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D = GXL (Distance elev. = gradient x length)


G = D/L (gradient = distance elev. / length)


L = D/G (Length = distance elev. / gradient)

One Acre



43,560 SF



One Square Mile

640 Acres

One Mile

5,280 Feet

Q = CiA

Flow Calculations:


Q = Peak Runoff in cubic ft./sec


C = Runoff Coefficient pervious to impervious


i = Intensity


A = Area

Expansion Joint - Materials, depth, purpose

Stair Tread Details:


Opening in Riser no more than 4" dia.


10" min. tread width


Max. rise 7.75"


Max. Nosing .75 - 1.25"

Notched Deck Stringer

Solid Deck Stringer - only on outside of stairs

0 to 1% slopes

flat - poor drainage, suitable for buildings, play fields/sports

3% to 5% slopes

generally acceptable for structures, play areas/fields

6% to 15% slopes

Okay for some structures, some free play activities

15% and greater slopes

generally not suitable for building

Survey Bearings

Survey Azimuth

Soils


Sheet Pile vs. Cassions

Sheet Piles are typically steel, driven to bedrock or suitable bearing soil




Cassions are drilled holes filled with concrete to bedrock or suitable bearing soil

Soil Phase Diagram - Soil Mechanics


Volume of Soil = Vs + Vv


Volume of Voids = Vw+Va


Weight of Soil = Ws + Ww





Two Soil Classification systems Landscape Architects should be familiar with

1. USDA Textural Classification System


2. Unified Soil Classification System (per ASTM)

Soil grain size classifications



cobble


gravel


sand


silt


clay

Fine-grained soils Vs. Coarse-grained soils

Fine-grained


50% or more pass through No. 200 sieve






Coarse-grained


50% or more are retained on No. 200 sieve




- Sands (50% or more of coarse-grain pass a No. 400 sieve)


- Gravel (50% or more of coarse-grain retained in a No. 400 sieve)

Atterberg Limits

Limits between four states of soil consistency


- solid


"shrinkage limit"


- semi-solid


"platstic limit" (PL)


- plastic


"liquid limit" (LL)


- liquid

Diffrence between liquid limit and plastic limit

Plasticity Index (PI)


PI = LL-PL

Shear Strength

Determines the stability of a soil and its ability to resist failure under loading.




Care must be taken when contructing at the top or bottom of a large slope and attention to handling stormwater

Four general phases to earthwork activity during a construction project

1. Site Preparation


2. Bulk excavation


3. Backfilling/fine grading


4. Finish Surfacing

Four areas of concern in preparing a site for grading

1. Protect existing vegetation


2. Removal & storage of topsoil


3. Erosion & sediment control


4. Clearing/grubbing & demolition

Three Methods for Calculating Cut & Fill

1. Average End Area Method


- avg. area of section x length of corridor




2. Contour Area Method


- Volume = (ht. between contours) x (total area of all cut and fill pieces)




3. Borrow Pit/Grid Method





Factors for Erosion Potential

Topogaphy, soil, precipitation, vegetation

Types of drainage structures

Catch Basin


Manhole


Area Drain


Drain Inlet


Trench Drain

Three basic functions of storm drainage system

1. Collect


2. Convey


3. Dispose

Calculating Board Feet

Board Feet = (Width X Thickness X Length)/ 144




Example: 12, 2"x4" X 8' boards = 64 board feet

Footcandle equation

fc = (lumens) / Area sf.




example:


40 footcandles = 40,000 lumens / 1,000 sf

Simple Horizontal Curve:


Point of Curvature (PC)


Point of Tangency (PT)


Point of Intersection (PI)


Included Angle (I)


Tangent Distance (T)


Radius (R)


Length of Curve (L)


Chord (C)


Center of Curve (O)

Layers of Soil, Ideal Soil Profile

O Horizon - Organic material, not considered soil




A Horizon - Topsoil: major root zone most plants




B Horizon - Subsoil: added root volume, nutrient and water storage




C Horizon - substratum/parent material: contributes to deep rooting and storage volume




R Horizon- Bedrock: consolidated material

Admixture examples for Concrete

Liquids added during batching:


1. Adjust setting time


2. Reduce water demand


3. Increase workability


4. Intentionally entertain air


5. Adjust other fresh or hardened concrete properties

Mortar

Cement + Lime + Sand


Used in masonry, stonework etc.

