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The most often used in describing traffic volumes. Calculated by taking the total annual volumeof traffic and dividing by 365 (the number of days in the year).





Average Daily Traffic (ADT)

Approximately 15 percentmore than the ADT and represents the volume of traffic that is tolerable for the average driver.





Design Hourly Volume (DHV)

A better indication ofthe volumes a roadway is to serve, but this too should not be used by itself because designing to these volumes is usuallyexcessive.





Peak Hourly Volumes

The most rapid and largest volume through-traffic system across and betweenurban areas. Best characterized by its limited access and grade separated intersections. This includesexpressways and parkways.



FREEWAY

A through traffic system across and between urban areas. Allows direct access toadjacent properties, but is characterized by control of entrances, exits, and curb use.





MAJOR ARTERIAL

This provides for movement of traffic between major arterials and localstreets with direct access to adjacent properties. Traffic control is usually provided by signals and stop signson side streets.





COLLECTOR STREET

This provides for local traffic movement with direct access to adjacentproperties and traffic control with stop signs.



LOCAL STREET

LOCATION DETERMINANTS TO ROADWAY LOCATION

•PRESENT AND PROPOSED LAND USESPRESENT AND PROPOSED CIRCULATION ROUTES (auto,pedestrians,bicycles, and any others)


•TOPOGRAPHY


•SCENIC OPPORTUNITIES


•SAFETY


•RESPOND TO NATURAL FORCES AND FEATURES

The formula for calculating perception/reaction distance is:

PR = 1.47(t)(V)


PR = perception and reaction distance in feet


t = perception plus reaction time in seconds (2.5 seconds is accepted average)


V = initial velocity or speed in mph

The formula for calculating breaking distance is:

d = V 2/30f


d = braking distance in feet


V = initial velocity or speed in mph


f = coefficient of friction between tires and pavement

The formula for calculating total stopping distance is:



D = 1.47(t)(V) + V2/30f


D = total stopping distance in feet


t = perception plus reaction time in seconds (2.5 seconds is accepted average)


V = initial velocity or speed in mph


f = coefficient of friction between tires and pavement

The term used to describe the area of oncoming traffic on an intersecting roadway that should be clearly visible to a driver stopped at the intersection.





Sight triangles

Most common stall angles are...

45°,60°, and 90°

It is generally critical that one locate parking as close as possible to the user's residence with a maximumacceptable distance being...

200'

For commercial, industrial, and institutionalparking the typical maximum acceptable distance between parking and primary entrance is...

300'

Intersection Distances (High Volume and Low Volume Collector Streets)

High Volume = 350'


Low Volume = 125'

Cul de Sac Radius

50' TYP. R


38' MIN R

Private Entry from Public Road (Street Width and Turning Radius)

Street Width = 24' TYP./ 18' MIN.


Turning Radius = 20' TYP. R/ 15' MIN. R

Class I Bikeways should be a minimum of...

...8' and preferably 10' wide.

The average spatial requirement for a single pedestrian is...

...24" wide.

Eye level of the average adult pedestrian is...

...5'-2" when standing and 3'-9" when sitting.

Pedestrian Cone of Vision

One's best perception is narrowed to a 30°vertical cone of vision centered on eye level.

In general, an outside enclosure is most comfortable when the vertical planes are...

...one half to one third the width of the space.

Sidewalk Width Calculation

Width = (VxM)/S


V = Volume, pedestrians per minute


M = Density or Space Module/ sq ft per pedestrian (18 sq ft is ave)


S = Walking Speed, ft per sec (260 ft/sec is ave)



Plants should be planted closely with a minimum height of 3'

Using plants for physical control





The term used to describe the area of oncoming traffic on an intersecting roadway that should be clearly visible to a driver stopped at the intersection.

Quadrangle

Vertical division lines of land.





Meridians



Horizontal division lines of land.





Baseline



Subdivision of Quadrant - 6 mile by 6 mile square. 24 townships to a quadrangle.



Township

Subdivision of Township - 1 mile by 1 mile square. 36 Sections to a township.



Section

Subdivision of Section - 1/2 mile by 1/2 mile. 4 quadrants to a section.





Quadrant (Sub-Quadrant)

The bearing of a line is...

