Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/129

Click to flip

129 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Average Daily Traffic (ADT)

The most often used in describing traffic volumes. Calculated by taking the total annual volumeof traffic and dividing by 365 (the number of days in the year).

Design Hourly Volume (DHV)

Approximately 15 percentmore than the ADT and represents the volume of traffic that is tolerable for the average driver.

Peak Hourly Volumes

A better indication ofthe volumes a roadway is to serve, but this too should not be used by itself because designing to these volumes is usuallyexcessive.

FREEWAY

The most rapid and largest volume through-traffic system across and betweenurban areas. Best characterized by its limited access and grade separated intersections. This includesexpressways and parkways.

MAJOR ARTERIAL

A through traffic system across and between urban areas. Allows direct access toadjacent properties, but is characterized by control of entrances, exits, and curb use.

COLLECTOR STREET

This provides for movement of traffic between major arterials and localstreets with direct access to adjacent properties. Traffic control is usually provided by signals and stop signson side streets.

LOCAL STREET

This provides for local traffic movement with direct access to adjacentproperties and traffic control with stop signs.

LOCATION DETERMINANTS TO ROADWAY LOCATION

•PRESENT AND PROPOSED LAND USESPRESENT AND PROPOSED CIRCULATION ROUTES (auto,pedestrians,bicycles, and any others)


•TOPOGRAPHY


•SCENIC OPPORTUNITIES


•SAFETY


•RESPOND TO NATURAL FORCES AND FEATURES

The formula for calculating perception/reaction distance is:

PR = 1.47(t)(V)


PR = perception and reaction distance in feet


t = perception plus reaction time in seconds (2.5 seconds is accepted average)


V = initial velocity or speed in mph

The formula for calculating breaking distance is:

d = V 2/30f


d = braking distance in feet


V = initial velocity or speed in mph


f = coefficient of friction between tires and pavement

The formula for calculating total stopping distance is:



D = 1.47(t)(V) + V2/30f


D = total stopping distance in feet


t = perception plus reaction time in seconds (2.5 seconds is accepted average)


V = initial velocity or speed in mph


f = coefficient of friction between tires and pavement

Sight triangles

The term used to describe the area of oncoming traffic on an intersecting roadway that should be clearly visible to a driver stopped at the intersection.

Most common stall angles are...

45°,60°, and 90°

It is generally critical that one locate parking as close as possible to the user's residence with a maximumacceptable distance being...

200'

For commercial, industrial, and institutionalparking the typical maximum acceptable distance between parking and primary entrance is...

300'

Intersection Distances (High Volume and Low Volume Collector Streets)

High Volume = 350'


Low Volume = 125'

Cul de Sac Radius

50' TYP. R


38' MIN R

Private Entry from Public Road (Street Width and Turning Radius)

Street Width = 24' TYP./ 18' MIN.


Turning Radius = 20' TYP. R/ 15' MIN. R

Class I Bikeways should be a minimum of...

...8' and preferably 10' wide.

The average spatial requirement for a single pedestrian is...

...24" wide.

Eye level of the average adult pedestrian is...

...5'-2" when standing and 3'-9" when sitting.

Pedestrian Cone of Vision

One's best perception is narrowed to a 30°vertical cone of vision centered on eye level.

In general, anoutside enclosure is most comfortable when the vertical planes are...

...one half to one third the width of the space.

Sidewalk Width Calculation

Width = (VxM)/S


V = Volume, pedestrians per minute


M = Density or Space Module/ sq ft per pedestrian (18 sq ft is ave)


S = Walking Speed, ft per sec (260 ft/sec is ave)

Using plants for physical control

Plants should be planted closely with a minimum height of 3'

Quadrangle

A rectangular area created with meridians and baselines - 24 mile by 24 miles square.

Meridians

Vertical division lines of land.



Baseline

Horizontal division lines of land.



Township

Subdivision of Quadrant - 6 mile by 6 mile square. 24 townships to a quadrangle.

Section

Subdivision of Township - 1 mile by 1 mile square. 36 Sections to a township.

Quadrant (Sub-Quadrant)

Subdivision of Section - 1/2 mile by 1/2 mile. 4 quadrants to a section.

The bearing of a line is...

...the horizontal angle between the direction of the line and a line pointing to true north.

pH

An expression of the relative concentrations of hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxyl ions (OH-) in a soil sample. A scale range from 0 to 14 is used. The terms "acid," "neutral," and "alkaline" are used when describing the soil pH or "soil reaction."

ACID

Used in referring to soils with a pH less than seven (7). These soils are most common in areas with high rainfall and often are high in organic matter.

ALKALINE

Used in referring to soils with a pH greater than seven (7). These soils are most common in areas with low rainfall.

