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157 Cards in this Set

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Railing design spacing
No more than 4 inches tts_Railing design spacing.mp3 tts_No more than 4 inches.mp3
Railing design height
At least 42 inches tts_Railing design height.mp3 tts_At least 42 inches.mp3
Feet per second
Units used to measure the velocity of water in a pipe. pipes diameter and material will affect the velocity of the water flowing through it tts_Feet per second.mp3 tts_Units used to measure the_3_1.mp3
Goals of landscape lighting
1-provide safety for the user |2-encourage the use of the space at night |3-provide legibility of nodes for people using the space at night tts_Goals of landscape lighti_4_0.mp3 tts_1-provide safety for the_4_1.mp3
Uniformity
Most critical factor to lighting design in recreational facilities tts_Uniformity.mp3 tts_Most critical factor to l_5_1.mp3
Three soil property aspects for consideration when planning and designing a site
1 physical |2 site engineering|3 horticultural| tts_Three soil property aspec_6_0.mp3 tts_1 physical 2 site enginee_6_1.mp3
Compaction results of urban environments
Reduced oxygen exchange, lower infiltration rates, reduced soil organics tts_Compaction results of urb_7_0.mp3 tts_Reduced oxygen exchange,_7_1.mp3
USDA hardiness zone map
United States department of agriculture's hardiness zone map gives a general indication of what species will grow in what climatic conditions around the country tts_USDA hardiness zone map.mp3 tts_United States department_8_1.mp3
Common design component of all retaining walls
Drainage tts_Common design component o_9_0.mp3 tts_Drainage.mp3
Zinc or galvanization
The coating applied to nails used in exterior applications to reduce rust tts_Zinc or galvanization.mp3 tts_The coating applied to na_10_1.mp3
Max designable height of a retaining wall without a structural engineer
3 feet tts_Max designable height of_11_0.mp3 tts_3 feet.mp3
Proper method to measure the height of retaining wall
From the bottom of the footing, including rocks and concrete units buried below the lower finish grade of the soil, to the top of the wall tts_Proper method to measure_12_0.mp3 tts_From the bottom of the fo_12_1.mp3
Site triangle
An area where all plantings must be under 30 inches so the drivers have clear visibility of oncoming traffic and pedestrians. Dimensions depend on speed of the road. tts_Site triangle.mp3 tts_An area where all plantin_13_1.mp3
Installation of lighting
Low-voltage lighting-license landscape contractor with limited permit requirements, high-voltage and sports field lighting-licensed electrical contractor, requires issuance of an electrical permit tts_Installation of lighting.mp3 tts_Low-voltage lighting-lice_14_1.mp3
Geotextile fabric
Installed between the subgrade and base course material in applications that have poor soil conditions in the subgrade. Fabric keeps the subgrade from migrating upward and keeps the base material from migrating or being lost into the subgrade. tts_Geotextile fabric.mp3 tts_Installed between the sub_15_1.mp3
Best time to plant a majority of planting materials
Fall tts_Best time to plant a majo_16_0.mp3 tts_Fall.mp3
ANLA
American nursery and landscape Association-formally the American Association of measurement, is the governing body recognized as setting the standards for the health, size, shape and vigor of plant materials tts_ANLA.mp3 tts_American nursery and land_17_1.mp3
ANSI
American National Standards Institute tts_ANSI.mp3 tts_American National Standar_18_1.mp3
ASTM
American Society for testing and materials tts_ASTM.mp3 tts_American Society for test_19_1.mp3
CSI
Construction specifications Institute tts_CSI.mp3 tts_Construction specificatio_20_1.mp3
Bioengineering
Involves the establishment of plant materials on hillsides, or on the banks of streams, canals or ponds to control erosion and prevent excessive runoff. A successful bioengineering project will use lives staks and small plants and will involve collaboration with other design professionals tts_Bioengineering.mp3 tts_Involves the establishmen_21_1.mp3
Acrylic latex paint
Water-based product and would be best suited to an exterior environment that is not exposed to weather tts_Acrylic latex paint.mp3 tts_Water-based product and w_22_1.mp3
Oil-based, or polyurethane, products such as transparent stain or alkyd paint
Appropriate for use in an Exterior exposed installation condition tts_Oil-based, or polyurethan_23_0.mp3 tts_Appropriate for use in an_23_1.mp3
Bearing capacity
A function of the soil, water, and footing or foundation, and how they interact with each other. For example slip forces, downward pressures, compaction around the footing. tts_Bearing capacity.mp3 tts_A function of the soil, w_24_1.mp3
Preparing a planting hole
Hole should be shallow and wide. This allow sufficient air and moisture to get to the roots of a newly planted tree or shrub, promoting growth tts_Preparing a planting hole.mp3 tts_Hole should be shallow an_25_1.mp3
What are three types of lumbar treatments for outdoor applications that involve ground contact?