...the horizontal angle between the direction of the line and a line pointing to true north.





An expression of the relative concentrations of hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxyl ions (OH-) in a soil sample. A scale range from 0 to 14 is used. The terms "acid," "neutral," and "alkaline" are used when describing the soil pH or "soil reaction."

pH

Used in referring to soils with a pH less than seven (7). These soils are most common in areas with high rainfall and often are high in organic matter.





ACID

Used in referring to soils with a pH greater than seven (7). These soils are most common in areas with low rainfall.





ALKALINE

Used in referring to soils with a pH equal to seven (7). Most plants prefer a pH from 6.5 to 7.2 . However, some prefer acid soils with a pH from 5.0 to 6.5 and others survive quite well with a pH from 7.5 to 8.0.



NEUTRAL

Refers to the relative percentages of the primary soil particles , or separates, in a soil mass.





SOIL TEXTURE

Refers to the arrangement of soil particles and how they are grouped together into aggregates.





SOIL STRUCTURE

The individual size groups of primary soil mineral particles of sand, silt, and clay.





SOIL SEPARATES

The largest mineral particle of the soil separates. It is characterized by large pore space allowing good aeration and rapid passage of water.





SAND

The intermediate-sized mineral particle of the soil separates.





SILT

The smallest mineral particle of the soil separates. It is characterized by slow drainage and poor aeration but has the best nutrient holding capacity of all the soil separates.





CLAY

Generally a fertile and easily manageable soil consisting principally of sand (±40%) and silt.(±40%) particles with some clay (±20%).



LOAM

Refers to excess salts in soils. This is common in arid areas with low rainfall because salts are not leached out of the soil as easily as they are in areas of high rainfall. High salts can be a result of the quality of irrigation water, fertilizers, chemical amendments, or manures high in salt content.





SALINITY

Refers to a fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. These are shown on labels of commercial fertilizers as percentages of N-P-K. For example, a fertilizer labeled as 16-8-16 contains 16% nitrogen, 8% phosphorus, and 16% potassium by weight.





COMPLETE FERTILIZER

Refers to a fertilizer containing only one of the primary plant nutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus, or potassium.





SIMPLE FERTILIZER

Refers to a fertilizer containing two of the primary plant nutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus, or potassium. Compositions with phosphorus and potassium are commonly used to improve flower production.





INCOMPLETE FERTILIZER

Refers to the three most essential elements necessary for plant growth: nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.



PRIMARY PLANT NUTRIENTS

Refers to three other essential elements necessary for plant growth: calcium, magnesium, and sul fur . These are often grouped with the "micronutrients."





SECONDARY PLANT NUTRIENTS

Refers to the minor elements necessary for plant growth. These are essential for plant growth but are used in much smaller amounts than the other essential elements. The micronutrients include boron, copper, Iron, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, and sometimes calcium, magnesium, and sulfur.





MICRONUTRIENTS

One of the primary nutrients. It is required for the formation of proteins, chlorophyll and enzymes needed for the healthy development of cell structure.





S NITROGEN

One of the primary nutrients, it stimulates early root growth, plant maturity, and promotes flower and fruit production. Symptoms of deficiency in plants are slow or stunted growth, delayed maturity, and poor flower or fruit development.



PHOSPHORUS

One of the primary nutrients. It stimulates root growth, aids in disease resistance, and improves flower and fruit production. Deficiency in plants are tip and marginal burn starting on more mature leaves, weak stalks, poor flower or fruit development, and slow growth.





POTASSIUM

The secondary nutrients often grouped with the micronutrients, but determined to be more critical than other nutrients in that group. These are generally abundant in most soils.

CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, SULFUR




Calcium is an essential part of cell formation and structure. Magnesium is essential for photosynthesis. Sulfur is used in protein synthesis.

SOIL AMENDMENTS- There are three classifications , all of which are used to improve soil structure, pH and/or fertility.

Chemical - Includes gypsum, lime, sulfur, and others


Mineral - Includes perlite, vermiculite, and sand Organic - Includes humus, peat moss, manure, and others

Decomposed organic matter which can aid in flocculating clay soils and help increase waterholding capacity and fertility of sandy soils.