NEUTRAL

Used in referring to soils with a pH equal to seven (7). Most plants prefer a pH from 6.5 to 7.2 . However, some prefer acid soils with a pH from 5.0 to 6.5 and others survive quite well with a pH from 7.5 to 8.0.

SOIL TEXTURE

Refers to the relative percentages of the primary soil particles , or separates, in a soil mass.

SOIL STRUCTURE

Refers to the arrangement of soil particles and how they are grouped together into aggregates.

SOIL SEPARATES

The individual size groups of primary soil mineral particles of sand, silt, and clay.

SAND

The largest mineral particle of the soil separates. It is characterized by large pore space allowing good aeration and rapid passage of water.

SILT

The intermediate-sized mineral particle of the soil separates.

CLAY

The smallest mineral particle of the soil separates. It is characterized by slow drainage and poor aeration but has the best nutrient holding capacity of all the soil separates.

LOAM

Generally a fertile and easily manageable soil consisting principally of sand (±40%) and silt.(±40%) particles with some clay (±20%).

SALINITY

Refers to excess salts in soils. This is common in arid areas with low rainfall because salts are not leached out of the soil as easily as they are in areas of high rainfall. High salts can be a result of the quality of irrigation water, fertilizers, chemical amendments, or manures h i gh in salt content.

COMPLETE FERTILIZER

Refers to a fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. These are shown on labels of commercial fertilizers as percentages of N-P-K. For example, a fertilizer labeled as 16-8-16 contains 16% nitrogen, 8% phosphorus, and 16% potassium by weight.

SIMPLE FERTILIZER

Refers to a fertilizer containing only one of the primary plant nutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus, or potassium.

INCOMPLETE FERTILIZER

Refers to a fertilizer containing two of the primary plant nutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus, or potassium. Compositions with phosphorus and potassium are commonly used to improve flower production.

PRIMARY PLANT NUTRIENTS

Refers to the three most essential elements necessary for plant growth: nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.

SECONDARY PLANT NUTRIENTS

Refers to three other essential elements necessary for plant growth: calcium, magnesium, and sul fur . These are often grouped with the "micronutrients."

MICRONUTRIENTS

Refers to the minor elements necessary for plant growth. These are essential for plant growth but are used in much smaller amounts than the other essential elements. The micronutrients include boron, copper, Iron, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, and sometimes calcium, magnesium, and sulfur. These should not be applied as a "shotgun" application to cover possible deficiencies, but rather only when a need is recognized.

S NITROGEN

One of the primary nutrients. It is required for the formation of proteins, chlorophyll and enzymes needed for the healthy development of cell structure.

PHOSPHORUS

One of the primary nutrients, it stimulates early root growth, plant maturity, and promotes flower and fruit production. Phosphorus is insoluble, and thus it is more critical that it be applied near the roots to be most effective. Symptoms of phosphorus deficiency in plants are slow or stunted growth, delayed maturity, and poor flower or fruit development.

POTASSIUM

One of the primary nutrients. It stimulates root growth, aids in disease resistance, and improves flower and fruit production. Like phosphorus, potassium should be applied near the roots to be most effective. Symptoms of potassium deficiency in plants are tip and marginal burn starting on more mature leaves, weak stalks, poor flower or fruit development, and slow growth.

CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, SULFUR

The secondary nutrients often grouped with the micronutrients, but determined to be more critical than other nutrients in that group. These are generally abundant in most soils. Calcium is an essential part of cell formation and structure. Magnesium is essential for photosynthesis. Sulfur is used in protein synthesis.

SOIL AMENDMENTS- There are three c las s i f icat ions , all of which are used to improve soi lstructure, pH and/or fertility.

Chemical - Includes gypsum, lime, sulfur, and others


Mineral - Includes perlite, vermiculite, and sand Organic - Includes humus, peat moss, manure, and others

HUMUS

Decomposed organic matter which can aid in flocculating clay soils and help increase waterholding capacity and fertility of sandy soils.

LIME

Refers to chemical amendment composed of calcium. Used to raise pH of overly acid soils, and to improve some clay soi l s by causing clay particles to bind together into larger units, thus improving aeration and drainage.

GYPSUM

Refers to chemical amendment composed of calcium and sulfur. Used to Improve some clay soils by causing clay particles to bind together into larger units, thus improving aeration and drainage.

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

The process by which plants convert water and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates under the action of l ight . Chlorophyll is required for the conversion of light energy into chemical forms.

TRANSPIRATION

Loss of water vapor from the leaves and stems of living plants to the atmosphere.

CHLOROSIS

A condition, usually due to iron deficiency, in which the body of the leaf is paler or more yellow than normal while the veins remain green. The soil may lack iron, but it is more common that the iron is "tied up" and unavailable to the roots. Over watering and lack of aeration may cause both the body and the veins of the leaf to turn yellow.