1-ACA (ammoniacal copper arsenate)|2-CCA (chromated copper arsenate)|3-wolmanization tts_What are three types of l_26_0.mp3 tts_1-ACA (ammoniacal copper_26_1.mp3
Maximum depth to stockpile soil
4 feet. Deeper piles compact under their own weight, removing oxygen and thereby killing off important soil organics. Shallower piles can be used, but they take up large areas. tts_Maximum depth to stockpil_27_0.mp3 tts_4 feet Deeper piles compa_27_1.mp3
Stake and guy wires
Should only occur where called for by severe weather conditions, such as Highwinds, or when the size of the tree does not allow for self-support. Should be loosened after the first growing season and removed after the second growing season. tts_Stake and guy wires.mp3 tts_Should only occur where c_28_1.mp3
Low impact development
An alternative, comprehensive Stormwater management strategy focused on the reduction of environmental and economic impacts of site development. Uses sustainable materials and concepts to maintain the natural hydrological cycle that existed on site prior to any development. Is especially appropriate for urban redevelopment projects and or projects associated with environmentally sensitive areas tts_Low impact development.mp3 tts_An alternative, comprehen_29_1.mp3
LEED
Leadership in energy and environmental design A program developed by the US Green building Council to measure the performance of efficiency and sustainability of buildings and their associated development. Programs include site development and the reuse of resources, placing important emphasis on the reduction and reuse of water for irrigation. tts_LEED.mp3 tts_Leadership in energy and_30_1.mp3 tts_A program developed by th_30_2.mp3
L ID
Low impact development Focuses on managing water and storm water runoff to help protect a sites natural hydrologic regimens. Also small-scale rain gardens can enhance landscape aesthetics, as well as provide additional spaces for wildlife forage and cover. L ID reduces the need for subsurface piping and associated detention pond infrastructures, offering potential cost savings tts_L ID.mp3 tts_Low impact development.mp3 tts_Focuses on managing water_31_2.mp3
BMP's
Best management practices Governed not only Stormwater, but also irrigation and on-site landscape management issues, through the use of native plantings; reduced use of fertilizer, pesticides, and herbicides; and the reuse and proper amendment of on-site soil. tts_BMP's.mp3 tts_Best management practices.mp3 tts_Governed not only Stormwa_32_2.mp3
Traditional site development and or construction after a sites existing hydrologic regimen by:
1-Decreasing soil porosity and infiltration capacity. |2-Increasing areas of impervious services. |3-Increasing velocity, volume, and duration of stormwater runoff tts_Traditional site developm_33_0.mp3 tts_1-Decreasing soil porosit_33_1.mp3
Rain Gardens (bio retention systems)
Collect and store stormwater for impervious surfaces to limit excessive runoff and to recharge groundwater. Multiple soil layers naturally filter pollutants and improve the water quality being delivered to existing soils. tts_Rain Gardens (bio retenti_34_0.mp3 tts_Collect and store stormwa_34_1.mp3
Main goals for LID and BMP
Recharge groundwater tts_Main goals for LID and BM_35_0.mp3 tts_Recharge groundwater.mp3
Compost amended sandy soil
Allows water to infiltrate the rain gardens subsoils. Also increases the fertility and functional viability of the soil for both plant and microbial vigor, improves water quality, and retains water within the soil profile. tts_Compost amended sandy soi_36_0.mp3 tts_Allows water to infiltrat_36_1.mp3
Fastener used to secure items to wood products
Lag bolt tts_Fastener used to secure i_37_0.mp3 tts_Lag bolt.mp3
Used to hold small wooden pieces, decking and non-lateral sheer structural elements
Wood screw tts_Used to hold small wooden_38_0.mp3 tts_Wood screw.mp3
Standard (even) threads, typically used for metal to metal connections, plastic, or Small wood pieces
Machine screw tts_Standard (even) threads,_39_0.mp3
Typically set into concrete to provide the structural ties to the footing for landscape elements for example benches, light standards and walls
Anchor bolt tts_Typically set into concre_40_0.mp3
Conveying the information in construction details:
All aspects of design must be shown in a two-dimensional plane, so multiple views, angles and sections are used to convey the intent. This multi-perspective drawing method is known as orthographic drawing tts_Conveying the information_41_0.mp3 tts_All aspects of design mus_41_1.mp3
When a contractor provides the landscape architect with information on a shop drawing, or with product data
Submittal tts_When a contractor provide_42_0.mp3 tts_Submittal.mp3
Legal description
A fixed location of the parcel which is located on the cover sheet in a set of construction documents. Critical piece of data for the permit process, as most permitting agencies derive all their data from the legal description tts_Legal description.mp3 tts_A fixed location of the p_43_1.mp3
Benchmark
Used to set elevation related to a landscape architectural project. All topographical surveys indicate the datum and benchmark that the survey is tied to for its elevational information. This benchmark is used as a base reference point in the designing of a projects grade elevations. tts_Benchmark.mp3 tts_Used to set elevation rel_44_1.mp3
Division I master format
Covers general requirements and should be used to organize documents such as contracts, work sequences, price and payment procedures and quality requirements. tts_Division I master format.mp3 tts_Covers general requiremen_45_1.mp3
Division 32 of master format
Exterior improvements include irrigation tts_Division 32 of master for_46_0.mp3 tts_Exterior improvements inc_46_1.mp3
Division 11 of master format
Equipment Division 33 of master format Utilities tts_Division 11 of master for_47_0.mp3 tts_Equipment.mp3 tts_Division 33 of master for_47_2.mp3
Contract documents
Working drawings. |Specifications. |General conditions. |Form of agreement tts_Contract documents.mp3 tts_Working drawings Specific_48_1.mp3
Contents of coversheet
Should include all pertinent contact and site information, such as the vicinity map, contacts, permits, project name and address, parcel numbers and items critical to identifying the project tts_Contents of coversheet.mp3 tts_Should include all pertin_49_1.mp3
Maximum applied water allowance
Used to perform a calculation to properly estimate how much water will be used or how much water use will be allowed on the site tts_Maximum applied water all_50_0.mp3 tts_Used to perform a calcula_50_1.mp3
Asphalt treated bass
Can allow for many areas of work to continue despite adverse weather conditions. Can reduce subgrade damage caused by weather conditions. Can reduce erosion and reduce cost for storage and site cleanup. tts_Asphalt treated bass.mp3 tts_Can allow for many areas_51_1.mp3
Backflow prevention device
Keeps any water within an irrigation system from entering a potable water supply should a break and back siphon situation occur tts_Backflow prevention devic_52_0.mp3 tts_Keeps any water within an_52_1.mp3
USDA
United States department of agriculture. A soil classification system used in regulating agricultural practices tts_USDA.mp3 tts_United States department_53_1.mp3
AA SHT O
American Association of State Highway and transporation officials. Deals with the road and highway construction standards tts_AA SHT O.mp3 tts_American Association of S_54_1.mp3
Box scraper
Machinery used for mass earthwork projects. Can remove materials, store them, transport them to another location and then re-spread them in small lifts, allowing for proper compaction of the materials tts_Box scraper.mp3 tts_Machinery used for mass e_55_1.mp3
Wheel Trencher
Allows for quick trenching, clean operation and quick system installation after trenching tts_Wheel Trencher.mp3 tts_Allows for quick trenchin_56_1.mp3
Bearing
Always taken with the north or south direction as the starting point, depending on which hemisphere the surveyor is in tts_Bearing.mp3 tts_Always taken with the nor_57_1.mp3
Division 31 of master format
Earthwork tts_Division 31 of master for_58_0.mp3 tts_Earthwork.mp3
Quality-control
Accomplished with on site construction observation tts_Quality-control.mp3 tts_Accomplished with on site_59_1.mp3
As built drawings
Set of drawings showing all components and materials used for the item, submitted after completion as part of the final record drawings tts_As built drawings.mp3 tts_Set of drawings showing a_60_1.mp3
Survey control points