HUMUS

Refers to chemical amendment composed of calcium. Used to raise pH of overly acid soils, and to improve some clay soils by causing clay particles to bind together into larger units, thus improving aeration and drainage.





LIME

Refers to chemical amendment composed of calcium and sulfur. Used to Improve some clay soils by causing clay particles to bind together into larger units, thus improving aeration and drainage.





GYPSUM

The process by which plants convert water and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates under the action of light . Chlorophyll is required for the conversion of light energy into chemical forms.





PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Loss of water vapor from the leaves and stems of living plants to the atmosphere.





TRANSPIRATION

A condition, usually due to iron deficiency, in which the body of the leaf is paler or more yellow than normal while the veins remain green.





CHLOROSIS

Sometimes called antitranspirants, this refers to solutions which when applied to leaves partially seals the transpiring surfaces and reduces water loss. This may be used on container plants to minimize wilting and stress following planting or in preparation of leafy cuttings for rooting.



ANTIDESSICANT

Tree or shrub trained so branching structure is emphasized and directed in a flat pattern against a wall, fence, trellis, or other surface. The resulting pattern may be formal, geometric, or informal.





ESPALIER

Training of shrub or tree branching structure in an interwoven pattern. May result in a vertical hedge-type form or, in the case of trees, an overhead natural arbor.





PLEACHING

Severe pruning of major deciduous tree limbs each dormant season to create large knobby core of branching structure. Such treatment results in an extremely compact leafy dome-form during the growing season and a silhouette of unusual branching character in the dormant season.

POLLARDING

One method of plant propagation, often used to combine the favorable rooting characteristics of one species with the favorable top growth characteristics of another. In grafting, the scion (cutting of top growth) is united with another plant referred to as the stock, understock, or rooting stock. For the graft to be successful, the cambium layer of the scion and the rootstock must be in contact and bond.

GRAFTING

Composed of the cells actively or potentially involved in cell division or growth. There are various types, including apical meristems (at the tips of roots and shoots) and cambium, or lateral meristem (which increases the girth of woody stems, creating both phloem and xylem tissue).

MERISTEMATIC TISSUE

The water-conducting tissue which comprises one half of the vascular system of plants.

XYLEM

The food-conducting tissue which comprises one half of the vascular system of plants.

PHLOEM

Plants that complete their life cycle (seed germination, growth, flowering, setting seed, and death) in a year or less.

ANNUAL

Plants that complete their life cycle in two years.

BIENNIAL

Non-woody plants that live for more than two years. Top growth of some perennials die back each year, but some perennials retain their growth continuously.

PERENNIAL

Containers are classed according to minimum and maximum acceptable dimensions in height, inside top diameter, and inside bottom diameter. Classes are #1, #2, #3, #5, #7,and #15 according to the dimensions.

CONTAINER CLASSES

This is the diameter of the trunk. Standard measurement is to be taken 6" above the ground up to and including 4" caliper size, and 12" above the ground for larger sizes.

CALIPER

This is a primary stem starting from the ground or close to the ground at a point not higher than one fourth the overall height of the plant. Used in size-grading of shrubs.

CANE

Measuring Palms from the ground to the base of the heart leaf.

Trunk height

The approximate field capacity which is the moisture content remaining in soil two to three days after thorough wetting. This is the water generally utilized by plant material. Field capacity is expressed as moisture percentage, dry-weight basis.

HALF SATURATION %

The moisture content of living and dead plant material as it influences flammability and fire behavior. Typically high in winter and spring while decreasing during the summer. Also, fuel moisture is generally lower on south-facing slopes.

FUEL MOISTURE

The amount of plant material per unit area as it influences flammability and fire behavior. Fuel loading generally increases as plants mature and become old, thus increasing fire danger.

FUEL LOADING

The relative amounts of dead plant material to live plant material as it influences flammability and fire behavior as fuel. The dead-to-live ratio generally increases as plants mature and become old, thus increasing fire danger.

DEAD-TO-LIVE RATIO

In relation to plant material, this refers to the differences in fuel volume, inherent flammability characteristics of a plant, and the ease of fire spread.

FIRE RETARDANT

Relative to fire safety this refers to the direct transfer of heat by objects touching each other. An example would be the transfer of heat from burning plant material to a structure it is planted against.

