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34 Cards in this Set

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Hemoglobin A1C
(Hgb A1C)
2.2-4.8% Nondiabetic adult
2.5-5.9% Good diabetic control
6.8-8.0% Fair diabetic control
>8.0% Poor diabetic control
amount of Hgb glycosylation, a weighted average of glucose levels over the last 3 months, which indicates diabetes control.
Fasting Blood Sugar
70-110 mg/dL
measures glucose content in blood after fasting at least 4hrs
Digoxin Levels
0.8-2.0 ng/mL
measures blood level of the cardiac glycoside Digoxin (Lanoxin) used to treat heart failure and tachycardia
Phenytoin Level
10-20 micrograms/mL
measures blood concentration of the anti-seizure medication Phenytoin (Dilantin)
Urinalysis
pH
4.6 – 8.0
measures acidity or alkalinity
Urinalysis
Specific gravity
1.010 - 1.030
measures how concentrated the urine is relative to the density of water
Urinalysis
Protein
Negative
measures amount of protein in urine
Urinalysis
Sugar
Negative
measures amount of sugar in urine
Urinalysis
Ketones
Negative
measures presence of ketone bodies which are end products of fatty acid metabolism.
Urinalysis
Nitrites
Negative
detects conversion of nitrate to nitrite by bacteria. May indicate presence of bacteria in urine.
Urinalysis
Leukocyte Esterase (LE)
Negative
detects enzyme found in granulocytes, histiocytes, and Trichomonas
Red Blood Cell Count (RBC)
men 4.7-6.1 million/micrograms/L
women 4.2-5.4 million/micrograms/L
measures the number of RBC’s /mm3 blood
Hematocrit (hct, pcv, crit)
men 42-52%
women 37-47%
measures the percentage of RBC’s in the plasma
*If RBC and Hgb are normal, the Hct is about 3 times the Hgb
Hemoglobin (hgb)
men 14-18 g/dL
women 12-16 g/dL
measures the amount of hgb in the RBC’s
Aspartate Aminotransferase
(Serum Glutamic-oxaloacetic Transaminase)
(AST) or (SGOT)
0-35 micrograms/L
measures an enzyme found in heart, liver and muscle tissue
It is the highest in the liver
Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK) or (CK)
Total CK:
men 55-170 micrograms/L
women 30-135 micrograms/L

isoenzymes:
MM(CKIII) 100%
MB(CKII) 0%
BB(CKI) 0%
measures enzyme that converts creatine to creatinine. Muscle tissue is rich in CK. 3 isoenzymes
CK-I (BB)-produced in brain and smooth muscle
CK-II(MB)-produced by heart tissue
CK-III(MM)-produced by muscle tissue
Cardiac Troponins T and I
T < 0.2 ng/mL
I < 0.3 ng/mL
specific indication of cardiac muscle injury
Lactic Dehydrogenase LDH
total LDH 100-190 micrograms/L
enzyme formed in the heart, liver, muscles, and RBC’s as well as other organs & isoenzymes
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
10 - 20 mg/dL
measures amount of urea nitrogen in blood. Urea is a waste product of protein metabolism formed by liver and excreted by kidneys
Serum Creatinine
men 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
women 0.5-1.1 mg/dL
waste product of creatine phosphate, a high energy compound found in skeletal muscle.
Serum Sodium
135-145 mEq/L
measures sodium content in serum. Na+ is primary factor in maintaining osmotic pressure of ECF. Results must be evaluated relative to hydration status.
Serum Potassium
3.5-5.0 mEq/L
measures potassium content in serum. K+ is essential for normal cardiac and neuro- muscular function.
Serum Chloride
95-105 mEq/L
measures Cl- content in serum. Cl- level usually reflects Na+ level in serum.
Serum Calcium
total Ca++ 8.5-10.5 mg/dL

ionized 4.5-5.5 mg/dL
measures Ca++content in the serum. Total Ca++ or ionized (active)Ca++ can be measured. Ca++ levels should be interpreted relative to albumin levels
*Roughly ½ of Ca++ is bound to albumin. If serum albumin level drops 1g the total Ca++ drops 0.8 mg but ionized Ca remains unchanged.
Serum Phosphorous or Phosphates
2.8-0-4.5 mg/dL or
1.8-2.6 mEq/L
measures amount of P in serum. An inverse relationship exists with serum Ca++
Serum Magnesium
1.5-2.5 mEq/L
measures the serum concentration of Mg++
Prothrombin Time
(PT)
maybe reported as
1) time in seconds it takes blood to clot. (compare to control) 11.0-12.5 sec
PT should be:
1.5-2 x control if anticoagulation is well controlled.
2) % of normal activity (compared to control) 85-100%
3) International normalized ratio (INR)
INR should be:
2.0-3.5 if anticoagulation is well controlled.
measures the level of prothrombin and other clotting factors that are made in liver and are vitamin K dependent. Used to measure effectiveness of coumarin type anticoagulant drugs.
Partial Thromboplastin time
PTT
PTT is reported as seconds it takes for blood to clot. If chemicals are added to accelerate clotting time the value is called an activated PTT (APTT)
normal APTT 30-40 sec.
normal PTT 60-70 sec.
PTT should be
1.5-2.5 x control if anticoagulation is well controlled.
demonstrates lack of any of intrinsic clotting factors except factor 7. Also used to monitor heparin anticoagulant therapy.
Platelet Count
150,000-400,000/mm3
measures quantity of platelets per cubic millimeter of blood. Platelets are formed in bone marrow and function in blood coagulation. They are removed from blood by the spleen.
White Blood Cell Count (WBC)
5000-10,000/micrograms/L
measures the total WBC’s per cubic millimeter of blood.
Total Lymphocyte Count
1800-3000 calculated from WBC
one component of the WBC differential
Serum Cholesterol (total)
<200 mg/dL
Borderline high 200-239 mg/dL
High > 240 mg/dL
measures the amount of cholesterol in serum. Cholesterol is essential for production of bile and steroids. It is a component of cell membranes. Excess cholesterol contributes to Atherosclerosis and CV Disease
Cholesterol is made by the liver.
Serum Triglycerides
men 40-160 mg/dL
women 35-135 mg/dL
Most abundant fats in serum. They come from animal fat and vegetable oils
Serum Albumin
3.5-5 g/dL

* pre-albumin: 15-36 mg/dL
measures amount of this plasma protein in the serum. Albumin is essential to maintain oncotic pressure of vascular system. It binds many drugs/hormones and serves as an acid-base buffer.