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64 Cards in this Set

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a human starts with one cell, the zygote. the zygote results from the fusion of the sperm & egg. an adult human has 50 trillion cells. the process of going from one cell to many cells requires cell divison.
the divison of the nucleus into 2 identical nuclei
prokaryotic cells divide using different process called?
binary fission
chromosomes are linear structures of DNA. when the chromosomes enter mitosis, they have already been duplicated and you have 2 starnd joined in the middle. the starnds are called_________, and the region they are joined is called the _____
sister chromatids

the cell cycle consiste of 5 parts
growth phase 1, this is the most of the life of a cell
this is where the DNA is replicated
this is the second growth stage, the DNA has already replicated
cytokinesis- cell divides
g1,s,&g2 are called...most of a cells life is spent here
mitosis has 4 phases
a. when the DNA starts becomes visiable under the light microscope, prophase has begun
b. nuclear membrane disintegrates
c. nucleolus disappears
d. chromosomes finish condensing
e. mitotic spindle begins to form
f. spindle attaches to kinetochores
a. chromosomes are aligned along this plate
b. this phase plate is basically the equator of the cell
a. microtubules start shorten, this action pull the sister chromartids apart
b. the chromosomes start to move towards the poles of the cell bia the shortening of the microtubules
a.chromosomes reach the poles of the cell
b. kinetochores disappear
c. nuclear membrane forms around DNA
d. nucleous reappears
e. DNA stats to unpack
f. cytokinesis begins
cytokinesis happens in 2 ways
cleavage furrows

cell plate
in animals the cell starts to pinch in half(cytokinesis)
cleavage furrows
plant cells cannot pinch in half because of the cell wall, instead a plate forms bw the new daughter cells(cytokinesis)
cell plate
tissues are collections of cells, but they also have an extracellular component. the non-cellular component of a tissue is called? and ex would be cartilage, you have cells and a ____ that surrounds the cells
veterbrates tissues fall into 4 catefories
connective tissue(bone,blood,cartilage)
muscle tissue
nervous tissue
these tissues from sheets covering the outer surfaces or lining inner surfaces of organs. some ____cells make up gland used for secretion
epithelial tissue (skin)
these tissues bind nody parts together, form protective barriers, protect aginst infection, support the body, and store certain chem icals
connective tissues(bone, blood, cartilage, and others)
these tissues are responsible for producing movement. some can be controlled voluntarily and someare control involuntary
muscle tissue
these tissues send, conduct, and recieve electrical impulses. this allows diff parts of the body to communicate involuntary
nervous tissue
studying animal tissues
cell shape
cell location
cell arrangement
cell shape
square, round, flat, tall, elongate
cell location
are cells next to an open surface or completely surrounded by cells
cell arrangement
cells in one layer, multiple layers? aligned in one direction? randomly arranged?
does the matrix have fibers or is it amorphous?
do the fibers line up or are they randomly?
hese cells make up our up puter coverings and inner linings. these cells will be exposed to a free surfac; there should be a clear area on the slide
the epithelial tisues
basic shapes
flattened cells
same height and width, not always cube shaped
there are epithelia hat can stretch, depend on how stretched they are these tissues can appear flat or cuboidal. urinary bladder epithelium is an example.
this is the tissue that the epithelial cells rest on
basement membrane
epithelial cell arrangements
a single layer of epithelial cells, all cells touch the basement membrane
more then one layer of cells, only the lowest layer touches the baement membrane
these cells resemble stratified, but the cell are of diff heights and all the cell touch the bsement membrane, this is still a simple epithelium
these cells form a single flat layer of cells. forms outer coating of many internal organs
simple squamous epithelium
at a high power you can se a single layer of flattened epithelial cells on a slide labled?
visceral peritoneum
these cells form a single layer of cells that are as tall as they are wide, (not always perfectly square)
simple cuboidal epithelium
(slide marked kidney or simple cubodial epithelium)
these cells for a single layer, the cells are much taller than wide like columns
simple columnar epithelium
in the lumen of the small intstine, there are fingerlike projections called____
each____is covered with a simple columnar epithelium

(slide marked goblet cell epithelium or small intestine)
looks like stratified, but all cells touch the basement membrane. cells have cilia on exposed side
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
(slide marked trachea& ciliated columnar epithelium)
multiple layers of flattened cells, owest cells are more cubodial but uppermost layers are def flattened. skin cells and cheek cells are ex of this.
stratified squamos epithelium
(look at slide labled stratified squamos epithelium)
slide labeled urinary bladder or ureter. try and decide if the cells are relaxed or extended
transitional epithelium
there are 3 major muscle tissue in the body
a. attached to the skeleton
b. has reg cross situations
c. under voluntary control
d. fibers are of equal diameter, and not branced
e. generally lined up in one direction
skeletal muscle
(pg 90 fig a&c)
a. this surroundsorgans, also called visceral muscle
b. involuntary control
c. long spindle shaped fibers
d. no striations
smooth muscle
(pg91 fig a&b)
a. muscle tisue found in the heart only
b. branched striated muscles
c. fibers vary in diameter
d. intercalated disks bw fibers
cardiac muscle
pg 91 fig c)
nervous tissues is made of nerve cells called
most neurons have several projections coming out of them called
dendrite(recieve info)
neurons also have one very long projection called an
(send info)
(look at spinal cord or motor neuron)
connective tissue can be very diverse tissue is composed of both cells and matrix. mrix can be fibrous or non-fibrous. when the matrix is non-fibrous it is called ????
ground substance
ground substance can be ??
soft(areolar tissue)
even liquid(blood)
2 tyoes of fibers are common in connective tissues
this protein has a high tensile strength, low elasticity, light colored
this protein has a low tensile strnght, but is very elastic, dark staining
this is also called loose connective tissue
this is found throughout the body, it fills spaces bw organs
the cells in this tissue rest in a soft ground substance
areolar connective tisue
cells in the areolar tisue are mostly
this tissue has little or no matrix, almost all cells
this is fat tissue; the cells are called_____
the cells contain fatty acids that are used to store energy
adipose connective tissue
this tissue makes up tendons and ligaments
these tissues are mostly bundles of collagen fibers aligned in one direction
the few cells are______
fibrous connective tissue

this is a firm but flexible tissue foun in ears, noses, trachea.
it also serves as cushioning pads bw the bones
the cells are called?
they are found in spaces in the matrix called?