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82 Cards in this Set

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What is the general size of a catch basin?

2.5 to 4 feet

What area of water can a catch basin receive?

10,000 square feet

what is the difference between a catch basin and a drain inlet?

A catch basin has a sump.

What is the area of water an area drain can receive?

Usually ones is used for each 1,000 to 2,00 square feet of pavement.

What is a manhole?

A structure, often 4 feet in diameter, made of concrete block, precast concrete or fiberglass-reinforced plastic rings, that allows a person to enter a space below ground. For storm drainage purposes, manholes are used where there is a change in the size, slope or direction of underground pipes.

What are BMPs used for?

Control non-point source pollution while providing effective stormwater management. That is, control runoff, maximize pollutant removal and reduce flow.

What is an infiltration basin?

a surface impoundment created by damming or excavating. Stores runoff for a selected design storm or specific volume temporarily so that the water will enter the soil over a given time period. May require large areas.

What is an infiltration trench?

Excavation backfilled with coarse aggregate stone. The voids between the aggregate materials provide the volume for temporary storage of storm runoff. Flexible systems often fit into underutilized or marginal areas of a site, where soil and groundwater conditions allow. Good to install an observation well (PVC) to monitor any changes in infiltration.

what is a dry well?

Similar to siting and structure as an infiltration trench, only vertical. Projects more deeply underground, using a smaller footprint.

What needs to be included between the undisturbed subgrade with a high infiltration rate and a BMP such as infiltration trench or porous pavement?

Filter fabric lining on three sides.

What to look out for when designing for porous pavement?

Use only where the subgrade soil conditions provide the proper permeability, depth to groundwater does not pose a problem or contamination will not occur from degraded storm water quality.

What are detention systems used for?

For the purpose of reducing peak flow and controlling the rate of flow. Accomplished by the use of dry wells, porous fill, oversized drainage structures and cisterns or tanks underground. Surface techniques include ponds, basins and paved areas.

What are some design considerations for detention systems?

An alongated form is preferred between the inlet and outlet. Maximized. Avoid short-circuiting of flow.


Side slopes of the basin should not be steeper than 3 to 1. Less-steep side slopes are preferred but will require more area.


The floor of the basin should have a 2 percent minimum slope toward the outlet to ensure positive drainage.


Provide a 10-foot wide accessway for maintenance.


Provide a low-flow channel to reduce drying time and improve useability.

What are the specs of an extensive green roof?

2 to 6 inches of lightweight mineral growing medium planted with drought-tolerant species such as sedums and subsisting on rainwater.



What are the specs of an intensive green roof?

Soil depth more than 6 inches.


Heavier weight load on roof


More planting options


Require watering, fertilizing, maintenance

What are the layers of a green roof?

Plant level


Media


filter layer/ geotextile


drainage layer/ synthetic sheet drain


protection layer/ waterproofing membrane


root barrier


roofing membrane

What are the layers in permeable pavement?

pervious course


choker course


base/sub-base


filter fabric (optional)


subgrade

Rebar numbers correspond to which unit of measure?

1/8th in diameter. For example, the diameter of #4 rebar can be calculated by multiplying the rebar number 4 by 1/8th. The resulting diameter would be 4/8ths or 1/2".

What are the types of retaining wall failures?

Sliding, undercutting, overturning.

How to measure the level of compaction of an aggregate base?

Proctor Test. The test operates under the principle that the dry density of a gravel, soil or other material for a given compactive effort depends on the amount of water that material contains during the process of compaction. The level of compaction of a material is given as a percentage. For example, 95 percent Proctor Compaction.

Retaining wall with the longest operational lifespan and lowest annual maintenance cost?

Concrete Cantilivered wall.

Masonry products are used in lieu of concrete for which reasons?

Greater aesthetic variability


Greater durability


Higher compressive strength


Exhibit more moisture resistance than concrete.


However, concrete is less expensive, has lower weight and can be used to create endless forms and structures.

What is the purpose of a tile vent?

Tile vents are used to aerate fill soil above an existing tree and are a useful tool for maintaining a tree's health in situations where construction-related grading results in the placement of fill soil above the roots of an existing tree.

Which piece of hardware might be specified for use at a locked gate along and Emergency Vehicle Access location in a rural location?

Knox Box, also known as a Fire Access Box, is a type of metal box that allows police, fire fighters and other emergency personnel access via a PIN or common key. Keys or other entry devices are kept inside the box and allow emergency personnel access to private properties, locked gates, etc. A knox box does not require electrical power, data/phone lines or any other infrastructure and is thus well-suited for use in a remote, rural location.

Preference of lump sum or fixed-price contract for owner because...?

They do not require precise measurements of in-place quantities to determine payment.

