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158 Cards in this Set

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 Universal Slope Calculation D = Difference in elevationG = Slope % or RatioL = Length of slope measure horizontallyD = GxLG = D/LL = D/G Contours 1. Existing - dashed2. Proposed - solid3. Contour number on high side4. Darken every 5th contour5. Values based on bench marks6. Never cross7. Always close on themselves8. Tick mark where proposed contour meets existing9. same number cont. can't be adj. without spot elevation between Concave Landform 1. Bowl shape2. contours spaced further away at bottom or toe of slope and closer together at top or crest Convex Landform 1. Mound shape2. contour lines are spaced closer together at bottom and further apart at top Valley landform Contours point up toward higher elevation contours Ridge landform Contours point down toward lower elevation contoursAlso crowned roadway Eye Height While StandingEye Height While Sitting 5'-0"3'-9" Circumference of Circle pi(3.1416) x diameter Area of a Circle pi (3.1416) x radius sq. 1 board foot 144 cubic inches Dead Load weight of structure components measured in pounds per square foot (psf)Ex) beam, decking, joist Live Load weight/force placed on a structure measure in pounds per square foot (psf)Ex) person, table, chair 1 Acre 43,560 sf Diameter of circle 2 x r 1 mile 5,280 feet 1 square mile 640 acres Right Angle use pythagorean theorema2 +b 2 = c2 Point of Beginning -fixed existing element where survey begins-all elements must relate-identified on drawing-ex) US Coast & Geodetic marker, property line corner, corner of building Azimuth - clockwise angle from north - all angles between 0 deg and 360 deg - N (0/360), E (90), S (180), W (270) Magnetic Declination - angle between magnetic north and true north- east declination magnetic greater than true north Bearing - angle measured N to E or N to W, S to E or S to W- Can't be greater than 90 deg.- Ex. N 20 deg 15' 30" E Northing/Easting -Coordinate of a point-Northing - distance from x coordinate (horizontal axis)-Easting - distance from y coordinate (vertical axis) Traverse - survey of successive lines that are connected- starts at POB and utilizes lengths and bearings and ends back at POB Latitude/Longitude -Lat - run horizontally, expressed N/S of equator-Long - run vertically, expressed E/W of meridian-Degree of Lat/Long measure in minutes (') (60) & seconds (") (60)-Ex) 38 deg. 53' 23" N of the equator, 77 deg. 00' 27" W of the meridian Bench Mark -gives elevation above sea level and lat/long.-brass USGS disk on monument Township -36 sq. miles-numbering starts at 1 in NE corner and goes right to left in top row, alternating subsequent rows so 36 is in SE corner Section of Land 1 sq mile (640 acres) Range vertical row of townships Cadastral Survey -ignores earths curvature-use on small projects Geodetic -takes into account earths curvature-large scale planning projects Control Survey -used for precise construction staking of horizontal and vertical points/boundaries Boundary Survey -locates true property corners and lines-used to obtain building permits Subdivision Plat -subdivision of land into smaller parcels by conforming to local ord.-show monumentation Q = CIA Q = runoff quantity (cubic feet per second)C = runoff coefficientI = rainfall intensity (inches per hour)A = acres C Values - impervious higher values:--concrete .7 to .95--roof .75 to .95--asphalt .7 to .95- pervious lower values:--lawns .05 to .35--parks .1 to .25--forests .05 to.25 C Value Weighted average - where different land areas within drainage watershed have different runoff rates- Ex) --300 acres; 100 ac. with C = 44 & 200 ac. with C = 68 -- weighted avg. = (.33 * 44) + (.67 * 68) = 60 Sediment Control Devices *used to prevent sediment from leaving site-silt fence-silt sacks-hay bales-filter strips-ditch checks (bale, silt, rock)/dikes-sediment basin-slope barriers (bale or silt)-inlet protection drops (bale, silt, rock) Types of backflow prevention device - atmospheric vacuum breaker- double check valve- dual check valve- pressure vaccuum breaker- reduced pressure backflow prevention assembly - **for highly hazardous substacnes Backflow Prevention Device Prevents water from being drained/sucked back into water supply lines from an irrigation line Standard Measure of Flow in drip irrigation Gallons per hour (gph) Standard Measure