small intestine
How does the female pinworm parasite lay her eggs
The female crawls out of the anus to lay her eggs (this is usually in the morning)
In the life cycle or Enterobiasis, what crawls back into the anus?
juvenile worms
What is the mode of transmission for Enterbiasis?
Fecal-oral
Indirectly by clothing, bedding, food
Perianal itching, disturbed sleep, and vulvovaginitis are signs and symptom for what parasite?
Enterobiasis
What is the treatment for Oxyuriasis?
Pyrantel pamoate (Antiminth)