ANTIDESSICANT

Sometimes called antitranspirants, this refers to solutions which when applied to leaves partially seals the transpiring surfaces and reduces water loss. This may be used on container plants to minimize wilting and stress following planting or in preparation of leafy cuttings for rooting.

ESPALIER

Tree or shrub trained so branching structure is emphasized and directed in a flat pattern against a wall, fence, trellis, or other surface. The resulting pattern may be formal, geometric, or informal.

PLEACHING

Training of shrub or tree branching structure in an interwoven pattern. May result in a vertical hedge-type form or, in the case of trees, an overhead natural arbor.

POLLARDING

Severe pruning of major deciduous tree limbs each dormant season to create large knobby core of branching structure. Such treatment results in an extremely compact leafy dome-form during the growing season and a silhouette of unusual branching character in the dormant season.

GRAFTING

One method of plant propagation, often used to combine the favorable rooting characteristics of one species with the favorable top growth characteristics of another. In grafting, the scion (cutting of top growth) is united with another plant referred to as the stock, understock, or rooting stock. For the graft to be successful, the cambium layer of the scion and the rootstock must be in contact and bond.

MERISTEMATIC TISSUE

Composed of the cells actively or potentially involved in cell division or growth. There are various types, including apical meristems (at the tips of roots and shoots) and cambium, or lateral meristem (which increases the girth of woody stems, creating both phloem and xylem tissue).

XYLEM

The water-conducting tissue which comprises one half of the vascular system of plants.

PHLOEM

The food-conducting tissue which comprises one half of the vascular system of plants.

ANNUAL

Plants that complete their life cycle (seed germination, growth, flowering, setting seed, and death) in a year or less.

BIENNIAL

Plants that complete their life cycle in two years.

PERENNIAL

Non-woody plants that live for more than two years. Top growth of some perennials die back each year, but some perennials retain their growth continuously.

CONTAINER CLASSES

Containers are classed according to minimum and maximum acceptable dimensions in height, inside top diameter, and inside bottom diameter. Classes are #1, #2, #3, #5, #7,and #15 according to the dimensions.

CALIPER

This is the diameter of the trunk. Standard measurement is to be taken 6" above the ground up to and including 4" caliper size, and 12" above the ground for larger sizes.

CANE

This is a primary stem starting from the ground or close to the ground at a point not higher than one fourth the overall height of the plant. Used in size-grading of shrubs.

GRADES AND TYPES

Shade and flowering trees, deciduous shrubs, coniferous evergreens, broadleaf evergreens, roses, young plants, fruit trees, small fruits, understock, seedlings, "bulbs, corms, and tubers," and Christmas trees.

Trunk height

Measuring Palms from the ground to the base of the heart leaf.

"clump form" multi-stemmed trees

has two or more main stems from the root crown or main trunk not more than 6" above the ground.

"shrub form" multi-stemmed trees

has multiple stems from the root crown as is typical of most shrubs.

Evergreen Creeping or Prostrate Types (Type 1)

Size-grading is by spread only with no consideration to height. Spread is determined by the average diameter of the spreading growth.

Evergreen Semi-Spreading Types (Type 2).

Size-grading is by spread, but height should be at least one half of the spread. Spread is determined as in Type 1

Evergreen Cone Type (Type 4)

These are the pyramidal forms which are size-graded by height. The ratio of height to spread should not be less than 5 to 3.

UNDERSTOCK

This includes mostly shade, flowering, fruit and nut trees which are used for grafting and budding. Size-grading is generally by caliper.

HALF SATURATION %

The approximate field capacity which is the moisture content remaining in soil two to three days after thorough wetting. This is the water generally utilized by plant material. Field capacity is expressed as moisture percentage, dry-weight basis.

FUEL MOISTURE

The moisture content of living and dead plant material as it influences flammability and fire behavior. Typically high in winter and spring while decreasing during the summer. Also, fuel moisture is generally lower on south-facing s lopes .

FUEL LOADING

The amount of plant material per unit area as it influences flammability and fire behavior. Fuel loading generally increases as plants mature and become old, thus increasing fire danger.

DEAD-TO-LIVE RATIO

The relative amounts of dead plant material to live plant material as it influences flammability and fire behavior as fuel. The dead-to-live ratio generally increases as plants mature and become old, thus increasing fire danger.

FIRE RETARDANT

In relation to plant material, this refers to the differences in fuel volume, inherent flammability characteristics of a plant, and the ease of fire spread.

CONDUCTION

Relative to fire safety this refers to the direct transfer of heat by objects touching each other. An example would be the transfer of heat from burning plant material to a structure it is planted against.

CONVECTION

Relative to fire safety, convection is the transfer of heat by atmospheric currents. In windy conditions or steep terrain the effects of convection greatly influence flammability and fire behavior.

