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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Na Range
(ECF cation)
136-145 mEq/L
Causes of Hypernatremia
dehydration
aldosteronism
DI
(some type of water loss)
Causes of Hyponatremia
SIADH
thiazides
carbamazepine
burn patient
vomiting/diarrhea
K Range
(ICF cation)
3.5-5 mEq/L
Causes of Hyperkalemia
renal failure
acidosis (AG)
RBC transfusions
uncontrolled DM
ACE-I
Results of Hyperkalemia
cardiac arrythmias
Causes of Hypokalemia
vomiting/diarrhea
primary aldosteronism
diuretics
insulin/glucose infusion
alkylosis
Results of Hypokalemia
increased effects of digitalis
Cl Range
(ECF anion)
95-105 mEq/L
Causes of Hyperchloric
dehydration
hyperventilation
metabolic acidosis
Causes of Hyperchloric
vomiting
gastric suction
heat exhaustion
DKA
metaboic alkylosis
Results of Hypercholric
more prone to infections
CO2 (Carbon Dioxide/Bicarbonate) Range
20-25 mEq/L
Causes of Elevated CO2
severe vomiting
emphysema
aldosteronism
Causesof Decreased CO2
acute renal failure
DKA
hyperventilation
Anion Gap (AG)
AG = Na - HCO3 - Cl
BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) Range
8-18 mg/dL
Causes of Elevated BUN
kidney disease or urinary obstruction - cannot be excreted
GI obstruction
dehydration
Causes of Decreased BUN
end stage liver disease - cannot break down proteins
over hydration
impaired protein absorption
SCr (Serum Creatinine) Range
0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Lab Test of SCr effected by:
ascorbic acid
cimetidine
methyldopa
Causes of Elevated SCr
renally toxic drugs
Glucose Range
70-110 mg/dL
Ca Range
8.5-10.8 mg/dL
Causes of Hypercalcemia
hyperparathyroidism
neoplasm (cancer)
Addison's disease
thazides
Causes of Hypocalcemia
hyperphosphotemia
alkalosis
laxative abuse
furosemide
ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase) Range
3-30 units/L
Causes of Elevated ALT
(3-4x baseline is significant)
hepatocellular disease
active cirrhosis
biliary obstruction
AST (Asparate Aminotransferase) Range
8-42 units/L
Causes of Elevated AST
MI
liver disease
acute hemolytic anemia (not chronic)
Drugs that may affect AST Assay
levodopa
tolbutamide
erythromycin
Alk Phos (Alkaline Phosphatase) Range
30-120 units/L
Causes of Elevated Alk Phos
metastatic bone disease
osteomalacia
poor bone formation
obstructive jaundice
liver lesions
Paget's disease
Causes of Decreaed Alk Phos
malnutrition
hypothyroidism
hypophosphotemia
Bilirubin Range
0.3-1 mg/dL
Causes of Elevated Indirect or Unconjugated Bilirubin
liver disease
liver blockage
Causes of Elevated Direct or Conjugated Bilirubin
increased RBC destruction
Causes of Elevated GGT
cholecystitis
cirrhosis
biliary obstruction
Causes of Elevated LD
MI
skeletal muscle necrosis
PE
megablastic anemia
severe dehydration or malnutrition
physical trauma/infection
ischemia
WBC Range
3.2-9.8 x 10^3/mm^3 (or 10^9/L)
WBC Differential ("Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas")
neutrophils>lymphocytes>
monocyts>eosinophils>
basophils
Granulocytes
neutrophils (bands, segs)
eosinophils
basophils
Agranular Cells (Lymphoid Cells)
lymphocytes (B & T cells)
monocytes
Neutrophils
increase with bacterial and fungal infections but NOT with viral infections; phagocytoize -> pus
Lymphocytes
fight bacterial, fungal, viral, protozoa infections
B Lymphocytes
(Humoral Immunity)
secrete antibodies that recognize antigens to form complexes that are later phagocytoized
T Lymphocytes
(Cell Mediated Immunity)
Tc (cytotoxic)
Th (helpers)
Ts (suppressors)
Tc (cytotoxic) cells
keep antibodies on cell membrane and recognize infected host cells to cause cell lysis
Th (helper) cells
activate B cells and Tc (cytotoxic) cells
Ts (suppressor) cells
help reduce the intensity of the immune response
Natural Killer (NK) Cells
kill viruses, bacteria, and neoplastic cells
Monocytes
precursors to macrophages that phagocytoize and secrete immune substances such as interleukins and interferon; help fight viral and fungal infections
Eosinophils
responsible for hypersensitivity reactions and in attacking parasites
Basophils
primarily secrete substances (i.e. histamine) that mediate hypersensitivity reactions
Hct
males 39-49%
females 33-43%
Hgb Range
males 14-18 g/dL
females 11.5-16.5 d/dL
RBC Counts
males 4.3-5.9 X 10^6/mm^3
females 3.5-5 x 10^6/mm^3
Causes of Decreased RBC Count
systemic lupus erythamatosus
anemia
Causes of Eleveated RBC Count
high altitude
dehydration
burns
polycythemia
Reticulocyte Count
0.1-2.4%
Causes for Elevated Reticulocyte Count
RBC production accelerated
Causes for Decreased Reticulocyte Count
bone marrow suppression
renal failure due to lack of erythropoietin
Platelet Count
14-440 X 10^3/mm^3
Causes of Decreased Platelet Count
disease or drug induced (heparin, linezolid)
idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP)
Causes of Elevated Platelet Count
asplenetic
intra-abdominal damage to the spleen
Urine Protein Range
30-130 mg/day
Urine Dipstick for Proteins
0: <30mg
1+: 30-100mg
2+: 100-300mg
3+: 300-1000mg
4+: > 1000mg
Gram Stain
gram (+): red
gram (-): purple
CK (Creatinine Kinase) Range
0-150 units/L
CK-MB (mycocardium)
>5% indicates MI
rises 4-8 hours post MI
peaks 12-24 hours post MI
remains 72 hours post MI
Troponin I - Cardiac Cells Only
rises 2-4 hours post MI
peaks 24-36 hours post MI
remains 10-14 days post MI
> sensitive/specific for MI
>1 = MI
LD Range
100-190 units/L