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83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
structure of langauage morphology phonology syntax
Semenatics relationships
pragmatci closely intertwined one problem may ruslt in another.
Deficit in form
Ideas about tthe worl and ability to communicate are more advanced than linguistic abilities. Nonverbal or use phonology synatx and morphology that are not complex enough.
Form gramatical morphology
child may have difficulty with ed and plural and possesive
Word order form
usually correct somtimes children have difficulty with movement required in ?s
Form relationships between clauses
temporal/causative also relative clauses.
Deficit in content
child produces well artic, grammatically correct and socially approp. utter that don't make sense. Child does not have knowledge for meaningful conversation
Content affect
limited lexicon, inabilty to see others as more than one one. and overextensions.
Deficits in use
using language purposefully, varying content and form for diff situations, consideration of others, selecting, introducing, maintianing, and changing topics, using appropriate nonverbals, speech acts, ellipsis, revisions, narrative cohesion.
Speech acts
part of use: may not use a variety of speech function such as request, warn, thank argue, acknowledge. linguistically based communicative action spoken by person in social interactions
conversation device so don't have to repeat everything USE
Revisions conversational repair
segassaurus--what?--dinosaur w/ big spikes. USE
narrative cohesion
connecting one utterance w/ previous one. USE
deficit interaction between form, content, and use of language
may have some development in some areas but little/no connection between forms used and the content and meaning.
Characteristics in deficit of all three
speech may not be meaningful resulting in sterotypic speech: complete utterances and rhymes and songs w/o understanding relationship between wors and meaning.
Talking w/ no interaction between three
making up meaningless words/or using words that don't understand. well know words in wrong context. answer ? w/ off topic answers, do all the talking, break conversational rules.
combination of normal intelligence and language impairment falling more than 1.25 SD below the mean/ 10% below.
Breakdown in lang comp
sound waves--neural signal--auditory attn-auditory perception-auditory discrimination-auditory memory-decoding sound-word-sentence-meaning.
breakdown lang production
concept and seq of concepts-selection of syntax/lexicon/phonology-motor planning/artic-feedback--speech
Mild hearing loss
26-45 dBHL subtle expressive & receptive problems
Mod hearing loss
46-65 dBHL poor vocabulary, difficulty with morphological markers with high freq sounds, delay with functional words
Severe hearing loss
66-85 dBHL Variation in speech and language skills
profound hearing loss
85+ dBHL sp. & lang will not develop spontaneously. Canonical babbling may be late or not occur
Profound Loss Hearing Loss & Language
Overuse of nouns and verbs
Limited to simple sentence structure
Reduced no. of words
Pragmatics-may not follow social rules of turn-taking, maintaining conversation, & not able to repair communication breakdowns
Types of hearing loss
Conductive Loss:
Otitis media:
Acute otitis media:
Serous otitis media:
Otitis media
middle ear disease
Acute otitis media
inflammatory disease of the middle ear
Serous otitis media
chronic condition (OME-otitis media with effusion
Use of PE (equalization tubes)
aerate the middle ear
Impact depends on age of onset, length of episodes and number of bouts
May affect speech perception
Effect on language controversial
the score is an indication of the person’s potential.
The average IQ is by definition 100 Half of the population has IQ's of between 90 and 110.
Made up of the skills logical reasoning, problem solving, critical thinking, and adaptation.
Intelligence make up
logical reasoning, problem solving, critical thinking, and adaptation.
Verbal Scale
specific knowledge, vocabulary, expressive language and memory skills
Performance scale
visual-spatial abilities, fine motor coordination, perceptual skills, and in some
Logical reasoning
previous evidence to reach a conclusion
problem solving
going from a given state to desired goal: means to an end
critical thinking
mental process of evaluating and analyzing : taking knowledge/learned skills from one sit. and applying to another.
Info processing challenges for MR
Do not process info same way as matched typically developing peers in attn. discrimination, organization, transfer, and memory.
difficulty selecting stimuli to attend to especially auditory.
difficulty differentiating between sounds/sights
difficulty organizing info into categories
difficulty transferring info from one situation and applying to another
difficulty w/ auditory memory words, phrases, and grammatical units.
Mental retardation
Significant subaverage general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with related limitations in two or more of the following applicable adaptive areas: communication, self-care, home living, social skills, community use, self-direction, health and safety, functional academics, leisure and work”
Mild MR
52-68 90%
Moderate MR
36-51 6%
Severe MR
20-35 3.5%
Profound MR
19 or below 1.5%
Cause MR
Often unknown
Born with very small brain (microcephaly)
or brain that does not grow or fucntion correctly
Problem with Chromosomes Eg. Down syndrome
Mother malnourished
Brain damage before during or after birth
German measles in early pregnancy
Meningitis (brain infection)
Head injuries
Other causes: eg. Brain tumor, lead poisoning, pesticides, some forms of muscular dystrophy
Language MR
Language development follows a path similar to typical development but at a a slower pace. Some differences:
reliance on less mature
forms overuse of some forms
typical language, but extreme differences in social language
not all characteristics of autism, but my have MR or delay
may have mr or delay Affects 1 in 500 children.
Autism encompasses a broad range of brain disorders
80% of children with autism have mr
affects only girls
Autism spectrum disorders
Asperger's Syndrome
Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS)