of Flow in irrigation design Gallons per minute (GPM) Erosion Control Devices *purpose is to control runoff and erosion- check dam- seeding and mulching exposed soils- runoff diversion ditch- erosion control blanket- tacking equip. on slope (dozer perp. to slope; sheepsfoot roller, rubber tire tracks perp. to slope) Wheelchair clear space 27" high, 30" wide, 19" deeptop surface of table 28-34" high Min. buffer/fall zone around playground equip. free of obstacles 6' Min. distance between separate pieces of playground equipment 12' with no overlapping fall zones Unit of measure for water pressure in fountain -Pounds per square inch (psi) or feet of water column...head-Head/ Pressure Head/ Static head-1 psi = 2.31 feet of head Waterstop -required at slab joints in pools for waterproofing-also used at construction joints in conc. slabs-don't use epoxy Attaching guardrail to deck - do not attach to decking surface, not enough support pipe nomograph - used for pipe sizing of stormsewer mannings equations - used to assign coefficient of friction in open channel flow max. cantilever of posts and beams 24" Characteristics of soils with high plastcity index -low moisture availability due to high capilarity-high shrink/swell ratio-poor drainage Pipe Size at manholes -exiting pipe has larger diameter and lower invert elevation than entering pipe Waterfeature pool depth - 18" max. pool depth to avoid being classified swimming pool-12" min. depth to provide satisfactory return, lights, jets Daylighting -natural sunlight to light fountains, rock, etc.-southerly exposure ideal northern clim. Floodlighting -as effective as daylighting-must be careful as visual distraction of seeing lighting submersible lighting -expensive (3-5 times as much as floodlights) Landings in staircases with big elevation change Provide every 9-11 risers Control/Contraction Joint -used to provide weakened place for cracking to occur-place at regular intervals in flat and vertical-hand tooled when plastic-sawcut after hardened-extend 1/4 of depth of pour-12 to 15' max. Construction Joint -used between pours (30 minutes or more)-use smooth dowel or keyed joint to tie together and prevent differential settlement-depth of joint is full depth of pour Expansion/Isolation Joint -allow differential movement between adjacent structural elements (buildings, walls,foundations)-extend full depth of slab-filled with premolded fiber strips-joint sealants may be used to prevent water (siliconized rubber and polyeurethane) Concrete Pressure Test -measure air content at time of use-air content protects from frost and deicer damage-too much air creates lower strength-too little air susceptible to freeze/thaw or deicer damage Slump Test -measure consistency/workability of concrete between batches-expressed in inches (1-3" most common)-changes in slump indicate change in amount of water in mix Kelly Ball Test -alternate measure for concrete consistency Schmidt Hammer Test -gives estimate of concrete compressive strength Cylinder Test -measures compressive strength of cured concrete-done off-site in testing machine Retardant Admixture -slows down hardening/setting of concrete-during hot weather- Accelerator Admixture -used to speed up hardening of concrete-used in cold weather Air entraining agents Admixture -disperses air bubbles in mix-makes surface more resistant to freeze/thaw-makes surface more resistant to damage by deicing-improves workability Plasticizer Admixture -improves workability- Pozzolans Admixture -improves workability-strength enhanced at later stages Water:Cement Ratio -less water/lower ration = stronger mix-more water/higher ratio = better workability of mix Concrete Strength -high in compressive strength-low in tensile strength --compressive strength measured in Pounds per Sq. Inch (PSI)-28 days to fully cured concrete--full cure = ideal compressive strength, resistance to freeze/thaw and abrasion-min. 3 days curing-3,000 psi sidewalks-4,000 to 6,000 psi highways Concrete combination of aggregates, water and portland cement Portland Cement -ASTM C150 -Type 1 = general purpose-Type III = High Early Strength (allows driving sooner, really high early psi that tapers off as cures) Adding Water to concrete -increases workability-lowers compressive strength Adding Water to mortar -increases tensile strength-lowers compressive strength -lowers durability Rebar -used to add tensile strength to concrete-deformed to add grip with concrete-size = 1/8" diam.ex. #6 rebar = 3/4" diameter-locate in tension zone of concrete-2" min. cover-sidewalks optional, need in heavy traffic areas-grade = psiex. grade 40 (most common) = 40,000 psi Welded Wire Fabric/Mesh (WWF or WWM) -3 numbersex. 