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118 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Acculturation
The process of adjusting and adapting to a new culture, usually when one is living in the new culutre, and oftern with the resultant creation of a new cultural identity
affect
emotion or feeling
affective domain
emotional issues and factors in human behaviour, often compared to the cognative domain
affective filter
a condition of low low anxiety and nondefensiveness that permits one to acquire a language
ambiguity intolerance
a style in which an individual is relatively ill-equipped to withstand or manage a high degree of uncertainty in a linguistic context, and as a result may demand more certainty and structure
ambiguity tolerance
a style in which an individual is relatively well suited to withstand or manage a high degree of uncertainty in a linguistic context.
Analyzed Knowledge
the general form in which we know most things with awareness of the structure of that knowledge (see explicit knowledge)
anomie
feelings of social uncertainty, dissatisfaction, or "homelessness" as individuals lose some of the bonds of a native culture but are not yet fully acculturated into the new culture
anxiety
the subjective feeling of tension, apprehension, and nervousness connectred to an arousal of the autonomic nervous system, and associated with feelings of uneasiness, frustration, self-dubt, apprehension, or worry
appeal to authority
a direct appeal for help from a more proficient user of the language
approach
a unified but broadly based theoretical position about the nature of language and of language learning and teaching that forms the basis of methodology in the language classroom
approximative system
learner language that emphasizes the successive approximation of learner's output to the target language
artifacts
in nonverbal communication, factors external to a person, such as clothing and ornamentation, and their effect on communication
assimilative orientation
learning a leanguage in order to form a long-term identity with the culture of a second language group, possibly at the expense of losing one's orginial cultural identity
attention getting
securing the attention of one's audience in a conversation
attention
the psychological process of focusing on certain stimuli to the exclusion of others
attitude
a set of personal feelings, opinions, or biases about races, cultures, ethnic groups, classes of people, and languages
attribution theory
how people explain the causes of their own sucesses and failures
attrition
the loss or forgetting of language skills
Audiolingual Method (ALM)
a language teaching method, popular in the 1950's that placed emphasis on oral production, pattern drills, and conditioning through repetition
audiotory learning style
the tendency to prefer listening to lectures and audiotapes as opposed to visual and/or kinesthetic processing
authentic
(refering to pronunciation) oral production judged by a speech community to be correct, native or native-like, and appropriate within the speech community
authenticity
a prinicple emphasizing real-world, meaningful language used for genuine communicative purposes
automatic processes
relatively permenant cognitive efforts, as opposed to contolled processes
autonomy
individual effort and action though which learners initiate language, problem solving, strategic action, and the generation of linguistic input
avoidance
(of a topic) in conversation, steering others away from an unwanted topic (of language form) a strategy that leads to refraining from producing a form that the speaker may not know, often through alternative form; as a stategy, opinions, intended to prevent the production of ill-formed utterances, classified into such categories as syntactic, lexical, phonological and topic avoidance
awarness
cognizance of linguistic, mental, or emotional factors through attention and focus; conscious attention
awareness-raising
usually, in foreign language classes, calling a learner's attention to linguisic factors that may not otherwise be noticed
backsliding
(in learner language)a phenomenon in which the learner seems to have grasped a rule or principle and then regresses to a previous stage
basic interpersonal communicative skils (BICS)
the communicative capacity that all humans acquire in order to be able to function in daily interpersonal exchanges; context-embedded performance
behavioural Science
a paradigm that studies the behaviour of organisms (including humans) by foucsing centrally on publicly observable responses that can be objectively and scientifically preceived, recorded, and measured
chaining
acquiring a chain of two or more stimulis-response connections
chaos/complexity theory
an approach to describing a phenomenon that emphasizes its dynamic, complex, nonliner, and unpredictable nature
clarification request
an elicitation of a reformulation or repetition from a student
classical conditioning
psychological learning paradigm associated with Pavlov, Thorndike, Watson and others which highlights the formation of associations between stimuli and responses that are strengthened through rewards
classical method
a language teaching method in which the focus is on grammatical rules, memorization of vocabulary and other language forms, translation of texts, and performing written exercises
code-switching
in bilinguals, the act of inserting words, phrases, or even longer stretches of one language into the other
cognitive constructivism
a branch of constructivism that emphasizes the importance of individual learners contructing their own representation of reality
cognitive pruning
the elimination of unnecessary clutter and a clearing of the way for more material to enter the cognitive field
cognitive psychology
a school of thought in which meaning, understanding, and knowing are significant data for psychological study, and in which ones seeks psychological priniciples of organization and mental and emotional functioning, as opposed to behavioural psychology, which focuses on overt, observable, empirically measurable behaviour