CONDUCTION

Relative to fire safety, convection is the transfer of heat by atmospheric currents. In windy conditions or steep terrain the effects of convection greatly influence flammability and fire behavior

CONVECTION

Relative to fire safety radiation is the transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves and can travel against the forces of wind. Radiation heat can preheat a neighboring home to the ignition point without direct physical contact with the flames of the fire.

RADIATION

The water-repellent characteristic of certain soils. Fires can cause soils to become hydrophobic. Hydrophobic soils result in decreased infiltration and increased runoff, thus influencing the amount of potential erosion.

HYDROPHOBIC

Literally, a unidirectional change In the composition of a plant ecosystem. It is a result of plants responding to and modifying the environment.

PLANT SUCCESSION

The steepest angle that bare soil will maintain. Approximately 34° (67%) for most natural slopes.

ANGLE OF REPOSE

The wearing away of land surface by the forces of water, wind, ice, and/or gravity. Landslides, soil slip, and dry creep are all types of erosion. Two other common types are rill erosion (formation of numerous small channels only several inches deep) and sheet erosion (removal of a relatively uniform layer of soil).

EROSION

A type of erosion which generally occurs on steep slopes lacking vegetative cover. It involves the movement of dry soil and/or debris primarily as a reaction to the forces of gravity rather than water.

DRY CREEP

A type of erosion s i m i l a r to landslides, but of a lesser magnitude.

SOIL SLIPPAGE

A type of erosion which generally occurs when soils on slopes become saturated with water. In this more liquid condition the soils are more susceptible to the forces of gravity and are likely to slide downhill.

LANDSLIDES

Unit of measurement that refers to the amount of light energy emitted by a light source without regard to the effectiveness of its distribution.

LUMEN

Unit of measurement that refers to illumination incident at a specific point. One foot candle is equal to one lumen uniformly distributed over an area of one square foot.

FOOTCANDLE (fc)

Comparable to foot candle, it is the international unit of measurement that refers to the illumination incident at a specific point. Equal to one lumen uniformly distributed over one square meter.

LUX (Ix)

Amount of illumination incident on a surface varies with the intensity of the source, the distance between the source and the surface, and the angle of incidence.

INCIDENT ILLUMINATION

Contour lines are considered accurate to...

1/2 the contour interval.

A space is made understandable by it's...

Enclosure

The maximum desirable continuous long-distance grade for a bike path is:

5%

When should a post-construction evaluation be conducted?

When the client request it.

Acid loving plants such as rhododendrons and camelias

Ericaceous plants

Three major classifications of rocks

1. Igneous Rock


2. Metamorphic Rock


3. Sedimentary Rock

Formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava. Such as basalt, granite, and pumice.

Igneous Rock

Rock that are formed by the deposition of material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water. Such as shale, limestone and sandstone.

Sedimentary Rocks

Transformed from other rock material in response to pressure or temperature. Such as quartzite, soapstone, slate and marble.

Metamorphic Rocks

The geomorphic process by which soil, sand, regolith, and rock move downslope typically as a mass, largely under the force of gravity, but frequently affected by water and water content as in submarine environments and mudslides.

Mass Wasting (Also Slope Movement and Mass Movement)

Plants adapted to not particularly wet or dry conditions.

Mesophytes

Plants that grow partially or completely submerged in water

Hydrophyte

The mapping of the features of a site and it surroundings - as it relates to programming.

Site Inventory Mapping

Stair Rule

2(Riser)+Tread=24 to 25

The angle of maximum slope at which a heap of any loose solid material (as earth) will stand without sliding

Angle of Repose

The enrichment of an ecosystem with chemical nutrients, typically compounds containing nitrogen, phosphorus, or both.

Eutrophication

A horizontal angle measured clockwise from a north base line or meridian.

Azimuth

Sun loving plants.

Photophyte

A species of plant that has adapted to survive in an environment with little liquid water.

Xerophyte

Plants that grow on, or in, rocks.

Lithophytes

Any single identifiable source of pollution from which pollutants are discharged, such as a pipe, ditch, ship or factory smokestack.

Point Source Pollution

Pollution that comes from many diffuse sources. Generally results from land runoff, precipitation, atmospheric deposition, drainage, seepage or hydrologic modification.