Typically installed on a project prior to site clearing. These points are critical to every aspect of a landscaping project, for both the contractor and the design team. They are essential for reason of liability, for potential change orders, and for verification of all components of the project, from clearing, to grading, the building locations, to the irrigation system connections tts_Survey control points.mp3 tts_Typically installed on a_61_1.mp3
Structural fill soils
Used under floor slabs and building foundations, or in other situations where movement or settling of a subsoil must not occur. Also used to bridge over poor soil conditions to transition or transfer weight or water below any site components or elements tts_Structural fill soils.mp3 tts_Used under floor slabs an_62_1.mp3
Rebar
Calculator diameter by multiplying the rebar's number by 1/8. Example number four rebar has a diameter of half inch. tts_Rebar.mp3 tts_Calculator diameter by mu_63_1.mp3
Geodetic survey method
Takes into account the curvature of the earth and is used for large-scale mapping and project planning such as laying of oil lines or roads across vast expanses of land tts_Geodetic survey method.mp3 tts_Takes into account the cu_64_1.mp3
Woodspan tables
Determines the deck material sizes needed based upon the woods species and other aspects of the deck, such as the spans of joints and beams. Use load calculations based upon pounds per square foot tts_Woodspan tables.mp3 tts_Determines the deck mater_65_1.mp3
Footcandle
Unit used to measure of illumination on the surface tts_Footcandle.mp3 tts_Unit used to measure of i_66_1.mp3
Matching precipitation rates/flowrates
Must be used when mixing irrigation heads of various radius sizes tts_Matching precipitation ra_67_0.mp3 tts_Must be used when mixing_67_1.mp3
Ohm's law
Used to determine the voltage drop in irrigation design. The valve wire used must be sized to allow for voltage drop at the end of each run of wire. Determined by multiplying the current times the resistance for the type of wire used tts_Ohm's law.mp3 tts_Used to determine the vol_68_1.mp3
Compressive strength of concrete
Direct relation of the cement and aggregates ratio tts_Compressive strength of c_69_0.mp3 tts_Direct relation of the ce_69_1.mp3
28 days
Concrete is considered to have reached full strength 28 days after mixing and placing tts_28 days.mp3 tts_Concrete is considered to_70_1.mp3
Hydration
The growth of cement particles with the addition of water. The particles continue to grow until they touch other particles or aggregates within the concrete mix. This process ultimately results in the strength, or hardness of the design mix. tts_Hydration.mp3 tts_The growth of cement part_71_1.mp3
Retardant
And admixture that slows down the hydration process in the concrete, allowing for additional time to work the product tts_Retardant.mp3 tts_And admixture that slows_72_1.mp3
Three main materials used for Masonary construction in landscape projects
Brick, concrete, stone tts_Three main materials used_73_0.mp3 tts_Brick, concrete, stone.mp3
Compressed told joint
A solid, watertight seal in Masonary block units. The mason will install the mortar and then set the block into the mortar and clean the joint with a rounded tool, thereby compressing the remaining mortar into place, creating a solid, watertight seal. tts_Compressed told joint.mp3 tts_A solid, watertight seal_74_1.mp3
Mortar
Used in Masonary construction to bond units together, but it also makes up for irregularities within individual units, allows for use of ties and reinforcing within the units, and combines all these functions with aesthetics, providing color and texture enhancement. tts_Mortar.mp3 tts_Used in Masonary construc_75_1.mp3
Wall ties
Installed between Masonary units to hold them in place. Also have tabs that extend perpendicular to the Masonary units and can be used for installing veneered Clay brick units tts_Wall ties.mp3 tts_Installed between Masonar_76_1.mp3
Non-shrink grout
A hydraulic cement grout that produces a big volume. Product that should be used to install a handrail in a sleeve embedded into a concrete masonry unit wall tts_Non-shrink grout.mp3 tts_A hydraulic cement grout_77_1.mp3
Mortar
A workable paste used to bind construction blocks together and fill the gaps between them. Mortar can also be used to fix, or point, Masonary when the original mortar has washed away tts_Mortar.mp3 tts_A workable paste used to_78_1.mp3
Tensile strength
