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40 Cards in this Set

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What limbs and claws are most likely to cause lameness in cattle?
Mostly rear limb, lateral claw
Also front limb, medial claw
What are some infectious diseases that cause lameness?
Foot and mouth disease (Reportable)
Mucosal disease/BVD
Bovine Malignant Catarrhal Fever (Reportable)
Salmonellosis
Vesicular stomatitis (Reportable)
Bluetongue (Reportable)
General treatment for claw disease/lameness?
Hygiene
Trim
Block unaffected claw to get weight off the lame claw
Foot problems are responsible for what % of lameness?
80%
What is the treatment for pododermatitis circumscripta?
-Trim all four feet correctly
-Place a block under the unaffected claw to take pressure off affected claw
-Remove protruding granulation tissue + bandage
-Abx if there is sepsis (local or systemic)
-Soft bedding
What is pododermatitis circumscripta?
A circular area of hemorrhage and necrosis in the area of the sole, bulb.
Often bilateral
Lateral hind claw > medial front claw
What is interdigital phlegmone?
Also called interdigital necrobacillosis
Cellulitis of the SQ tissue between the digits
Fusobacterium necrophorum
What are the clinical signs of interdigital phlegmone?
Swelling
Heat
Pain
Lameness
Redness
Claw separation d/t swelling
FEVER
Severe cases: skin necrosis, purulent exudates
What is the treatment for interdigital phlegmone?
High penicillin dose
Cleanse area, bandage, frequent changes
Improve stall hygiene
What are two types of digital dermatitis?
Erosive/reactive - strawberry lesions
Proliferative - wart like lesions
What is interdigital dermatitis?
Inflammation of the interdigital epidermis.
Caused by Dichelobacter nodosa, and others
Dermal hyperplasia
What is the treatment for interdigital dermatitis?
Cleaning
Local abx
Improve stall hygiene
True or false:
Digital dermatitis is contagious.
True!
May be caused by a Spirochete
Spreads rapidly w/in a herd
What is the treatment for digital dermatitis?
Topical abx (tetracycline) after cleansing
Foot baths to prevent spread
Surgical resection of large lesions
Improve stall hygiene
What are indications for digit amputation?
P3 fracture
Coffin/pastern joint luxation
Pedal osteitis, deep sepsis
Septic arthritis of coffin/pastern joint
Advantages to doing a digit amputation?
Fast, cheap
Remove the entire infected tissue
Cattle usually return to full production quickly
Disadvantages to doing a digit amputation?
Reduces lifetime (commonly culled in 2 years)
Opposite digit breaks down
Heavy animals do poorly
Poor cosmetic results
What cattle are poor candidates for digit amputation?
>1500 lbs
Lateral hind claw (esp in breeding bulls)
Medial front claw
At what level do you amputate the claw normally?
Amputate at level of distal P1
Other options:
Through proximal interphalngeal joint
Through P2
Through distal interphalangeal joint
What is an alternative procedure to claw amputation?
Arthrodesis of the coffin joint
What are advantages of doing arthrodesis of the coffin joint?
Longer production life
Improved outcome in heavy animals, lateral hind claws, medial fore claws
Better cosmetic outcome
What are some disadvantages of doing arthrodesis of the coffin joint?
More $$
More challenging
More post op care
Slower return to productivity due to more pain
What are some possible etiologies of septic arthritis/synovitis?
Hematogenous
Penetrating wound
Foot infection
What is the treatment for septic arthritis/synovitis?
Treat primary problem
Joint lavage (repeated) - Use a huge needle (14 ga) to help rinse out fibrin chunks
Regional perfusion with abx and lidocaine
Intra-articular abx
Systemic abx
True or false:
Young horses more frequently get epiphyseal fractures, while adults more commonly get diaphyseal fractures?
True
Why are cattle susceptible to coxofemoral luxation?
Shallow acetabulum and no accessory ligament
What is the most common presentation of coxofemoral luxation?
Craniodorsal luxation
Often associated with parturition, or slippery floors
What are the clinical signs of coxofemoral luxation?
Unable to bear weight, may be down
Shorter leg, outward rotation
External pelvic landmarks are abnormal
Crepitus upon manipulation of limb
What treatments are available for coxofemoral luxation?
Treatment should be done in < 48 hours after injury
Closed reduction under heavy sedation or general anesthesia
Open reduction
Femoral head resection (poor outcome, cont. pain)
How do you treat flexural deformities in food animals?
Splinting
IV tetracycline
Surgery
What is Elso heal?
Spastic paresis
Neuromuscular contracture disorder, resulting in progressive hyperextended posture of the rear limb.
Heritable
What is the treatment for Elso heal?
Salvage procedure
Tenotomy of the gastrocnemeus
Tibial neurectomy
What is a bone sequestrum?
Devitalized bone due to trauma or vascular pathology.
Tissue surrounding the sequestrum is the involucrum.
Common on tuber coxae
What is the treatment for a bone sequestrum?
Debride wound
Abx
What is a hygroma?
A fluid swelling in the carpus or tarsus due to chronic trauma.
What is the treatment for a hygroma?
Benign neglect if not infected
Drainage
Inject with abx, corticosteroids, atropine (?)
Resection if infected
What disorder of calves causes atrophy of the quadriceps?
Femoral neuropathy/Patellar luxation
Caused by birthing trauma
Limb instability, unable to bear weight
Lateral patellar luxation
True or false:
Treatment for femoral neuropathy/patellar luxation in calves is a lateral patellar imbrication
False: perform medial patellar imbrication since the patella is laterally luxated.
What joint most commonly has OCD in food animals?
Tibiotarsal joint
Also:
Stifle
Shoulder
Carpus
Fetlock
What joints commonly get DJD in food animals?
Hip and stifle