Grout

Cement + Sand + small aggregate


Workable for tile, more common indoors

Cement

Basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, and grout - binding agent. Made of calcium, silicon, aluminum, iron and other ingredients.

Concrete

Mixture of cement + sand + water + agreggates

Asphalt or asphaltic concrete

Made of heated aggregate + asphaltic cement (derrived from petroleum)

Hydration

Chemical process of cement + water

Curing

Strong influence on the properties of concrete. After 7 days it's 50% stronger. Takes 28 days for conc. to fully cure




Methods for Curing:


- Ponding, immersion, saturated wet coverings


- Impervious cover retains moisture


- Heat + moisture accelerates strength gain (steam, heating pads or coils)

Liquid Membrane Curing Compound

- Retards or reduces evaporation of water


- Waxes, resins, cholorinated rubber

Sealing compound

Applied after concrete is cured, liquid applied to the surface to reduce penetration of liquids such as deicing solutions.

General use concrete compressive strength

Between 3,000-6,000 psi

Preventative measures for cold temp concreting

- Use high-early strength concerete. Heaters, blankets etc. Using air-entrained concrete will help it resist freeze-thaw and be more durable in cold climate

Preventative measures for hot temp concreting

Using a retardant, reduce moisture loss. Fog spray regularly, water subgrade thoroughly before pouring it. Keep forms on as long as possible. Temp sun shades/wind breaks, cover in platstic to retain moisture

Types of Portland Cement

Type I: Normal


Type II: Moderate sulfate resistance


Type III: High Early Strength


Type IV: Low Heat of Hydration


Type V: High sulfate resistance

Types of hydraulic cement

Type GU: General Use


Type HE: High Early Strength


Type MS: Moderate sulfate resistance


Type HS: High sulfate resistance


Type MH: Moderate heat of hydration


Type LH: Low heat of hydration

List of various types of concrete admixtures

- Air-entraining


- Water-reducing


- Plasticizers


- Accelerating Admixutres


- Retarding Admixtures


- Hydration-control


- Corrosion inhibitors


- Shrinkage reducers


- Alkali-silica reactivity inhibitors


- Coloring Admixtures


- Workability, bonding, grouting, etc.

Bleeding Concrete

Bleeding is when water rises out of wet concrete to the surface. It is important not to finish concrete while there is water bleed, this increases the cement-water ratio and compromises strenth.

Mortar & Grout

Primarily used as bonding agents between masonry materials. Consist of cement, sand/fine aggregates, & Water.




Mortar = Stick materials together (CMUs together, Tiles to a cement board etc.)




Grout = More fluid, a fill material (i.e. tile, or inside CMU)

Types of Mortar Joints

Concave
Vee
Flush
Rakes
Extruded
Beaded
Struck
Weathered

Concave


Vee


Flush


Rakes


Extruded


Beaded


Struck


Weathered

Names of brick positions in walls

Bimetallic corrosion (galvanic corrosion) and three ways to avoid

Corrosion as a result of electrical reaction from two different metals in contact with one another.




1. Using the same or similar metal nobility




2. Coating metal in corrosive resistant material (i.e. galvanized metal)




3. Use insulator to separate the materials (rubber gaskets)

Types/techniques of Welds

- Flux Welding (blacksmith hammers together)


- Arc Welding (most common, controlled envt)


- Gas Welding (replaces arc welding in field)


- Spot Welding (common 'fix-it' solutions)


- Soldering (low melting-point to seal joints)




Two most common structural welds:


Groove & Fillet


Lesser used:


Slot and Plug, and flare welds

Stair Formula for risers & treads

2R + T = 24"=26"

Angle of inclination for stairs

Between 13 degrees and 30 degrees.


