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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Language sample
important part of language assessment, used to make a repersentative portion of child's speech for analysis, spontaneous informal conv., on audio/videotape
consider obtain representitive sample
comfy setting, time to get used to conv. partener/familiar partner(parent), interesting/familiar material, age appropriate/culturally relevant, few direct?, listen carefully.
utterance
complete thought that is divided from other utterances by sentence boundaries, pauses and/ or a drop in voice.
What to note in transcription
lingu. behave child, ling behave of partner, nonling behave/context, all false starts, nonfluencies and fillers, use of phonetic trans for mispronounced/unintell. words, which utter are paritally intell/unintell.
Analysis at utterance level includes
MLU, Morphologic analyss, syntactic analysis, content, use, phonological analysis.
Syntactic analysis utterance level
For anlysis @ utterance level Noun pharse, verb phrase, sentence type, and embedding and conjoining.
Content utterance level
For analysis @ utterance level: lexical items, type token ratio, word relationships, semantic categories, figurative language, word finding
Use utterance level
For analysis @ utterance level distruptions and public speaking functions and intentions.
MLU
up to avg. 4 MLU considers useful measure of lang. complex. rules for assigning morephemes, diasgreement on MLU 50 v. 100 utterances , must be cont. conversation
MLU must not contain
More than 20% imitations, freq. self repetitions, more than 30-40% answers to question, memorized routines, losts of conjoined clauses, unintell. utterances
TTR
type token ratio, ratio of number of diff. words to number of words, # of words correlated w/ age and semantic diversity,
TTR low values
low values may indicate word retrieval probs or limit vocab. Below .42 use same words repeatedly.
Method of testing lang consider child
Child's age, starting point, may start 1 year below age, basal and ceiling
Basal
where the child starts for testing the point at which child has a seq of three items correct.
Ceiling
the top end of testing the point at which the child has a seq of seven items incorrect.
what to consider when assessing
environment, who's present, handling test, methos of presentation, givng cues to answers, break time, and culture sensitivity.
Raw score
not based on anything converted to a standard score, to a scale more widely used base on idea of a normal dist. # of items correct/omitted.
Results and interpretation-confidence bands
Confidence bands-indicate how confident you can be that the child's true score lies w/ the range of score reported
how to ID child w/ lang disorder
Criteria vary among schools, agencies and programs, some may be 1 SD below and other 1.5-2.0, need to look at all info including lang. sample
Why assess lang.
lang. prob?, weakness and strength in lang, id possible causes, make recommendations
When do assess lang
eval qualify child for srvc, differential assess, baseline data, eval of progress
Types language assessment
formal assessment/informal assessment
Formal assessment
standarized / non standardized test of lang.
informal assessment
lang. sampling, observe spontaneous lang. performance
consideration diagnostic process of lang. assess
area of concern, case history/interview, develop hypothesis/?s, plan diag, assessment, analyzing results, report and meet w/ family
Assessment of lang. ways
observation, formal testing, conversation lang. sampling
Plan diagnostic process
test, procedures, time
Psychometric testing/ standardized test important
Normed child tested, provide empirical observ of part. skills, use contrived test for lang, allow scored from diff child be compared, allow scares to be compared to what is expected for child at age.
Other type of test Non standardized
criterion reference tests, developmental scales/ordinal scales, checklists
what is Considered selecting a test
validity and reliabilty
validity
consider in select test: mesure what it claims to meausre content validity, face validity, criterion, construct validity
content validity
How well does the test cover a representitive sample of the skills to be assessed. How much learned in past?
face validity
How well test items represent what they claim to test.
criterion
How effectively a test predicts and individual's behave/abilities in specific situations. How well learn in future?/Special class?
construct validity
The degree to which the test measures a theoretical construct/trait. describe cognition.
Analyzing and interpreting data
Test scores, interpreting data
Test scores Analyzing and interpreting data
percentile scores, standard scores
Interpreting data Analyzing and interpreting data
limitations of standard test, using tests normed on other pop. meaing of scores v. test info.
Intervention
Direct, indirect, individual, group
consideration whether or not intervene
developmental v. non, disovering principles: rules and regularities, reducing lang. complexity, comp. v. prod. select lang. goals/outcomes make funct. child charac. and motivation
Intervention methods
milieu teaching, joint action routines, inductive teaching.
incidental teaching
child determines activity/ topic, activity last as long as child is interested, adult uses varitey of facilitation tech.
Mand Model
adlt directs child attn to object/act, requests response, child give response,adult reinforce and gives oject/allow activity to cont. Incorrect response-model target/elicit another way.