6x6#10 = 6" sq. grid of #10 wire gauge-higher gauge = thinner wire Forms & Ties -wet subgrade and forms prior to placement to prevent water in concrete from being drawn out-use release agent on forms-deadform = forms left in place-contractor typ. responsible for strength and design of forms-may be used once and discarded or reused multiple times or left in place-space ties evenly for pattern Hydration of concrete -curing - favorable moisture levels and temperatures- must maintain temperature and moisture levels...wet for 5-7 days after pouring Concrete Finish interior only trowled - too slippery Porous concrete -uniform aggregates-difficult to work, low slump and water content-no sand used Ready Mixed Concrete -mixed at plants and hauled to jobsite on mixers ready to be placed-place within 90 minutes -allowed to add water 1 time Soil Cement -mixture of water, cement and soil - slope protection Stucco -mixture of portland cement and sand Use of concrete tools 1. straight edge2. float - to get smooth3. troweling - to make dense4. jointers/groovers and edgers - to round corners and make joints When to stake trees -bare root condition-windy/exposed condition-wet or loose soil Asphalt Binder Course -asphalt pavement course between base course and surface course Asphalt Base Course -layer(s) immediately beneath surface (stone, sand, soil)-purpose is supporting pavement loads, providing drainage and minimizing frost action Cross Slope Formula for distance deflection (cross slope %) * (distance of cross slope) divided by the (longitudinal slope %) Asphalt Surface Course -wearing course-top course of asphalt pavement Cutback Asphalt -liquified asphalt cement by blending with petroleum solvents that eventually evaporate and leave cementing/waterproofing- Emulsified Asphalt -asphalt cement and water-water evaporates and leaves asphalt cement (paving) Asphalt Prime Coat -application of cutback asphalt to absorbent surface of gravel-used to prepare base course of asphalt pavement by filling voids and binding with aggregates Asphalt Tack Coat -application of emulsified asphalt to ensure bond between two asphalt pavement courses Road Mix Asphalt -pavement mixture done at site Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) -pavement mixture produced at mixing facility-spread and compacted at elevated temps-both aggregates and asphalt heated prior to mixing-made of: liquid binder, aggregates and air voids-4-6" lift Superpave -material specs and lab. mix design based on performance criteria developed - SHRPEx) 9.5 mm superpave - used for most applications, 12.5 mm superpave heavy traffic Perpetual pavement -3-layer flexible pavement design-deep strength, long lasting, just need to replace surface Rigid Pavement Concrete Flexible Pavement Asphalt Asphalt Paving Advantages -inexpensive for large areas-resistant to acids, salts-dark color reduces glare-can be recycled-can be constructed rapidly/used wihin hours of placement-long lasting and min. maintenance-versatile Asphalt Paving Disadvantages -heat island warming-moves under traffic loads...edge rest.-softens under high temps.-susceptible to surface damage sharp Asphalt Depth -anticipate traffic loads-strength and bearing capacity of subsoil-frost depth-strenght of aggregates Asphalt Pavement Drainage -water is principal cause of pavement distress-use underdrain where high water table-min. slope on surface 1.5%-wet soils/aggregates not as strong as dry Asphalt Painting -need to cure 14 days min.