Non-Point Source Pollution

The scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical or chemical processes operating at or near the earth's surface - seeks to understand why landscapes look the way they d

Geomorphology

The study of statistics such as births, deaths, income, or the incidence of disease, which illustrate the changing structure of human populations.

Demography

Continuing use of real property, permitted by Zoning ordinances, in a manner in which other similar plots of land in the same area cannot ordinarily be used. Allows existing uses to continue when areas are rezoned.

Non-Conforming Land Uses

A fine-grained fertile soil deposited by water flowing over flood plains or in river beds

Alluvial soils

The branch of biology that deals with the normal functions of living organisms and their parts. The way in which a living organism or bodily part functions.

Physiology

Highly acidic soils have a _____ Ph level

Low

Highly alkaline soil shave _____ ph level

High



Neutral soils have a ph of ____

7

Used to get variances to local zoning codes inorder to build mixed developments and consolidate multiple parcels of land,

Planned Unit Development (PUD)

Urban sprawl typically has which type of road layout system?

Linear

An artificial feature creating extra turns in a road, used in motor racing and on streets to slow traffic for safety.

Chicane

Set the goals and objectives of a town over a long period oftime.

Comprehensive Plan

Shows how a town may be developed over a long periodof time.

Master Plan

Shows the different uses allowed throughout a community.

Land Use Plan

Shows how specific areas should be developed within a town.

Area Plan

A wetland fed by groundwater, dominated by peat moss, rich in mineral salts andis alkaline is called what?

Fen

A wetland fed by groundwater, dominated by peat moss, is acidic is called what?

Bog

What is the optimal size of a transit orientated development?

A 5 minute walk from the edge to the center

When a soil is moist and crushes easily from the gentle pressure between thethumb and fore finger, it is considered to be what?

Friable

A _____ soil is one which can easily be molded or deformed and remain thatway.

Plastic Soil

_____ soil requires an adequate amount of pressurefrom two fi ngers in order to crush it.

Firm Soil

A connection of lines that enclose an area and whose coordinates are predetermined.Used for all property types except for preliminary road andtrain line boundaries.

Closed Traverse

Preliminary road and train line boundaries, which would be an example of an _____.

Open Traverse

In order to reduce noise levels on a site, what type of plant should be used?

Broad leafed evergreen

Include oceans and coastlines.

Marine wetlands

Include tidal waters and salty tidal marshes.

Estuarine wetlands

Include rivers and streams.

Riverine wetlands

Include marshes, bogs and swamps.

Palustrine wetlands

Include lakes and reservoirs.

Lacustrine wetlands

In order to change the use of a site, a landowner must apply for a _______ withthe town.

Variance

The maximum angle in which the slope of soil remainsstable.

angle of repose

The soils ability to withstand pressure from a downhill force. It is affected by the soil’s composition, its structure and loading conditions.

Shear strength

The point on a hill in which the entire slope can be seen

Ridgeline

Wetlands in which local lakes and streams feed the system withwater.

Composite wetland

Wetlands are fed mainly by streams.

Riparian wetlands

Wetlands fed by high water tables.

Groundwater wetlands

Wetlands are fed by runoff.

Surface wetlands

Sampling technique that allows specific areas to be chosen beforehand for samplingusing such items as aerial photographs. As long as no elements are excluded, this isa viable method of sampling.

Stratified sampling

A random sampling method using a systematic approach. For example, a sample can be taken at 15’ intervals off of a line, but the direction off the line at each interval and the distance from the interval is random.

Systematic sampling

Involves setting up individual quadrants throughout a property and everything within that quadrant be recorded.

Quadrant sampling

______ acres in a square mile

640

The average household takes ____ car trips per day.

13

A __________ is intended to analyze all of the information on a _______.The __________ will have detailed information about the vegetation, topographyand utilities located on a site.

1. Site Analysis


2. Site Inventory


3. Site Inventory

The maximum grade of a slope that is to be mowed is _______?

3:1

A ______ is one in which a single attribute or theme is expressed on a map.These types of maps can express anything from physical properties, social, culturalor economic qualities of the land in question. A common example of a thematic mapis a plant hardiness map of the United States. It shows one quality, plant hardiness,with different ranges throughout the entire country mapped by different colors andsuitability. Other examples include land use, elevation range and soil suitabilitymaps.

