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85 Cards in this Set

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Autoclave
device that sterilizes by super-heated steam under pressure
Blood Chemistry Analyzer
used to analyze blood chemistry levels and its components (i.e. BUN, GLU, Na)
Centrifuge
A machine that separates the lighter portions of a solution, mixture, or suspension from the heavier portions by centrifugal force
Latex Gloves
Wear when handling tissues or substances with zoonotic potential; when dealing with any chemicals; for any messy procedures
Laryngoscope
Used to aid in examining the throat and larynx (oropharyngeal) and often used during endotracheal intubation
Microscope
instrument for examining minute objects
Nail Trimmers
3 types: Resco- similar to a guillotine; Whites- scissor like body with curved tips; Forge- a heavy duty trimmer with a hedge clipper look.
Otoscope
Used to examine the ear and other openings i.e. examine inner nostrils for foxtails or used during an urethrocatheterization to find the proper location within the vaginal opening. Ten hours charging provides 60 min continuous use.
Ophthalmoscope
Used to examine the eye, from the outside to the inside
Refractometer
Used to measure the total protein (total solids) of blood and used to measure the specific gravity of urine.
Stethoscope
Used to listen to the heart and lungs and the gut in some animals.
Thermometer
An instrument for ascertaining temperatures.
Asostix Test
A test for the kidneys that measures BUN (blood urea nitrogen)
Blood Glucose Test
A method of determining blood sugar levels commonly used with diabetic animals
Culturette
A collection meduim to obtain samples of substances and organisms for growth, isolation, and study
Direct Smear
A method of fecal examination to see parasites that the fecal floatation are not able to pick up
Fecal Loop
An instrument used to collect feces directly from an animal's rectum or from defecated material
Fecal Flotation
A method of fecal examination, includes a Fecalizer for collection and performing the floatation and a fecal floatation solution. Used to float the eggs of parasites to the top of the solution onto a cover slip and read on the microscope
FeLV Test
The test that detects feline leukemia virus. 3 common types: Snap test, cite test, and assure test (all test for antibodies)
FeLV/FIV Combo Test
A test that detects both the feline leukemia virus and the feline immunodeficiency virus. Snap test or cite test
Heartworm Test
The test that detects the heartworm microfilaria. 2 types: Difil test and Snap test
Microhematocrit (Capillary) Tubes
Small, hollow, glass cylinders coated with or without anticoagulant. Used to measure PCV, TP and clotting time. PCV and TP help the veterinarian determine a variety of conditions including anemia, dehydration, and inflammation
IDEXX Lab Service
Located in Sacramento and San Jose, this lab service comes and picks up blood and other specimens for testing
Inoculation Loop
A looped wire with a handle used to introduce microorganisms and material to a medium that will promote the growth for isolation and study
Parvo Test
A test for canine parvovirus. Also comes as a cite test
Urine Dipstick (Reagent Strip)
A paper strip with a series of chemically impregnated pads activated by enzymes, used to determine the constituents of the urine and to measure blood, pH, proteins, glucose, and more
Dog Venipuncture Sites
Jugular, cephalic, and lateral saphenous
Cat Venipuncture Sites
Jugular, medial saphenous (femoral), and cephalic
Bird Venipuncture Sites
Right jugular, medial metatarsal, and basilic or ulnar (wing)
Horse Venipuncture Sites
Jugular
Cattle Venipuncture Sites
Jugular and coccygeal
Red Top Tube (RTT)
Nothing in the tube, used for tests that require serum (fluid without the clotting factors)
Serum Separator Tube (SST or Tiger Top)
Has a gel or wax plug at the base of the tube that separates the serum from the clotted cells when spun in a centrifuge
Lavender Top Tube (LTT)
Contains the anticoagulant EDTA (ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid), used for most hematology test in mammals
Blue Top Tube (BTT)
Contains the anticoagulant Sodium Citrate, used for performing clotting test
Green Top Tube (GTT)
Contains the anticoagulant Sodium Heparin, used for a variety of test requiring whole blood including blood gases, avian/reptilian hematology, and certain types of assays
Gray Top Tube (GRTT)
Contains the anticoagulant Sodium Fluoride which prevents the RBC's from using up the glucose in the sample prior to processing, used for measuring blood glucose levels
Packed Cell Volume (PCV)
A measure of the percentage of red blood cells present in the blood. Normal PCV's: dog (37-55%); cat (24-55%); horse (32-52%)
Red-Tipped Microhematocrit Tube
Contains the anticoagulant Heparin, plasma will be present in the tube when spun down
Plain or Blue-Tipped Microhematocrit Tube
Contains nothing, serum will be present in the tube afer it is spun down
Microhematocrit Centrifuge
Packs the cells in a small blood sample (microhematocrit tubes) to provide a PCV, assessment of lipemia, hemolysis, jaundice, and leukocytosis
Angled-Head Centrifuge
separates particles then makes them migrate to the bottom of the tube forming a pellet
1 Tbsp =
3 tsp = 15 ml
1 oz =
30 ml = 30 g
1 cup =
8 oz = 240 ml
1 kg =
1000 g = 2.2 lbs
1 g =
1000 mg = 1 ml = 1 cc
16 gauge needle
White, used for transfering large amounts of fluids
18 gauge needle
Green, used for subcutaneous fluids and blood draws in large animals
20 gauge needle
Pink, used for large volumes of blood collection and subcutaneous fluids in smaller animals
22 gauge needle
Blue, used for blood collection and most injections/vaccines
25 gauge needle
Red, used for injections in small animals and small volumes of blood collection
27 gauge needle
Yellow, used for injections on neonates, avian, and exotics
14 gauge needle
Gray
Syringe Tips
Standard/Regular/Slip Tip, Feeding Tip, Curved/Infusion Tip, Catheter Tip, Eccentric Tip, Attached Needle
1/2 cc syringe
Used for avian/exotics, insulin, and allergy injections
1 cc syringe
Used for avian/exotics, insulin, allergy injections, small dose vials, small volume blood draws
3 cc syringe
Used for vaccines, injections, blood collection
5 or 6 cc syringe
Used for large volume/large animal blood collection
10 or 12 cc syringe
Used for large dose drugs especially large animals, fluids, oral meds
20 or 35 cc syringe
Used for blood collection for blood transfusion, force feeding, fluids in small animals
60 cc syringe
Used for force feeding
Mice Restraint/Handling
Grasp tail two-thirds of the way down and lift. The mouse may be held by the tail and placed on a table and the loose skin over the neck and shoulders should be grasped with the thumb and fingers.