To detect leaks in an irrigation line, one should install what?

A flow sensor. Flow sensors are located at the beginning of an irrigation system, after the backflow prevention device and the master valve (the main on/off switch for the entire irrigation system) and are used to detect the movement of water in the irrigation mainline when the system is off.

What is a remote control valve?

The on/off valves that provide water to an individual irrigation zone.

What is a quick coupler valve?

Allows hoses to be connected to the irrigation water supply and are important and useful components both for a site's irrigation design and its ongoing maintenance practices.

What do dry laid stone, gabion and concrete cantilivered walls all require?

Batter. They all require a slope along their vertical face to ensure their structural viability.

What is the maximum allowable dimension between deck railings?

4 inches

What is included in the project manual?

Bidding documents, technical specifications, supplementary provisions, sample forms, schedule of drawings and general conditions.

Where is the invert elevation measured?

At the bottom of the inside of the pipe.

How is the height of a retaining wall measured?

From the top of the wall to the bottom of the footer. This will enable understanding of how much materials is required for its construction.

What is an emergency spillway?

A critical component of any stormwater detention or retention facility. Spillways are used to safely outlet water from the basin when the volume of water in the basin exceeds its designed capacity. In other words, spillways are a safety valve that direct water to another location instead of allowing the basin to fail and potentially flood adjacent properties and endanger the safety of nearby individuals or structures.

What material is appropriate for a steep, non-ADA compliant path?

Concrete. As the steepness of a grade increases, materials with low cohesiveness and durability become less suitable.

When should soil tests be conducted?

On a regular basis as part of a broader site maintenance regime. In locations with season anomalies that affect soil conditions (where salt is applied in winter), tests should help determine how to improve soil conditions. Test locations should be located throughout the site and cover a representation mix of conditions. Remaining roughly consistent over time will improve long-term understand of site soil health.

Where should infiltration facilities be located?

At least 2-4 feet above the water table and 100 feet from wells. The bottom of the infiltration basin should also be set below the frost line to prevent heaving and located in soils with reasonably rapid infiltration rates to ensure proper function.

On what plan are 'wash down' areas indicated?

Site protection plan. This helps protect natural resources on a project site, as well as sensitive areas adjacent and downstream of the project site and complies with local laws and codes.

Nominal sizing is a term most often associated with which type of material?

Lumber. For example, a 2 by 4 is measured prior to kiln drying and planing. Therefore, a nominal 2 by 4 would have an actual dimension of 1.5 inches by 3.5 inches with the half inch loss of material along each axis accounted for through shrinkage and planing.

What is the purpose of a transformer?

Used in landscape lighting to convert standard line voltage to low-voltage electricity. Standard line voltage is 120 and low voltage is 12.

What is a percolation test used for?

To determine on-site soil porosity and drainage. Even though USDA soil surveys provide good information on a site or region's soils.

What is a Proctor test?

Used to determine the level of compaction of an aggregate base.

What is a slump test?

Used to measure the workability of a concrete mix.

What are level spreaders for?

Primarily to control stormwater flow and improve water quality. They are used to distribute stormwater flows over a wide area to minimize erosion and/or maximize filtration by adjacent vegetated surfaces.

What is a modular green roof?

A complete system with all green roof layers.

What is the main difference between mortar and grout?

The relative amount of water mixed in each. Both mortar and grout are Portland cement based products that contain cement, water and an extremely fine aggregate, such as sand. The role of mortar is to make one material stick to another. Mortar is typically placed between the joints in CMU blocks. Grout is a filler product used to fill the gap between tiles and is intended to flow. Therefore, grout has a higher water content than mortar.

What would the height of an ADA table be?

28 to 34 inches

What is included in the general conditions of a project manual?

Contain 'boilerplate' language that establishes the rights, authority, and obligations of the contracting parties and outlines the general rules under which a project will be built. The supplementary conditions of a contract function as an addendum to the general conditions and address aspects of the contract that exists outside the scope of its boilerplace guidance.

What should be taken into consideration for a phasing strategy for landscape construction?

Location of staging area


Cran access


Two-wire irrigation system (can add additional wires than to a conventionally wired irrigation system)


Plant species and quantities


Sleeving (for both electrical and irrigation lines) ie: install electrical sleeving under concrete in phase one to provide power for a future lighting fixture in phase two



Stormwater detention facilities are used to perform what functions?

Control peak discharge


Reduce downstream flooding and erosion


Temporarily store runoff

Should vehicles operate on frozen soils in wintertime to avoid compaction of the soil on a construction site?

No.

What factors contribute to slope failure?

Increasing loads on a slope


Altering surface drainage


Altering subsurface drainage


Increase slope grade


Removing vegetation

What material can be added to a construction joint to facilitate the transfer of heavy loads between individual concrete slabs?