Milieu Teaching
method of intervention incidental, mand model, delay.
delay
part of milieu teaching:child wants oject out of reach, adult pauses 10-15 sec wait for app. response, adult provides model/other elicitation tech. if child does not respond, must use carefully to avoid frustration
Joint action routines
creat socially interactive events, focus on themes/topics, predictable lang./behave, child becomes familiar w/ routine focus more on lang. slow increase complexity of lang.
inductive teaching/constrastive drill
structure and adult centered, adult manipulates the interactions using many contrasing forms so child can induce ling rules, child asks to repeat/label
Strategies to enhance childs's lang. learning
adult input, slow, pause, simplfy speech, vary intonation, repeat, self talk, paralell talk, imitation, expansion
service delivery models
intervention in class, traditonal pull out model, consultative, collaborative, home based srvcs, hospital clinic.
Percentile scores
percent of individuals in the standard sample for an age level who scored below a perdetermined raw score
standard score
the actual correct and incorrect items
realiablity
the consistency of a test in measuring what it claims to meausre in the same ind. reexamination
test retest realiability
evaluate the reliability of a test by having the same child take the same test on two separate occasions within six months to compare results
alternate form reliability
evaluating the reliability of a test by having the child take two diff. forms of the same test.
Criterion ref. tests
Nonstandard test used to study a lang. construct in a more depth than is normally assoc. w/ stand. tests Provide know. about consist. of kids prob and context
Checklists
behaviors are arrange in develp. order and dependent on each other in hierarchy. Receptive Exmpressive, early comm. checklist, macarthur comm. develop inventory
Ordinal scales
focus on the presymbolic level the stage of comm. preceds use of gestures, words and actions.
Simple sentence
Bob and Sue went to the store. no transition words
compound sentence
Bob went to the store, and Sue went to the office.
complex sentence
These sentences use subordinators Because the problem proved difficult, they decided to form a committee. because, which, that, while, where
declarative
states an idea. It does not give a command or request, nor does it ask a question.
negative sentence
Not, no, never etc. within sentence.
interrogative
a question
passive sentence
The test will be completed by me.
object clause
I hope that you are ready. answering the questions "who(m)?" or "what?"
Adverbial clause
"where?", "why?", "with what goal/result?", and "under what conditions?". I went to school because I didn't want to go to work.
relative clause
answering questions like "which?" or "what kind of?" I saw the movie that you liked.
14 grammatical morphemes
-ing,possesive s, plural s, regular past, irregular past, reg. third person, irreg. third person, uncontract. copula, contract. copula, uncontract aux, contract aux,in, on, and articles
Early I sent.
MLU 1-1.5 agent+action, action+object, single no, rising intonation, single WH, naming
Late I sent.
1.5-2 sub+v.+obj., whatzat, use of and embedding in/on
EarlyII sent
2-2.25 sub+cop/cop+compliment (this is fun)
Late II sent
2.25-2.5 WH+S+V (where are my shoes?) begin of interog. reversal (where is it?)
Early III sent
2.5-2.75 S+aux+v+obj. He will go home, S+neg+v no throw ball, but, so, or, if
Late III sent
2.75-3 S+aux+cop+DO Mooma is getting the blanket, won't appears, Do, can appear in ?s. inv of sub and aux. Do you like it?
Early IV sent.
3-3.5 S+aux+neg+v (she is not going) Wh adding when how, because, embedding WH
Late IV sent
3.5-3.75 S+aux+aux+v+obj. Mom has been washing our clothes, isn't, aren't, doesn't didn't
V sent
3.75-4.5 S+aux+v+IO+DO dad is throwing ball to me, couldn't shouldn't
Post V sent
MLU 4.5> indefinite forms nobody, noone, nothing, none, neg questions
dialogic reading
asking "what" questions, asking open-ended questions, and expanding upon what the child says - which are designed to teach vocabulary and encourage children to tell more complete descriptions of what they see.
emergent literacy
children's oral language development and their initial, often unconventional attempts at reading (usually based on pictures) and writing (at first, scribbling) children's early unconventional attempts at reading and writing are beginnings of literacy.
Receptive Expressive Emeregent Lang. scale
checklist used to guide the interview of parent's about their child's sppec and lang. capabilities
Vineland social emotional early childhood sacle
clinician checks off behave id by primary caregiver as typical of child's comm behave.
symbolic play assess for preschoold children
play make belive to determine child's level of symbolic ability. for metalinguistic and paralinguistic develop.
early comm checklist
assist nurses to id early lang. issues
macarthur comm develop inventories
words and gestures/words and sentence 8-16 months/16-30 months.
ordianal scales of develop assesses
1visual pursuit and permanence of obj. 2means to an end, 3a vocal imitation, 3b gesture imitation, 4 operational causality,5 spatial relations, 6 schemes for relating to obj.
I morphemes
free morphemes 1-2
II morphemes
ing,in,on,plural s 2-2.5
III morphemes
2.5-3 irreg past, possessive s, uncontractible cop.
IV morphemes
3-3.75 articles, reg past, third person present singular
V morphemes
3.75-4.5 thrid person irreg,uncontract. aux verb, contract cop, contract aux.