The ability of wood to resist stresses applied parallel to the woodgrain. Is the greatest amount of longitudinal stress the lumber can tolerate prior to failure tts_Tensile strength.mp3 tts_The ability of wood to re_79_1.mp3
Nominal lumber
Lumber purchased in nominal sizes is first sized and then finished by drying and planing. tts_Nominal lumber.mp3 tts_Lumber purchased in nomin_80_1.mp3
Compressive force
A downward force that will reduce the size of construction materials such as soil or aggregates by compacting them tts_Compressive force.mp3 tts_A downward force that wil_81_1.mp3
Beams
The major load carrying members in a deck tts_Beams.mp3 tts_The major load carrying m_82_1.mp3
Foresites and backsites
Used in plane surveying to measure distances by verifying the surveyors location, based on a known location tts_Foresites and backsites.mp3 tts_Used in plane surveying t_83_1.mp3
Bearing capacity
a soils ability to bear weight. The critical soil characteristics that determines the size and shape of a footing design tts_Bearing capacity.mp3 tts_a soils ability to bear w_84_1.mp3
Three components that make up soil
Silk, sand, Clay tts_Three components that mak_85_0.mp3 tts_Silk, sand, Clay.mp3
Angle of repose
The stable slope formed when soil is place naturally without compaction or manipulation. This angle may vary with soil type, but a 2 to 1 maximum slope is most common. tts_Angle of repose.mp3 tts_The stable slope formed w_86_1.mp3
Neutral pH
6.6 to 7.3 tts_Neutral pH.mp3 tts_6 6 to 7 3.mp3
Soil plasticity
Achieved when enough moisture leaves the soil profile and the soil is no longer in a liquid state. At this point the soil has some cohesive abilities and enters a plastic state. tts_Soil plasticity.mp3 tts_Achieved when enough mois_88_1.mp3
Cohesion
Ability of soil to bind together under moderately dry conditions tts_Cohesion.mp3 tts_Ability of soil to bind t_89_1.mp3
Permeability
The ability of a soil to drain and remove water from the soil profile tts_Permeability.mp3 tts_The ability of a soil to_90_1.mp3
Liquefication
The point at which soil acts like a liquid, typically under earthquake conditions tts_Liquefication.mp3 tts_The point at which soil a_91_1.mp3
Cantilever wall
A cast in place concrete retaining wall. This wall type is used for moderate to high walls and is very expensive to construct. tts_Cantilever wall.mp3 tts_A cast in place concrete_92_1.mp3
Three classifications of retaining walls
1-Soil bioengineering-a reinforced embankment using geotextile materials, plantings, stone, or concrete surfacing. |2-Gravity wall-a unit stack wall system composed of material such as Stackstone or keystone block. |3-Cantilevered wall-also called rigid wall, is solid concrete and cast in place. The most costly retaining wall type but have the greatest potential for height gain and offer options for the finish and design pattern. tts_Three classifications of_93_0.mp3 tts_1-Soil bioengineering-a r_93_1.mp3
Lateral load
The force of the soil being retained against the wall. Only soil that exceeds the angle of repose exerts pressure on a wall. This pressure can be calculated from the types of soil and the amounts of moisture the soils will retain. tts_Lateral load.mp3 tts_The force of the soil bei_94_1.mp3
Vibration
Used to consolidate concrete and fill all void spaces within a form tts_Vibration.mp3 tts_Used to consolidate concr_95_1.mp3
Three basic types of aggregates found in most standard concrete design mixes
Sand, crushed stone, and gravel tts_Three basic types of aggr_96_0.mp3 tts_Sand, crushed stone, and_96_1.mp3
Most common method of concrete placement
Cast in place or Precast?? tts_Most common method of con_97_0.mp3 tts_Cast in place or Precast.mp3
The Proctor test method
Described by ASTM, prior to installing concrete on a project, the base must be properly prepared and tested for compaction to avoid settling of the concrete tts_The Proctor test method.mp3 tts_Described by ASTM, prior_98_1.mp3
Plane serving
The method typically used on landscape architecture projects. Unlike geodetic survey, which uses a coordinate system for location points on the earth, a plane survey disregards the earths curvature and is considered an ordinary field survey method for projects of small to moderate scale tts_Plane serving.mp3 tts_The method typically used_99_1.mp3
Slump test