cognitive strategies
strategic options relating to specific learning tasks that involve direct manipulation of the learning material itself
cognitive style
the way a person learns material or solves problems
cognitive/academic language proficiency (CALP)
the dimension of proficiency in which a learner manipulates or reflects on the surface features of language in academic contexts, such as test-taking, writing, analyzing, and reading academic texts; context-reduced performance
collectivism
a culutral worldview that assumes the primacy of community, social groups, or organizations and places greater value on harmony within such than on one's individual desires, needs, or aspirations
communication strategies
strategic options relating to output, how one productively expresses meaning, and how one effectively delivers message messages to others (see learning strategies)
communicative competence (CC)
the cluster of abilites that enable humans to convey and interpret messages and to negotiate meanings interpresonally within specific contexts
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
an approach to language teaching methodology that emphasizes authenticity, interaction, student-centred learning, task-based activities, and communication for real-world, meaningful purposes
Community Language Learning (CLL)
language teaching method that emphasizes interpersonal relationships, inductive learning, and views the teacher as a "counselor"
compensatory strategies
strategic options designed to overcome self-perceived weaknesses, such as using prefabricated patterns, code-switching, and appeal to authority
competence
one's underlying knowledge of a system, event, or fact; the unobservable ability to perform language, but not to be confused with performance
Competition Model
the claim that when strictly formal (eg phonological, syntactic) options for interpreting meaing through appeal to the first language have been exhausted, second language learners naturally look for alternative "competing" possiblities to create meaning
comprehension
the process of receiving language; listening or reading; input
conditioned response
in behavioural learning theory, a response to a stimulus that is learned or elicited by an outside agent
connectionism
the belief that neurons in the brain are said to form multiple connections
constructivism
the integration of various paradigms with an emphasis on social interaction and the discovery , or construction, of meaning
context-embedded language
language forms and functions that are embedded in a set of schemata within which the learner can operate, as in meaningful conversations, real-life tasks ,and extensive reading (see basic interpersonal communicative skills)
context-reduced language
language forms and functions that lack a set of embedded schemata within which the learner can operate, as in traditional test items, isolated reading excerpts and repetition drills (see cognitive academic language proficiency)
Contastive Analysis Hypothesis (CAH)
the claim that the principle barrier to second language acquistion is first language interference, and that a scientific analysis of the two labguages in question enables the prediction of difficulties a learner will encounter
contrastive rhetoric
naturally occuring discourses, usually written, across different languages and cultures
controlled processes
capacity limited and temporary cognative efforts, as oppposed to automatic processes
conversation
interactive oral exchange involving two or more persons
corpus linguistics
an approach to lingusitic research that relies on computer analyses of a collection, or corpus, of texts-written, transcribed speech, or both-stored in electonic form and analysed with the help of computer software programs
corrective feedback
responses to a learner's output that attempt to repair or call attention to an error or mistake
covert error
an error that is grammatically well formed at the sentecne level but not interpretable within the context of communication; a discourse error
creative construction
the hypothesis, in child second language acquistion, that claims the rarity of L1 interference, the emergence of common acquistion orders, percetpion of systematic features of language, and the production of novel utterances
Critical Period Hypothesis
the claim that there is a biological timetable before which and after which language acquistion, both first and second, is more successfully accomplished
critical period
a biologically determined period of life when language can be acquired more easily and beyond which time language is increasingly difficult to acquire
Cross-linguistic Influence (CLI)
a concept that replaced the contrastive analysis hypothesis, recognizing the significance of the role of the first language in learning a second, but with emphasis on the facilitating and interfering effects both languages have on each other
Culture
the ideas, custion, skills, arts, and tools that characterize a given group of people in a given period of time
Culture Shock
in the process of acculturation, phenomena invloving mild irritability, depression, anger, or possiblly deep psychological crisis due to the foreignness of the new culutral milieu
Debilitative Anxiety
feelings of worry that are precieved as detrimental to one's self-efficacy or that hinder one's performance
Deductive Reasoning
moving from a generalization to specific instances in which subsumed facts are inferred from a general principle
Descriptive Adequacy
satisfying scientific or empirical prinicples for describing a phenomenon such as language
Direct Method
a language teaching method popular in the early twentieth century that emphasized direct target language use, oral communication skills, and inductive grammar, without recourse to translation from the first language
Discourse Analysis
the examination of the relationship between forms and functions of language beyond the sentence level
Discourse Competence