Thematic Map

Shows the same information as the functional diagram with two additional considerations. First, the functions/spaces should relate to the actual site conditions. Second, the functions/spaces should now be drawn keeping in mind their approximate size and scale.

Site-Related Functional Diagrams

A diagram that is the beginningpoint of the graphic development of a design .Whose purpose is toidentify the best and most appropriate relationshipsthat should exist between the maj or proposed functionsand spaces

Ideal Functional Diagram

a surveying traverse that fails to terminate where it began and therefore does not completely enclose a polygon

open traverse

a surveying traverse that terminates where it began and therefore completely encloses a polygon

closed traverse

The standard subdivisions of a section, such as a half section, quarter section, or quarter-quarter section.

Aliquot part

Movement of sand along a coastline due to wave and tidal action.

Littoral Drift


When a water-bearing rock that readily transmits water to wells and springs

aquifer

A well containing groundwater under positive pressure. The water level in the well rises to a point where hydrostatic equilibrium has been reached.

Artisan Well (aquifer)

A landscape formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum. It is characterized by underground drainage systems with sinkholes, dolines, and caves.

Karst topography

Moraine

Glaciated landscape

region of aeration above the water table

Vadose zone

The capability of soil to support the loads applied to the ground. Expressed in force per unit surface area.

Bearing capacity

Soil Horizons

O= hummus or organic matter


A= top soil


B= sub soil


C= parent material


D= bedrock

Soil Textures




1. Course Sand


2. Fine Sand


3. Silt


4. Clay



1. .5-2.0mm


2. .05-.5mm


3. .002-.05mm


4. < .002mm

_____ soils are associate with high rainfall vs _____ soils are associated with low rainfall.

Acidic vs Alkaline

0-7 ph

Acidic Soils



7-14 ph

Alkaline Soils

_____ can be added to soils to make it less acidic.

Lime

_____ can be added to soils to make it more acidic.

Aluminum sulfates and Sulfur

____ produce flood plan maps that contain topographical information. Produce 100 yr flood plain maps.

FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

Steep slope of cliff that results from erosion or faulting and separates two relatively level areas of differing elevations.

Escarpment

Moist air pushed up a ridge will condense and turn to rain which results in different monster regimes and vegetation types on either side of a ridge.



Orographic effects on precipitation (Rain shadow effect)

Poorly consolidated material deposited at the base of hills - generally highly erodible and has a poor bearing strength for structures

Alluvial fans

A city's maximum slope for public safety

Slope Ordinance

The density of light hitting the surface, amount of radiation per unit area

Incidence



Solar energy absorbed by a surface

Solar Heating or Solar Gain

The angle between the Sun's rays and an imaginary line perpendicular to the collector's surface. 0 means the Sun's rays are perpendicular to the surface.

Solar Incidence Angel

Ratio of total-reflected to incident electromagnetic radiation. Expressed between 0 - 1

Albedo


0 = low reflectivity


1 = high reflectivity

Plants that tolerate high salt soils

Halophytic

Plants that tolerate dry soils

Xerophytic

Plants that prefer moderately moist soils

Mesophytic

Plants that prefer wet soils

Hydrophytic

Important legal document governing the physical growth and change to a community.

General Plan (Comprehensive Plan)

Basic Characteristics of a General Plan

1. Physical Development


2. Longe range (5 years or more)


3. Comprehensive (entire city or county)


4. Statement of Policy (assess and describes community desires relating to land use)

Elements of a General Plan

1. Land Use Element


2. Circulation Element


3. Housing Element


4. Conservation Element


5. Open Space Element


6. Noise Element


7. Safety Element (from natural factors)

A regulatory tool to guide the development in a localized area - more detailed than a General Plan.

Specific Plan

The authority to collect revenues (bonds, fees, taxes and assessments) and to spend these monies to provide services and facilities.

Corporate Powers

The authority to regulate citizen behavior (including the use of private property) to promote health, safety and welfare of the public.

Police Power

Condition that needed services be in place or planned before a proposed development is approved.

Concurrency

Grants the right of a person, government agency, or public utility to use public or private land owned by another for a specific purpose.