Most common concrete testing method, measure the workability of the mix tts_Slump test.mp3 tts_Most common concrete test_100_1.mp3
Mortar
Composed of sand, cement, and water. If gravel were added, the mixture would be called concrete tts_Mortar.mp3 tts_Composed of sand, cement,_101_1.mp3
Unseasoned lumber
Wood that has been freshly cut and has not been cured. Either by a kiln or by air drying under cover. Green lumber. tts_Unseasoned lumber.mp3 tts_Wood that has been freshl_102_1.mp3
Moisture content of lumber
Marked on the lumber itself, next to the kiln dried stamp. This mark is important to ensure that Wood used for finish carpentry or indoor applications will not continue to warp, shrink, or change in shape or size tts_Moisture content of lumbe_103_0.mp3 tts_Marked on the lumber itse_103_1.mp3
Lumber is purchased in
Lumberyards, by specific lengths and sizes and comes from the mail precut to these industry-standard units tts_Lumber is purchased in.mp3 tts_Lumberyards, by specific_104_1.mp3
Boundary line adjustment
Adjusting property lines by combining various parcels. Can improve the design of a project, as well as other aspects such as economics, by adjusting the design to satisfy local codes and minimize safety impacts. tts_Boundary line adjustment.mp3 tts_Adjusting property lines_105_1.mp3
Construction adhesive
Bonds wood together, can be used on a wet or dry or treated Woods. Is not affected by moisture tts_Construction adhesive.mp3 tts_Bonds wood together, can_106_1.mp3
Bituminous binder
Used in asphalt construction only to bond old and new asphalt tts_Bituminous binder.mp3 tts_Used in asphalt construct_107_1.mp3
Tack coat
Used in asphalt paving to adhere to lifts of asphalt together tts_Tack coat.mp3 tts_Used in asphalt paving to_108_1.mp3
Primer
A product used for the initial overlayment of the first course of asphalt tts_Primer.mp3 tts_A product used for the in_109_1.mp3
Binder
Type of tack coating which is used to adhere an old and new coat of asphalt tts_Binder.mp3 tts_Type of tack coating whic_110_1.mp3
Epoxies
Used in the construction of wood or concrete to anchor or attach products tts_Epoxies.mp3 tts_Used in the construction_111_1.mp3
Welded wire mesh
Used to reinforced concrete flat work for increased slab tensile strength tts_Welded wire mesh.mp3 tts_Used to reinforced concre_112_1.mp3
Construction joint
A break that occurs between concrete pours or section during installation tts_Construction joint.mp3 tts_A break that occurs betwe_113_1.mp3
Contraction joint
Installed to control cracking of the concrete due to shrinkage and Swelling which are caused by exposure to heat or cold tts_Contraction joint.mp3 tts_Installed to control crac_114_1.mp3
Additives
Allow concrete to be worked and installed under various conditions, such as hot or cold weather, or underwater tts_Additives.mp3 tts_Allow concrete to be work_115_1.mp3
Depth of a contraction joint
Should be no less than one sixth the depth of the concrete slab tts_Depth of a contraction jo_116_0.mp3 tts_Should be no less than on_116_1.mp3
Installing a nail to decking material
The nail should be 2 1/2 times the thickness of the wood member being secured. The nail must penetrate the death of the wood member and then drive into the framing materials for a secure hold tts_Installing a nail to deck_117_0.mp3 tts_The nail should be 2 1 2_117_1.mp3
Decking is typically installed
Barkside up. This orientation allows for cupping, or warping of the decking materials as they shrink and swell over time without creating a tripping hazard tts_Decking is typically inst_118_0.mp3 tts_Barkside up This orientat_118_1.mp3
Best structural fill materials
Graded gravels. They have a bridging factor that allows them to spread out over poor bearings soils tts_Best structural fill mate_119_0.mp3 tts_Graded gravels They have_119_1.mp3
Batter
The slight tilting of a retaining wall into the slope that the wall is designed to retain. Both the exposed face and back of wall can have a batter, depending on the structural design tts_Batter.mp3 tts_The slight tilting of a r_120_1.mp3
Acres and A square-mile or section
640 acres tts_Acres and A square-mile o_121_0.mp3 tts_640 acres.mp3
Phase 1 environmental site assessment
Historical review, local environmental oversight agency interviews, government environmental database review, selection of subject property and surrounding areas, conclusions regarding the presence or potential presence of environmental liabilities at the subject property, recommendations tts_Phase 1 environmental sit_122_0.mp3 tts_Historical review, local_122_1.mp3
