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80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
2 pairs of folds of the larynx
False vocal folds = cranially positioned ventricular folds

True vocal folds = caudally placed vocal folds
Parts of the cavity of the larynx
vestibule: aditus --> rima glottidis
ventricle: space between ventricular and vocal cords
infraglottic cavity: space between rima glottidis and beginning of tracheal cavity.
Unpaired cartilages of the larynx
Epiglottic Cartilages
Paired cartilages of the larynx
-Right and left laminae, fusing to form the laryngeal prominence
-Superior & inferior thyroid notches
-Superior & inferior cornu/horns
-Oblique line (extends from superior to inferior thyroid TUBERCLES)
-Quadrilateral, dorsal lamina
-Facets for articulation with inferior cornu of thyroid cartilage
-2 elliptical depressions for articulation with the arytenoid cartilages
3 folds of the mucous membrane between the tongue and epiglottis
single median glossoepiglottic fold

2 lateral glossoepiglottic folds

Depressions between the folds: epiglottic valleculae
What attaches the epiglottis to the arytenoid cartilages?
aryepiglottic folds
the 2 processes of the base of the arytenoid cartilage
muscular process: lateral angle
Vocal process: anterior angle; where the vocal cord attaches
Cuneiform cartilage
attached to the aryepiglottic fold just anterior the corniculate cartilage
Thyrohyoid Membrane
Between body/cornua of hyoid bone and cranial aspect of the thyroid cartilage. Thick in median portion = median thyrohyoid ligament; lateral portions are lateral thyrohyoid ligaments.
2 extrinsic membranes of the larynx of interest
Thyrohyoid membrane

Cricothyroid membrane
Cricothyroid membrane
Fibroelastic tissue connecting the superior rim of the cricoid cartilage with the inferior rim of the thyroid cartilage.
Intrinsic membrane of larynx, aka ELASTIC LAMINA
cranial portion = quadrangular membrane

caudal portion = elastic cone (conus elasticus)
Parts of the elastic cone (conus elasticus)
Median cricothyroid ligament
2 vocal ligaments
Cricothyroid muscle
O: arch of cricoid cartilage
I: lamina and inferior cornu of thyroid cartilage
In: external branch of superior laryngeal nerve
Fn: tenses vocal cords
Lateral cricoarytenoid muscle
O:arch of cricoid cartilage
I: muscular process of arytenoid cartilage
In: inferior laryngeal nerve
Fn: ADDUCTS vocal cords (narrows rima glottidis)
Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle
O: lamina of cricoid cartilage
I: muscular process of arytenoid cartilage
In: inferior laryngeal nerve
Fn: ABDUCTS vocal cords
Transverse Arytenoid muscle
O and I: posterior surfaces of the 2 arytenoig cartilages
In: Inferior laryngeal nerve
Fn: adducts the vocal cords
Oblique Arytenoid muscle
O: muscular process of 1 arytenoid cartilage
I: apex of opposite arytenoid cartilage
In: inferior laryngeal nerve
Fn: adducts the vocal cords
Aryepiglotticus muscle
continuation of the oblique arytenoid muscle.
Thyroarytenoid muscle
O: thyroid lamina and cricothyroid ligament
I: lateral margin and base of the arytenoid cartilage
In: inferior laryngeal nerve
Fn: Adducts the vocal cords
Vocalis muscle
O: thyroid lamina and cricothyroid ligament
I: vocal ligament
In: inferior laryngeal nerve
Fn: modifies tension on the vocal cord
List the intrinsic muscles of the larynx (8)
posterior cricoarytenoid
lateral cricoarytenoid
transverse arytenoid
oblique arytenoid
2 regions of the rima glottidis
intermembraneous region: between the vocal cords
Intercatilagenous region: between the arytenoid cartilages
Arterial supply of larynx
Superior thyroid artery (off external carotid) -->. superior laryngeal branch