Rats Restraint/Handling
Lifted by grasping the whole body by placing the palm over the back and side with forefinger behind the head and the thumb and second finger extending the forelimbs for control
Guinea Pig Handling/Restraint
Held by placing the thumb and forefinger around the neck with the palm over the back under the abdomen and the other fingers grasping the body. When lifting the other hand should be used to support the lower part of the body
Rabbits Handling/Restraint
Grasping the loose skin over the shoulder with the head directed away for initial restraint. When lifting, the lower part of the body must be supported by the other hand. When carrying short distances grasp neck skin with one hand and support rear quarters with the other. For long distances hold on forearm with head under elbow and support hind quarters with other hand. Press rabbits to table when handling on tables, use a cat bag or towel for exam and restraint. Return to their cage hindquarters first
Chinchillas Handling/Restraint
Do not scruff due to "fur slip". Gently pick up like a cat and cradle in arms
Hamster Handling/Restraint
Approach gently and cautiously. Both hands may be cupped under the animal to hold in the palms. For one handed pick-up, grasp the loose skin over the neck and shoulder.
Ferret Handling/Restraint
Minimal restraint is best using distaction techniques like feeding Nutrical or Laxatone. Can use neck scruff with feet dangling for injections. Restrain by holding around the hips not the feet
Hedgehog Handling/Restraint
If rolled up exposing spines use patience, gently stroke, place in shallow tub of water, or use a hair dryer on "low" setting. Wear light leather or exam gloves.
Peripheral Lymph Nodes
Submadibular, Prescalpular, Axillary, Inguinal, Popliteal
Basic Lab Safety
Know the location of safety equipment; Wear eye protection; Wear proper uniform; Know how to use gloves; Beware of fires; Keep work areas clean; Label all materials; Don't eat or drink in the lab; Be aware of sensitivity to chemicals; Wash hands at the end of lab
Hazard Types
Corrosive, Toxic, Flammable, Oxidizer, Irritant, Carcinogens, Lachrymator, Teratogenen
Corrosive
A chemical that causes visible destruction of, or irreversible alterations in, living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact
Toxic
Also termed poisonous, any substance that has the ability to kill or damage living organisms, especially in small doses
Flammable
A substance whose vapors can ignite at a temperature below 100 F or a substance that is easily set on fire and will burn readily
Oxidizer
A substance that is highly reactive, or readily releases oxygen, and often generates enough heat to produce spontaneous fires, violent reactions, or explosions. Especially reactive with organic chemicals.
Irritant
A chemical which in not corrosive that causes a reversible inflammatory effect on living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact
Carcinogens
A substance capable of causing cancer with repeated or prolonged exposure
Lachrymator
A substance capable of causing tears
Teratogens
An agent or process that interferes with the normal development of the embryo or fetus
Gram Stain Procedure
Cover smear with crystal violet solution, wait 30 seconds, gently rinse with water. Cover with Iodine solution, wait 30 seconds, wash off with alcohol, gently rinse with water. Cover with Safronin solution, wait 30 seconds, rinse with water and blot dry.
Semimembranosus/semitendinosus Injection
Be aware of the location of the sciatic nerve, feel for the femur. Insert needle on the lateral aspect of the thigh, caudal to the thigh bone and direct caudally to avoid touching the sciatic nerve.
Lumbar Injection
Use your thumb and two fingers to make a triangle and insert the needle into the center- the boundaries are the front of the pelvis, the back bone, and the lateral border of the back muscle.
Gluteal Injection
Use your thumb and two fingers to make a triangle and insert needle into the center- the boundaries are the front of the pelvis, the back of the pelvis, and the backbone