the ability to coneect sentences in stretches of discourse and to form a meaningful whole out of a series of utterances
Discourse
a language (either spoken or written) beyond the sentence level; rleationships and rules that govern the connection and interrelationship within communicative contexts
Domain (in error analysis)
the rank of linguistic unit (from phoneme to discourse) that must be taken as context in order for the error to become apparent
Egocentricity
characteric of very young children in which the world revoloves around them, and they see all events as focusing on themselves
Elicitation
a corrective technique that prompts the learner to self correct
Elicited Response
behaviour resulting from a proceding outside stimulus
Emergent Stage (of learner language)
one in which the learner grows in consistency in linguisitic production
Emergentism
a perspective that questions nativism and holds that the complexity of language, like any other human ability, emerges from relatively simple developmental processes being exposed to massive and complex environment
Emmitted Response
behaviour freely offered without the presence of an outside stimulus
Emotional Intelligence
AKA EQ
associated with Goleman, a mode of intelligence that places emotion, and/or management of emotions, at the seat of intellectual functioning
Empathy
"putting yourslef into someone else's shoes" reaching beyond the self to understnad what antoher person is thinking or feeling
English as a Foreign Language (EFL)
a generic term for English learned as a foreign language in a country context where English is not the language of business, education or government
English as a Second Language (ESL)
generic term for English learned as a foreign language within an English speaking country
English as an International Language (EIL)
Englsih as a "Lingia Franca" worldwide
English Only
a political movement in the United States arguing for a language policy that compels institutions to use English in ballots, education, regualtions... at the exclusion of other languages
Equilibration
progressive interior organization of knowledge in a stepwise fashion; mving from states of doubt and uncertainty (disequilibrium) to stages of resolution and certainty (equilibrium)
Error
an idiosyncrasy in the language of the learner that is a direct manifestation of a system within which a learner is operating at the time
Error Analysis
the study of learners' ill-formed production (spoken or written) in an effort to discover systematicity
Explanatory Adequacy
satisfying a principled basis, independant of any particular language, for the selctionof a descriptively appropriate grammar of a language
Explicit Correction
an indication to a student that a form is incorrect and providing a corrected form
Explicit Knowledge
information that a person knows about language, and usually, the ability to articulate that information
Explicit Learning
acquistion of lingusitic competence with conscious awareness of, or focal attention on, the forms of language, usually in the context of instruction
Error Analysis
the study of learners' ill-formed production (spoken or written) in an effort to discover systematicity
Explanatory Adequacy
satisfying a principled basis, independant of any particular language, for the selctionof a descriptively appropriate grammar of a language
Explicit Correction
an indication to a student that a form is incorrect and providing a corrected form
Explicit Knowledge
information that a person knows about language, and usually, the ability to articulate that information
Explicit Learning
acquistion of lingusitic competence with conscious awareness of, or focal attention on, the forms of language, usually in the context of instruction
Extent (in error analysis)
the rank of linguistic unit that would have to be deleted, replaced, supplied or reordered in order to repair the sentence
Extrinsic Motivation
choices made and effort expended on activities in anticipation of a reward from outside and beyond the self
Extroversion
the extent to which a person has a deep-seated need to recieve ego enhancement, self-esteem, and a sense of wholeness from other people as opposed to receiving that affirmation within oneself, as opposed to introversion
Eye Contact
nonverbal feature involving what one looks at and how one looks at another person in face to face communication
Facilitative Anxiety
"helpful" anxiety, euphoric tension, or beneficial effects of apprehension over a task to be accomplished
Field Dependence
the tendancy to be "dependent" on the total field so that parts embedded in the field are not easily preceived, although that total feild is preceived more clearly as a unified whole
Field Independence
ability to percieve a particular , relevant item or factor in a "field" of distracting items
Flow Theory
school of thought that highlights the improtance of an experiential state characterized by intense focus and involvement that leads to improved performance on a task
Fluency
the unfettered flow of language production or comprehension usually without focal attention on language forms
Focal Attention
giving central attention to a stimulus, as opposed to peripheral attention
Form-Focused Instruction (FFI)
any pedagogical effort used to draw a learner's attention to language form either implicitly or explicitly
Forms (of language
the "bits and pieces" of language, such as morphemes, words, grammar rules, discourse rules, and other organizational elements of language
Fossilization
the relatively permanent incorporation of incorrect linguistic forms into a person's second language competence; (AKA stabilization)
Framing
conceptualizing the universe around us with linguistic symbols that shape the way people think- through words, phrases, and other verbal associations
Frequency (of input)
number of occurances of a form, in either input or output, in a given amount of time
Functions (of language)
the meaningful, interactive purposes within a social (pragmatic) context, that we accomplish with forms of language