Easement

An unauthorized invasion or intrusion of a fixture or other real property on another's property.

Encroachment

Ratio of the gross floor ratio of a building to the total area of the site.

Floor Area Ratio



A means to allow an applicant for a development permit to alleviate hardship that is inherent in a piece of land.

Variance

The process of determining the fitness or appropriateness of a given tract of land for a specific use.

Suitability Analysis

A previously undeveloped parcel currently in cropland, pasture, forrest, or natural state.

Greenfield

A previously developed parcel of land that has no history of environmental contamination or minimal contamination.

Greyfield

A previously developed parcel of land that has a history of environmental contamination that may complicate reuse.

Brownfield

ft in 1 mile

5,280 ft in a mile

ft in 1 acre

43,560 ft in an acre

Turning Radius




1. Passenger Car


2. Compact Passenger Car


3. Bus


4. Fire Truck


5. Trash Truck

1. 24'


2. 20'


3. 45-55'


4. 50'


5. 35'

A fertile and easily manageable soil generally consisting of 40% sand, 40% silt and 20% clay

Loam

Made of materials of all sizes (from boulders to clay) that accumulate at the bottom of steep slopes and cliffs without the help of streams.

Colluvial Soil

A fine-grained fertile soil deposited by water flowing over flood plains, in river beds or at the mouth of a river.

Alluvial Soils

The two most significant variables in influencing soil erosion are...

Slope length and slope gradient

The type of erosion characterized by numerous small channels only several inches deep and mainly on recently cultivated soils is...

Rill Erosion

The first stage of the erosion process. It occurs when raindrops hit bare soil.

Splash erosion

The uniform removal of soil in thin layers by the forces of raindrops and overland flow. It can be a very effective erosive process because it can cover large areas of sloping land and go unnoticed for quite some time.

Sheet erosion

According to the LARE Reference guide _______ does not have set back restrictions.

Flood Plans

The ultimate responsibility for securing all site permits belongs to...

The Owner

Minimum paved vehicular circulation setback from streets.

15'

Minimum paved vehicular circulation setback from property line.

10'



Minimum building setback from street right of way.

25'

Minimum building setback from property line

15'

Clear zone around active recreation fields.

30'

Site improvements such as structures andtheir appurtenances, roads and parkingshall be set back at least _____ fromany designated stream edge or other waterbody.

50'

Site improvements such as structures and their appurtenances, roads and parking shall be set back at least ______ from the edge of any designated wetland area.

100'

A blue or gray soil color suggests

Poor drainage and lack of good aeration.

Transfer of development rights can be used to protect

Historic Landmarks


Historic Districts


Agricultural Lands


Natural Resources

Announcement of a public meeting for zoning changes should include

Purpose of the meeting


Date, time, and location


Legal justification for the meeting

Wetland delineation is defined by changes in...

vegetative stucture

The placing of a small area of land in a different zone from that of neighboring property. For instance, because it serves a useful purpose to neighborhood residents, a park or school might be granted this zoning exception and be allowed in a strictly residential area.

Spot zoning

Capable of mixing residential andnonresidential land uses, providing broader housing choices, allowing more compact development,permanently preserving common open space, reducing vehicle trips, and providing pedestrian andbicycle facilities.

Planned Unit Development (PUD)

erosion, transportation, and sedimentation from rivers and streams

Fluvial

Erosion, transportation and deposition by winds

Eolian

Zone containing water

Vadose Zone

In order to change the use of a site from residential to commercial the owner must apply for a _______ from the town or city

Variance

When soil is moist and crushes easily from gentle pressure between the thumb and forefinger it is considered:

Friable

Used to establish the true property corners of a property and needed to obtain a building permit.

Boundary Survey

Test conducted to determine the maximum density of a soil for a project.

Proctor Test

The minimum distance between consecutive intersections with an arterial road should be:

125'

A document outlining the who, what, when and why of a project.

Project Plan

The ability of an object to reflect the sun's rays

Albedo

The angle the rays of the sun strike the earth's surface

Angle of Incidence

The angle of the sun north or south of an east-west line.

Azimuth

The point on a hill where the entire slope can be seen

The military crest

The use of plant material to filter out pollutants and providing drainage pipes only for overflow is called...

Bioretention