-acrylic latex paint, acrylic binders, colored aggregates or coal tar sealants Epoxy use -use to fill concrete cracks due to strenght and strong bond to concrete-water repelance and long wearing abrasion resistant finish Mastic use -high grade construction adhesive-used to bond tile, plywood, concrete, steel, aluminum and some plastics-waterproof putty like paste used as joint sealant or filler-reisistant to water and heat Sheepsfoot Roller -best used on clay soil (colloidal)-best for cohesive soils for deep compaction of materials Plate Compactors -best use on granular soils-can be used on asphalt (use water)-heavier plate = more compaction Rammers -jumping jack-cohesive and semi-cohesive soils Rollers -smooth drum - ideal for asphalt or soil, vibration by drum-Rubber Tire-Padded Roller (Trench roller)-Double drum vibrating roller - asphalt Tractor/Loader/Backhoe vs. Bobcat -Tractor/backhoe can only do 1 task at a time load or excavate-while bobcat can perform simultaneous tasks Bulldozer -used for clearing and grading land-limited by push Box Scraper -attachment to remove materials, store them and transport to another location for later use Mini Excavator vs. backhoe 360 degree reach in mini excavator180 degree reach in backhoe Construction Sequence 1. Layout & Staking2. Site Clearing3. Topsoil Stripping & Stockpiling4. Earthwork5. Drainage & Utilities6. Grading7. Paving & Surfacing8. Site Furnishings9. Planting & Seeding Critical Path Method (CPM) -linear or simultaneous tasks Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) -accounts for adjustments to keep completion date on track with shaded critical path items and milestone dates that must be met to hit completion date Climate change - increased precepitation and storm events -more runoff, less infiltration = less recharge/water supply and lower water levels in lakes Wetland restoration -more successful than constructing new-hydric soils typ. still exist under filled wetlands Best method of waste water disposal -through soil-need adequate space, 2-4' depth to water table but can use mound if high, and moderate permeability-efficient, sustainable and minimal maintenance/costs Bolts and materials **bolts used over nails/screws for heavier, structural members (posts and beams, footing)-Lag - use in wood, use with lead or expansion anchor to attach wood to concrete or masonry-Through - walls-jbolt, l-bolt, threaded rod, - lights, signs, bollards-bolt anchor used in larger bolts wood construciton carriage bolt -nut and washer on threaded shank-tamper reistant -round head for safety Lag bolt -penetrate 1/2 to 2/3 of receiving member width-don't countersink- Machine bolt -squre or hex head-need access to both ends lead anchor or expansion shield -used to anchor screws or lag bolts into masonry or concrete-expands into material as screw tightens Expansion bolt -mounting into existing concrete surface Machine screws -used to attache two pieces of metal Spike -nail over 6" length, rectangular cross section Line of maximum shear 2/3 of way compression downward forceavoid bolts along line as will weaken the beam 55 55 Drive Anchor -used in concrete masonry, installed prior to screw-light to med. duty concrete-expands upon impact at insertion- Prescription Spec -closed, most restrictive type-identifies brands - proprietary-limits product choice which can increase price Specs general -prevail over drawings-don't dictate how to install-materials and mehtods of const. Performance Spec -open, flexibility and choice on contractor-describes end results Descriptive Spec -describes requirements of products and materials but not product-reduces liability-meet industry standards Pure peformance Spec -not often used/difficult Paving Brick -Grade Nx - interior only-Grade Sx - severe weather rated-Type 1 - non vehicular-Type II - moderate vehicular Ceramic Tile Paving -requires rigid base, setting bed and joints Mortar Type for pavements Type M Mortar Type for walls Type N (general purpose) Paver Section 1. Base Course2. Setting Bed3. JointsRigid - concrete or mortarSemiflexible - asphaltFlexible - aggregates, sand Grout Mix of cement, water & sand Mortar Mix of cement, water, sand & lime Non-shrink Grout -non pourable-used for joints of ceramic tile or thin set stone walls Grout Use -soupy liquid-used to fill cores in masonry walls-low compressive strength, high tensile strength Tooled Mortar Joints -Best for exterior applications-Vee, Concave Trowleded Mortar Joints -Weathered (acceptable outdoor)-Struck-Flush -Raked Purpose of Geosynthetics -Separation-Reinforcement-Filtration-Drainage Geomembranes -impervious-used in landfills, pond liner, vapour Geonets -drainage applications Geogrids -reinforcement Geocomposites -combine drainage and reinforcement properties Color Rendering Index (CRI) -degree to true color by lighting-0 (worst) to 100 (best)- high/low Pressure Sodium worse CRI-Tungsten Halogen, incandescent, metal halide better CRI HID lighting -mercury vapor-metal halide-high pressure sodium-low pressure sodium Head to head spacing Irrigation -100% coverage