Inferior thyroid branch (off thyrocervical trunk) --> inferior laryngeal branch

Cricothyroid artery off the inferior laryngeal branch
Venous drainage of the larynx
Superior and inferior laryngeal veins
Sensory innervation below the vocal cords
recurrent laryngeal branches of vagus nerve
sensory innervation above the vocal cords
internal laryngeal branch of superior laryngeal nerves of vagus
Recurrent laryngeal nerves wrap around what on R and L sides?
Right: subclavian artery
Left: arch of aorta
Boundaries of the submandibular triangle
inferior rim of the mandible, anterior and posterior bellies of the digastric muscles
Suprahyoid muscles
anterior belly of digastric
posterior belly of digastric
Posterior belly of digastric
O: mastoid notch of temporal
I: intermediate tendon
In: facial nerve
Fn: pulls hyoid bone posteriorly
Anterior belly of digastric
O: digastric fossa of mandible
I: intermediate tendon
In: mylohyoid nerve (off inferior alveolar nerve of V3)
Fn: pulls hyoid bone anteriorly
Action of both bellies of digastric together
Elevate hyoid bone

Depresses mandible when hyoid bone is fixed
Stylohyoid muscle
O: styloid process
I: body of hyoid bone
In: facial nerve
Fn: pulls hyoid bone superiorly and posteriorly
Mylohyoid muscle
O: mylohyoid line of mandible
I: median raphe and body of hyoid bone
In: mylohyoid nerve (V3)
Fn: when hyoid bone fixed: depresses mandible; when mandible fixed: elevates hyoid bone and floor of mouth
Geniohyoid muscle
O: inferior mental spines of mandible
I: body of hyoid bone
In: C1, carried by hypoglossal nerve
Fn: pulls hyoid bone anteriorly and superiorly
List the 4 Intrinsic tongue muscles
Superior longitudinal
Inferior longitudinal

These all function to change shape of tongue
List the extrinsic tongue muscles
Genioglossus muscle
O: superior mental spines of mandible
I: tip to back of tongue and body of hyoid bone
Fn: protrudes tongue; depresses tip of tongue
Hyoglossus muscle
O: body and greater cornu of hyoid bone
I: posterior lateral aspect of body of tongue
Fn: depresses tongue
Styloglossues muscle
O: styloid process and stylomandibular ligament
I: along lateral aspect of entire body of tongue to tip to tongue
Fn: retracts tongue and elevates tip of tongue
Palatoglossus muscle
O: fascia and lateral aspect of soft palate
I: lateral aspect of tongue where ant 2/3 and post 1/3 meet
In: Pharyngeal plexus
Fn: elevates root of tongue and constricts fauces
Parts of the submandibular gland
Major portion: superficial lobe
Small portion: deep lobe
Where does the submandibular duct terminate?
sublingual caruncle (papilla)
Vascularization of the sublingual gland
Sublingual and submental arteries
Vascularization of the submandibular gland
Facial artery and sublingual branch of the lingual artery
1st branch off lingual artery
Suprahyoid artery: lies superficial to hypoglossus and supplies most of the muscles attaching to the hyoid bone.
2nd branch off lingual artery
Dorsal lingual: supplies the palatoglossal arch, mucous membrane of the tongue, palatine and lingual tonsils and some of the soft palate
3rd and 4rd branches off lingual artery
superior: deep lingual artery: supplies the body of the tongue