Hydric soils
Soils that are sufficiently wet in the upper part to develop anaerobic conditions during the growing season tts_Hydric soils.mp3 tts_Soils that are sufficient_123_1.mp3
Loam
Approximately equal parts sand and silt plus up to 25% Clay. Often found in floodplains, good farmland. Perfect for plants. tts_Loam.mp3 tts_Approximately equal parts_124_1.mp3
Backsight
A surveying site On a previously established survey point tts_Backsight.mp3 tts_A surveying site On a pre_125_1.mp3
Roles of geotextile's
Separation, reinforcement, filtration, surface protection tts_Roles of geotextile's.mp3 tts_Separation, reinforcement_126_1.mp3
Reflected cracking
A crack in pavement because the pavement it is on also cracked there tts_Reflected cracking.mp3 tts_A crack in pavement becau_127_1.mp3
Woven geotextile's
Threads wound together become yarn, yarns woven form wrap and weft. Fabric is weakest and least flexible in direction of yarns. Number of yarns it equals threadcount. Can also have finish. tts_Woven geotextile's.mp3 tts_Threads wound together be_128_1.mp3
Nonwoven geotextile's
Mechanical entanglement, chemical bonding or thermal bonding. Long threads or short. Often needle punched to increase permeability. Evenly strong and stretchy in all directions. tts_Nonwoven geotextile's.mp3 tts_Mechanical entanglement,_129_1.mp3
Most important properties for Geotex tiles in landscape applications
Thickness and porosity. Then roughness thicker equals stronger but get clogged||Porosity units correspond to sleeve size||Rougher equals slows down water more, grips are us as a dead man better| Thickness and porosity. Then roughness thicker equals stronger but get clogged Thickness and porosity. Then roughness thicker equals stronger but get clogged tts_Most important properties_130_0.mp3 tts_Thickness and porosity Th_130_1.mp3 tts_Thickness and porosity Th_130_2.mp3
Three mechanical properties of geotextile fabric
Elongation, grab strength, burst pressure tts_Three mechanical properti_131_0.mp3 tts_Elongation, grab strength_131_1.mp3
Factors in geotextile selection
Filtering, permeability, pore size, moisture absorption, chemical resistance, UV resistance, tensile strength and extensibility, thickness, different soils on each side, connection details tts_Factors in geotextile sel_132_0.mp3 tts_Filtering, permeability,_132_1.mp3
Geotextile applications – separation
1-Broadway and Railway beds (between some grade and subbase)|2-Earth damn-many different materials to separate|3-Planters-drainage medium from growing medium|4-Formwork-Mat or tube forms, like an air mattress. Good for inaccessible places, or sandbags tts_Geotextile applications –_133_0.mp3 tts_1-Broadway and Railway be_133_1.mp3
Applications for geotextile – reinforcement
Paving – prevent reflection cracks with a tack coat, Retaining walls-tiebacks anchor facing units using weight of ground behind the wall to hold facing units, slopes-steeper than angle of repose-Used with plants, Roadways-compressible fabrics reduce amount of aggregate base, maintain proper deck drainage, separate materials, increases loadbearing, and turf-3-D geotextile's, distribute wait to subgrade, don't compact grass, can also just mix long fibers into soil tts_Applications for geotexti_134_0.mp3 tts_Paving – prevent reflecti_134_1.mp3
Tread riser ratios
Two times riser plus tread equals 26 to 27 inches, No single steps tts_Tread riser ratios.mp3 tts_Two times riser plus trea_135_1.mp3
Performance specification
Specifies no method, just requirements for the final product performance. It is up to the contractor to pick a method that will fulfill the requirements. As opposed to prescriptive specification tts_Performance specification.mp3 tts_Specifies no method, just_136_1.mp3
Prescriptive specification
A specification with specific instructions and methods for the contractor, not just requirements for the final product tts_Prescriptive specificatio_137_0.mp3 tts_A specification with spec_137_1.mp3
Ramps
Minimum with equal is 3 feet for one way, 5 foot for two Way, Max slope 1 to 12, curb cuts Max slope 1 to 8, distance between landings 30 feet tts_Ramps.mp3 tts_Minimum with equal is 3 f_138_1.mp3
Sand