50 degree maximum

STAIRS


Maximum projection for stair tread


Maximum treatment of nosing


Maximum shadown line treatment


Railing at top and bottom of stair dims


Distance between risers and landing

- 1/2" overhang


- 45 degree bevel or 1/2" radius


- 1-1/2" from face of riser to nosing


- Top: 12" from nosing, Bottom: 12" + tread


- 9-11 stairs before a landing, 5' distance

Curb Ramp Requirements

- Max Slope of 1:12 or 8.33%


- Max Slope Exception: can be 12% if running area is 3' or less.


- Flared Sides 1:12 or 10%


- 48" min. clear level landing area




- Parallel curb ramps: 1:12 flares, 48-60" landing




https://www.access-board.gov/guidelines-and-standards/buildings-and-sites/about-the-ada-standards/guide-to-the-ada-standards/chapter-4-ramps-and-curb-ramps

Retaing Wall Types

ACI reccommendation for minimum wind load on freestanding wall

5 lbs/sf standard, some codes require 20 lbs/sf

Types of lumber defects

Direct stress formula

A = P/F




A - Required area of footing


P - vertical load on the footing (lb/ft)


F - allowable bearing pressure

Square miles in a township



36

One square mile

640 acres

One acre

43,560 square feet

Number of feet in One mile

5,280 feet

Bearing Capacity of soil & example

Capacity of soil to support loads applied




Example: point load of 6 tons can be accommodated with bearing capacity of 2000 lbs./sf with footing of 6sf




Tonnage(lbs) / Bearing Capacity (lbs/sf) = size of footing (sf) necessary to support

Two types of framing for decks

1. Platform Framing: Post, Beams, Joists, decking


2. Plank-and-Beam Framing: Posts, beams, decking

Sizes for decking

- Min 1" nominal thickness, 2" is common


- 1/8" gap between boards for expansion


- Decking should be less than 6" wide

Sizes & best practices for joists

- Typically spaced 16-24" apart (sometimes 12")


- Bridging or cross-bracing is sometimes used


- Minimize bolts along the "line of max. shear" (2/3 down the board, 1/3 up between compression and tension forces)

Spacing for beams

Platform Framing: Typically 8'-16' spacing


Plank & Beam Framing: Typically 6'-8' spacing

LIst and describe the 5 types of common beams

1. Simple Beam: rests on support each end


2. Centilevered Beam: suppored at one end only


3. Overhanging Beam: projects beyond sides


4. Continuous Beam: rests on 3 or more supports


5. Fixed Beam: fixed at both ends (i.e. ledger to ledger)

Name various deck components

Typical Live Loads for:


Residential Deck


Public Deck


Foot Bridge


Vehicular Bridge

- Residential Deck: 40-60 lbs/sf


- Public Deck: 80-100 lbs/sf


- Foot Bridge: 100 lbs/sf


- Vehicular Bridge: 200-300 lbs/sf

Joist Cantilever principal wood decks

Total Joist Length (TL) = 3/4 TL span from ledger board to beam, 1/4 max. cantilever beyond the beam

Retaining wall loading max. surcharge

All walls will allow a 2' surcharge without danger of overturning except for timber or crib walls

Expansion joint spacing for retaining walls

Every 30' or less

Max soil bearing pressure assumption for retaining walls

1.5 tons/sf

Strength typical for concrete and steel reinforcement in retaining walls

Concrete: 2,500 psi


Tensile strength steel reinforcement: 24,000 lbs

Type A, B, and C examples for reinforced embankments

Type A: geotextile, rip-rap, turf, concrete surface




Type B: Flexible structures, i.e. interlocking blocks, crbbing, tie-back, timber walls




Type C: Rigid walls, cantilever, gravity, reinforced concrete

Typical batter for retaining walls

6:1 for flexible construction walls (i.e. gabion, interlocking, CMU walls)




12:1 for rigid construction

Formula to determine distance between contours for cross slope (Df)

Df = Cross Slope x Width / longitudinal slope




example: .02(12') / .05 = 4.8' between contours