Rett Syndrome (which affects only girls)

Charateristics Autism
may lack speech altogether or may be delayed in their acquisition and use of language
may repeat words (echolalia) in place of normal verbal communication
may recite entire lines of text from books, movies or computer games out of context for no apparent reason
may never develop gestures
may be no response when the person's name is called.
lack of response to verbal requests /impaired comprehension
Characteristics of autism

often confuse pronouns.
unable to interpret facial expressions or emotions.
fleeting eye contact, if any at all.
difficulty transitioning from one activity to another.
lack of interest in socially interactions
aloof or indifferent to other people.
lack of imaginative play
preference to engage in repetitive activities for extended periods of time such as rewinding videos, stacking blocks, or lining up toys
May find it difficult or impossible to hold a conversation or may compulsively steer the conversation to one subject.
Autism impairments
Autism Spectrum Disorders impair three main areas of human development: speech, communication, and social interaction. These impairments may range from mild to severe.
down syndrome
The most common chromosomal cause of intellectual disability-trisomy 21. Extra chromosome in each cell of the body (47 instead of 46)
Nondisjunction, translocation, mosaicism
1 in 600-800 births (all races affected)
Possible Features: mental retardation, heart disease, hypotonia, slant to eyes, short.
down syndrome language
*make fewer nonverbal requests before spoken language starts
*spoken language well below CA expectations, often more delayed than other developmental areas
*semantics: smaller no. of different words
*syntax: few syntactic devices, not able to use mental representations to coordinate ideas with the necessary syntax to express them
*likelihood of learning to read is low. Word recognition better than phonological awareness
Nondisjunction DS
pair of chromosome one of which did not divide 95%
chromosome 25 replace 15 4%
not every cell is effected-less severe.
Apgar score
measures color, heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability. 0-2 1 min and 5 min. after birth max score-10
Color apgar
0-blue pale, 1-extremities blue, body pink, 2-pink
Heart rate apgar
0-absent, 1-below 100 2-over 100
respiratory effort
0-absent 1-weak irregular, 2-good, crying
muscle tone
0-limp, 1-some flexion of extremities, 2-acitve motion
reflex irritability
0-none, 1-grimace, 2-cough/sneeze
Genie language
isolated from language til 13, not capable of speech, withing normal range IQ, normal one and two word stages, never fully acquired language, little activity on left side.
Speech acts
Label, call, greet,acknowledge, interrupt, agree, comment, deny, exclaim, question, answer yes/no, repeat, protest, refuse, request.
abuse/neglect stats
80%of abused or maltreated infants show attachment disorder symptoms
52% adoptable children have attachment disorder symptoms
Can impact their use of language within relationships
developmental lag
effect of abuse/neglect: difference between actual behavior, thoughts & feelings of a child and those predicted by his or her real age. May be“stuck’’ at a certain age in one or more areas Eg: 7 year old reading and writing but emotionally like a 4 year old
Freq/types of abuse
60% Neglect (half failure to provide and half failure to supervise)
10% physical abuse
8% sexual abuse
14% emotional, educational, moral/legal abuse
8% other-mental health, domestic violence
reactive attachement disorder
speech and language delay often will go and talk to anyone
abused/neglected obritofrontal cortex
Underdevelopment of orbitofrontal cortex:
lack of cause-effect thinking inability to accurately recognize emotions in others/lack of empathy inability to articulate own emotions lack of conscience
poor sense of self
abused/neglected brain
Poorly integrated cerebral hemisphere-smaller corpus callosum emotion regulation, integrated functioning, and social development Toxic effects of stress hormones (neuroendocrine) on the developing brain-permanent damage to hippocampus (critical for memory)
FAS development
Lower verbal comprehension and spoken language skills found in 84 children at 13 mths of age-mothers drank average .24 ounces of absolute alcohol per day (about half a drink)
Looked at amount of prenatal alcohol exposure-related to
identifying letters when not yet reading
processing what they read
FAS brain
Reductions in area of corpus callosum
Reductions in size of basal ganglia
Some areas of cerebellum reduced in size
FAS language
Younger children –global language deficits-expressive & receptive semantic & syntactic difficulties
Older children: syntactic deficits Poorer ability storing linguistic elements in short term memory
Difficulty with comprehension of single words
Fewer grammatically correct and complete sentences
Difficulty comprehending verbal commands
Brains SLI
reduced cerebral volume, atypical cerebral asymmetrey, white matter lesions vent. enlargement, thicker corpus collosm.
Pure language delay
child will eventually master lang. 100% takes longer than typical child.
Delay w/ plateau
acquires lang. late does not cont. to improve/make progress for awhile then stops.