Granular material that passes through a 3/8 Sieve tts_Sand.mp3 tts_Granular material that pa_139_1.mp3
Soil compaction for Sandy, clayey, mix
Ramming machine-Clay, |vibrating roller-mix, |static roller-sand tts_Soil compaction for Sandy_140_0.mp3 tts_Ramming machine-Clay, vib_140_1.mp3
CBR
The ability of the soil to serve as a constructed subgrade, the higher the CBR the higher the bearing capacity of the soil tts_CBR.mp3 tts_The ability of the soil t_141_1.mp3
Frequency of expansion joints and control joints
Expansion is every 500 ft.², control every 100 ft.² tts_Frequency of expansion jo_142_0.mp3 tts_Expansion is every 500 ft_142_1.mp3
Max height of the wall before the engineer has to sign off on it
30 inches tts_Max height of the wall be_143_0.mp3 tts_30 inches.mp3
Weight of a cubic foot of concrete
150 pounds tts_Weight of a cubic foot of_144_0.mp3 tts_150 pounds.mp3
Grid (borrow pit) method for estimating cut and fill
Draw a grid over the area that is changing grade. Label each intersection of that grid depending on how many other points they connect to. Determine x. X equals square footage and one square. Add up the change in grade for all the points do this for each letter tts_Grid (borrow pit) method_145_0.mp3 tts_Draw a grid over the area_145_1.mp3
In the area method for estimating cut and fill
Method for calculating volume of Cut and fill for linear elements. Regular cross-sections are taken at 50 foot two 100 foot perpendicular to the centerline. Average the areas and multiply by the distance between them. tts_In the area method for es_146_0.mp3 tts_Method for calculating vo_146_1.mp3
Contor method
Volume estimation for cut and fill. Take area of each space between an existing corresponding proposed Contor. Add up all the area and multiply by contour interval. tts_Contor method.mp3 tts_Volume estimation for cut_147_1.mp3
Time of concentration
Time it takes for waterfall in on furthest point of watershed to reach water exit. At that point the volume of water leaving will cease to increase, assuming constant rainfall tts_Time of concentration.mp3 tts_Time it takes for waterfa_148_1.mp3
Irrigation pipe sizing
Based on velocity of water will flow through it in feet per second. Pipe diameter and material effect velocity tts_Irrigation pipe sizing.mp3 tts_Based on velocity of wate_149_1.mp3
Filed capacity
Volume of water soil will hold after gravity drains excess. Water held in soil by capillary action. Fine particles soils (silts, clay) have greater surface area/volume and therefore higher filed capacities. High field capacity: hold larger volume, deeper and less frequent watering.| tts_Filed capacity.mp3 tts_Volume of water soil will_150_1.mp3
Infiltration rate
1-Soil type; coarse-grained soils, high; cohesive soils low (sand is greater than loan which is greater than clay)|2-Slope (steeper slope, less infiltrations; easier for water to move along surface)|3-Antecedent moisture: dry soil, high initial rate; decreases as Soil approaches saturation tts_Infiltration rate.mp3 tts_1-Soil type; coarse-grain_151_1.mp3
Available moisture
Differs from filled capacity, plants must be able to suck up water, High field capacity soils may hold water tightly and therefore less available, expressed as percent of field capacity tts_Available moisture.mp3 tts_Differs from filled capac_152_1.mp3
Irrigation plant characteristics
Depth of Root zone, evapo transpiration rate in peak growing periods, water requirement for good appearance tts_Irrigation plant characte_153_0.mp3 tts_Depth of Root zone, evapo_153_1.mp3
Irrigation components
Water supply, delivery system, distribution devices tts_Irrigation components.mp3 tts_Water supply, delivery sy_154_1.mp3
Irrigation pressure
Expressed as head measured in feet, pressure measured in pounds per square inch (PSI), column of water one foot-high exerts uniform pressure of .433 PSI tts_Irrigation pressure.mp3 tts_Expressed as head measure_155_1.mp3
Clay
High volume of voids, very little internal friction, high cohesion, high capillarity, high plasticity, high compressibility, high shrinkage, low permeability tts_Clay.mp3 tts_High volume of voids, ver_156_1.mp3
Sand
Relatively small Volume of voids, large internal friction, very low cohesion, very low Capillarity, no plasticity, high permeability, low compressibility, very low shrinkage tts_Sand.mp3 tts_Relatively small Volume o_157_1.mp3