Tel dowel. Keyways and tie bars can also be used.

What are stacked-type retaining walls?

Crib walls and gabion. Crib walls are comprised of a series of stacked members creating hollow cells filled with soil or rock. Stacked members are generally precast concrete or wooden timbers. They are less durable, require more maintenance and have shorter lifespan and cannot be built as high as cast-in-place and cantilevered walls.

Why choose nails to secure wood?

The advantages include speed of installation and lower material cost. However, they are less strong and durable than screws and can be cumbersome to disassemble compared to screws.

What is included in an invitation to bid?

Project title, project Description, type of contract, time and place to receive bids, project title. Identification of principals, explain how the contract documents can be procured and state information related to any relevant bids or bonds.


The bid form is a separate document and would be included ALONG WITH but not within the invitation to bid itself.

How is water pressure measured?

Pounds per square inch (psi). The change in elevation of 1" equals a change in pressure of 0.433 psi.

What is low-head drainage?

When valve is turned off, the sprinkler at the lowest elevation in that system will continue to drain until all pipes located higher are void of water. This may necessitate check valves.

What is a quick-coupler irrigation system?

It is opened when quick-coupler key is inserted and as key is rotated, more water emerges.

What is a drip/ trickle irrigation system?

Usually used in agriculture. Filter needed to prevent debris from clogging but also has problems with diatomaceous slime developing and creating a loss of flow.

How is the amount of water measured?

In gallons per minute (GPM).

What is velocity in terms of irrigation?

Helps determine the spacing for sprinkler heads due to determining the radius of throw.

What do sprinkler charts show?

Pressure


Flowrate


radius of throw

What happens if a value of irrigation increases?

So do the others, but will not hold in excessive pressure ranges. Radius may stop, flow may slow.

What does the selection of a sprinkler head, nozzle sizes and the number of heads running together determine?

Required flowrate in gallons per minute.

What affects friction loss?

Varies with length of pipe


type of pipe


pipe size


quantity and speed of water movement


and pipe fittings (especially 90 degree elbows).

What is the optimum speed for velocity?

Best kept at five feet per second or less. Means less maintenance and breakage.

How can velocity be regulated?

Pressure regulators


Pressure regulating valves


Adjusting flow control valve

How to size valves?

Designed so flow rates fall towards middle of manufacturer's friction-loss chart for a particular valve size.

What are other friction losses?

Waster passing through water meter


Distance between street and meter


From point of connection: main line, valves, backflow or antisiphon, manual gate, globe or ball valves, filters, chemical injectors.

What are control joints used for?

To direct cracking in predetermined locations.


Can be constructed in a number of ways, but the most visually appealing control joints in concrete are typically saw cut. The suggested depth should be one-quarter to one-third the thickness of concrete.

What is another term for suspended pavements?

Cantilivered sidewalks

What are suspended pavements?

In essence, soil-delivery systems. They create a rooting area composed of lightly compacted, high-quality soils for tree roots in cities and other heavily paved environments. The soil can also be used for on-site stormwater management, maintaining pre-development hydrology, minimizing non-point source pollution and flooding and reacharging watersheds.

How do suspended pavements work?

If they are filled with a bioretention soil mix, suspended pavements can use part of their volume for stormwater storage. Rain water can be directed into to sustpended pavement systems in order to keep it on-site, making it available for plant growth and preventing it from overflowing sewer systems or poluuting nearby watersheds.

Which irrigation system minimizes water loss?

Point-source drip irrigation systems are among the lowest water use irrigation systems available. They are located at the base of each shrub or plant a provide a low volume of water to the root ball of each plant, ensuring that the water systems is used for its intended purpose.

What is a ledger?

A component of a deck.


The board that supports the joist and transfers loads from the deck to the structure to which the deck is attached.

What are the three primary documents used in bid solicitation by an owner?

Invitation to Bid


Instructions to Bidders


Bid Form

The tensile strength of a material refers to the material's ability to withstand what?

Forces parallel to the material's grain or surface.

What is the purpose of a deconstruction inventory?

Reduce construction-related waste


Identify all site and building components that can be removed, reused or recycled.


Generate additional income


Manage hazardous resources

What is the primary purpose of a slump test?

Measure the workability of a concrete mix. Measures the consistency of fresh concrete before it sets by placing a portion of the concrete mix into a slump cone, tamping the mix and removing the cone. the height of the mix is then measured, as is any slump or deformation in the shape of the concrete.

What would a site protection plan comprise?

Wash-down area for construction equipment


Storage area for salvaged materials


Tree protection


Noise mitigation


Erosion control



What are landscape lighting best practices?

Improving legibility


Establishing uniformity


Minimizing uplighting


Facilitating safety