RADIATION

Relative to fire safety radiation is the transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves and can travel against the forces of wind. Radiation heat can preheat a neighboring home to the ignition point without direct physical contact with the flames of the fire.

HYDROPHOBIC

The water-repellent character ist ic of certain soils. Fires can cause soils to become hydrophobic. Hydrophobic soils result in decreased infiltration and increased runoff, thus influencing the amount of potential erosion.

PLANT SUCCESSION

Literally, a unidirectional change In the composition of a plant ecosystem. It is a result of plants responding to and modifying the environment.

ANGLE OF REPOSE

The steepest angle that bare soil will maintain. Approximately 34° (67%) for most natural slopes.

EROSION

The wearing away of land surface by the forces of water, wind, ice, and/or gravity. Landslides, soil slip, and dry creep are all types of erosion. Two other common types are rill erosion (formation of numerous small channels only several inches deep) and sheet erosion (removal of a relatively uniform layer of soil).

DRY CREEP

A type of erosion which generally occurs on steep slopes lacking vegetative cover. It involves the movement of dry soil and/or debris primarily as a reaction to the forces of gravity rather than water.

SOIL SLIPPAGE

A type of erosion s i m i l a r to landslides, but of a lesser magnitude.

LANDSLIDES

A type of erosion which generally occurs when soils on slopes become saturated with water. In this more liquid condition the soils are more susceptible to the forces of gravity and are likely to slide downhill.

LUMEN

Unit of measurement that refers to the amount of light energy emitted by a light source without regard to the effectiveness of its distribution.

FOOTCANDLE (fc)

Unit of measurement that refers to illumination incident at a specific point. One foot candle is equal to one lumen uniformly distributed over an area of one square foot.

LUX (Ix)

Comparable to foot candle, it is the international unit of measurement that refers to the illumination incident at a specific point. Equal to one lumen uniformly distributed over one square meter.

INCIDENT ILLUMINATION

Amount of illumination incident on a surface varies with the intensity of the source, the distance between the source and the surface, and the angle of incidence.

Contour lines are considered accurate to...

1/2 the contour interval.

A space is made understandable by it's...

Enclosure

The maximum desirable continuous long-distance grade for a bike path is:

5%

When should a post-construction evaluation be conducted?

When the client request it.

Acid loving plants such as rhododendrons and camelias

Ericaceous plants

Three major classifications of rocks

1. Igneous Rock


2. Metamorphic Rock


3. Sedimentary Rock

Formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava. Such as basalt, granite, and pumice.

Igneous Rock

Rock that are formed by the deposition of material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water. Such as shale, limestone and sandstone.

Sedimentary Rocks

Rocks that have been modified by heat, pressure and chemical processes, usually while buried deep below Earth's surface. Such as quartzite, soapstone, slate and marble.

Metamorphic Rocks

The geomorphic process by which soil, sand, regolith, and rock move downslope typically as a mass, largely under the force of gravity, but frequently affected by water and water content as in submarine environments and mudslides.

Mass Wasting (Also Slope Movement and Mass Movement)

Plants adapted to not particularly wet or dry conditions.

Mesophytes

Plants that grow partially or completely submerged in water

Hydrophyte

The mapping of the features of a site and it surroundings - as it relates to programming.

Site Inventory Mapping

Stair Rule

2(Riser)+Tread=24 to 25

The angle of maximum slope at which a heap of any loose solid material (as earth) will stand without sliding

Angle of Repose

The enrichment of an ecosystem with chemical nutrients, typically compounds containing nitrogen, phosphorus, or both.

Eutrophication

A horizontal angle measured clockwise from a north base line or meridian.

Azimuth

Sun loving plants.

Photophyte

A species of plant that has adapted to survive in an environment with little liquid water.

Xerophyte

Plants that grow on, or in, rocks.

Lithophytes

Any single identifiable source of pollution from which pollutants are discharged, such as a pipe, ditch, ship or factory smokestack.

Point Source Pollution

Pollution that comes from many diffuse sources. Generally results from land runoff, precipitation, atmospheric deposition, drainage, seepage or hydrologic modification.

Non-Point Source Pollution

The scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical or chemical processes operating at or near the earth's surface - seeks to understand why landscapes look the way they d

Geomorphology

The study of statistics such as births, deaths, income, or the incidence of disease, which illustrate the changing structure of human populations.

Demography

Continuing use of real property, permitted by Zoning ordinances, in a manner in which other similar plots of land in the same area cannot ordinarily be used. Allows existing uses to continue when areas are rezoned.

Non-Conforming Land Uses

A fine-grained fertile soil deposited by water flowing over flood plains or in river beds

Alluvial soils

The branch of biology that deals with the normal functions of living organisms and their parts. The way in which a living organism or bodily part functions.

Physiology