inferior: sublingual artery: supplies the sublingual gland, mucous membrane of floor of mouth and gingiva.
Branches of the facial artery that supply the submandibular region and floor of mouth
ascending palatine artery
tonsillar artery
glandular branches
submental artery
what are the 3 MAIN arteries that supply the submandibular region and floor of mouth?
lingual artery
facial artery
mylohyoid artery (off inferior alveolar artery off the maxillary artery off external carotid)
Tongue is drained by which vein(s)?
deep lingual and dosral lingual veins ==> lingual vein --> IJV
Floor of mouth drained by which vein(s)?
sublingual vein --> lingual vein --> IJV
The left and right jugular trunks brings its lymph to where?
Left --> thoracic duct
Right --> right lymphatic duct
The thoracic duct arises where?
cisterna chyli in the abdomen
Occipital nodes
A: occipital part of the scalp
E: external jugular nodes and the accessory lymph nodes
Retroauricular lymph nodes (aka posterior auricular or mastoid)
A: posterior parietal scalp, skin of the ear, and the posterior external acoustic meatus
E: superior deep cervical nodes & accessory lymph nodes
Preauricular (anterior auricular) nodes
A: temporal region supplied by superficial temporal artery, anterior parietal scalp and anterior surface of ear
E: superior deep cervical lymph nodes
Parotid Nodes
E: external acoustic meatus, skin of frontal and temporal regions, eyelids, tympanic cavity, cheek, nose, posterior palate
E: superior deep cervical lymph nodes
Submandibular nodes
A: facial nodes; submental nodes; lateral upper and lower lips, cheeks and nose, anterior nasal cavity, all teeth except mand incisors, oral palate, anterior 2/3 of tongue
E: superior deep cervical lymph nodes and jugulo-omohyoid lymph nodes
Submental nodes
A: mand incisors, medial part of lower lip, chin, tip of tongue, anterior floor of mouth
E: submandibular lymph node and jugulo-omohyoid lymph node
Facial nodes
located along the course of the facial artery/vein
**infraorbital, buccal, mandibular
A: skin and conjunctiva of eyelids, nose and cheek, upper lip
E: submandibular nodes
External jugular nodes
A: occipital nodes; lower part of ear and parotid region
E: superior deep cervical lymph nodes
Anterior jugular nodes
A: skin, muscules, viscera of INFRAHYOID region of neck
E: inferior deep cervical lymph nodes
List the deep cervical lymph nodes
superior deep cervical nodes
inferior deep cervical nodes
accessory nodes
juxta-visceral nodes
retropharyngeal nodes
transverse cervical nodes
what divides the deep cervical lymphatic chain into the superior and inferior deep cervical nodes?
inferior belly of omohyoid muscle
superior deep cervical nodes
A: occipital, retroauricular, preauricular, parotid, submanidbular, external jugular, retropharyngeal nodes
E: inferior deep cervical nodes
2 important superior deep cervical nodes
-jugulo-omyohyoid nodes
jugulodigastric nodes
located just inferior to the posterior belly of the digastric muscle as it crosses the IJV
A: palatine and lingual tonsils, posterior palate, posterior 1/3 of tongue
E: inferior deep cervical lymph nodes
jugulo-omohyoid nodes
located just superior to the inferior belly of the omohyoid muscle as it crosses the IJV
A: anterior tongue, submandibular nodes and submental nodes
E: inferior deep cervical lymph nodes
inferior deep cervical nodes
A: transverse cervical nodes, anterior jugular nodes, superior deep cervical nodes
E: jugular trunk
accessory nodes
A: occipital nodes, retroauridcular nodes, and lateral neck and shoulder
E: transverse cervical nodes
retropharyngeal nodes
A: posterior nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, hard and soft palate, nasopharynx, oropharynx, middle ear and auditory tube
E: superior deep cervical ndoes
Juxta-visceral nodes (anterior deep cervical)-- list the 3 of them
prelaryngeal nodes
pretracheal nodes
paratracheal nodes
prelaryngeal nodes
located on anterior surface of cricothyroid ligament
A: thyroid gland and larynx
E: inferior deep cervical nodes
pretracheal nodes
located on anterior surface of trachea
A: thyroid gland and trachea
E: inferior deep cervical nodes
paratracheal nodes
along the recurrent laryngeal nerve in the tracheo-esophageal groove
A: thyroid gland, trachea, esophagus
E: inferior deep cervical nodes
transverse cervical nodes
along cervical artery and vein
A: accessory nodes, apical axillary nodes, lateral neck, anterior thoracic wall
E: most often into jugular trunk