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103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is nissl substance?
Darkly staining RER
Where can you see nissl substance?
everywhere except axon and axon hillock
What does the euchromatic nucleus and prominent nucleolus of a neuron indicate?
That its transcriptionally active and actively synthesizing protein.
Where are astrocytes?
In the space between neurons in the CNS.
Where are oligodendrocytes?
CNS
Where are Schwann cells?
PNS
Where are Microglia?
CNS
Where are ependymal cells?
CNS
2 Types of Astrocytes:
-Fibrous
-Protoplasmic
Fibrous Astrocytes
-Where
-Processes
-White matter
-Few long straight processes
Protoplasmic Astrocytes
-Where
-Processes
-Gray matter
-Many short branched processes
Function of oligodendrocytes
Myelinate axons in CNS
Function of Schwann cells
Myelinate axons in PNS
Function of microglia
Phagocytose debris in CNS
Function of Ependymal cells
Epithelial lining of ventricles, spinal central canal
What is nissl substance?
Darkly staining RER
Where can you see nissl substance?
everywhere except axon and axon hillock
What does the euchromatic nucleus and prominent nucleolus of a neuron indicate?
That its transcriptionally active and actively synthesizing protein.
Where are astrocytes?
In the space between neurons in the CNS.
Where are oligodendrocytes?
CNS
Where are Schwann cells?
PNS
Where are Microglia?
CNS
Where are ependymal cells?
CNS
2 Types of Astrocytes:
-Fibrous
-Protoplasmic
Fibrous Astrocytes
-Where
-Processes
-White matter
-Few long straight processes
Protoplasmic Astrocytes
-Where
-Processes
-Gray matter
-Many short branched processes
Function of oligodendrocytes
Myelinate axons in CNS
Function of Schwann cells
Myelinate axons in PNS
Function of microglia
Phagocytose debris in CNS
Function of Ependymal cells
Epithelial lining of ventricles, spinal central canal
Difference between Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells in terms of how many axons they can myelinate:
oligos: 1 can myelinate many axons
Schwanns: 1 can only myelinate one axon
What are unmyelinated axons?
Axons that are embedded in the cytoplasm of a schwann cell, but it doesn't wrap around them.
What does a Nerve Fiber consist of?
-Nerve fibers
-Connective tissue
-Blood vessels
What is Osmic acid?
A heavy metal that selectively stains lipids
Epineurium:
CT that surrounds an entire nerve and fills the spaces between fascicles.
Perineurium:
CT that surrounds a fascicle
Endoneurium:
CT that fills the spaces between individual nerve axons within a fascicle.
What color is a schwann cell sheath in a PNS nerve? Why?
Black - because it is rich in lipid content.
What is a Ganglia?
Cluster of nerve cell bodies in the PNS
What is a Nucleus?
Cluster of nerve cell bodies in the CNS
What type of neuron cell bodies are in the DRG?
Pseudounipolar
How does the type of neuron cell bodies in the DRG affect the appearance of the ganglion?
There are no synapses at cell bodies, so they are tightly packed.
Where is the dorsal root ganglion?
Just outside of the spinal cord.
To what cells do the nuclei found scattered among neurons in the DRG belong?
Satellite cells
What is the function of satellite cells?
They provide structural and metabolic support to the DRG neurons.
Where are Sympathetic Ganglions found?
In the paravertebral chain, or in prevertebral ganglia.
What type of neurons are within Sympathetic ganglia?
Multipolar
How do Sympathetic ganglia compare to the DRG?
-Smaller cell bodies
-Loosely packed
-Fewer satellite cells
Why is a Sympathetic ganglion more loosely packed than the DRG?
Because there are presynaptic neurons that synapse on the multipolar neuron cell bodies and thus take up more room.
What shape are the neurons in the DRG? In sympathetic ganglia?
DRG = round/covered w/ satellite cells.
Sympathetic ganglion = irregular w/ fewer satellite cells
Where are the cell bodies of preganglionic sympathetic neurons located?
Interomediolateral horn of SC
Where are the cell bodies of postganglionic sympathetic neurons located?
In the sympathetic ganglia (paravertebral at SC levels T1-L2, or prevertebral)
What is the Nodose ganglion?
A sensory ganglion like the DRG
What is the Superior cervical ganglion?
A sympathetic ganglion
What do we call peripheral nerve process in the
-PNS
-CNS
PNS = nerve fibers

CNS = White matter
Which SC cross section has the smallest amount of white matter?
Sacral
Which SC cross section has the largest size?
Lumbar
Which SC cross sections have the lateral horn of gray matter?
T1=L2
In Which SC cross sections is the Fasciculus cuneatus present?
Cervical and Thoracic to T6
Which SC cross section has the most white matter?
Cervical
What are the shapes of the SC cross sections?
Sacral = circle
Lumbar = circle
Thoracic = circle
Cervical = oval
At which spinal cord levels do the nerves supplying the upper limbs come out?
Cervical - so its ventral gray matter horn is larger than in thoracic levels.
What special cell structure is on the ependymal cells lining the central canal of the SC?
Cilia - on simple columnar epithelium.
In what portion of the SC is the central canal located?
Central Gray Commissure.
What is the "seam" at the anterior side of the SC?
Ventral Median Fissure
What is the "seam" at the posterior side of the SC?
Dorsal Median Sulcus
Which is deeper; fissure or sulcus?
Fissure
What are the anterior portions of gray matter?
Ventral horns
What are the posterior portions of gray matter?
Dorsal horns
What type of neurons are in the ventral horn of the spinal cord?
LARGE multipolar neurons that innervate skeletal muscles
What are the motor neurons in the ventral horn of SC called?
LMNs - Lower motor neurons
What are the other nuclei that you can see in the ventral horn?
Glial cell nuclei
Which SC cross section have prominent ventral horns?
Cervical and lumbar enlargements
How do the neuron cell bodies in the DORSAL horn compare to those in the VENTRAL horn?
They are smaller
What info is received by Dorsal horn neurons?
Pain/Temp/Touch from peripheral nerve processes
Where are the cell bodies of the nerves that make up the dorsal roots?
In the dorsal root ganglion
What is the depression in the SC where dorsal nerve roots enter called?
The dorsolateral sulcus
To what type of cells do those in the Interomediolateral cell column of the SC give rise?
-Preganglionic Parasympathetic and Sympathetic neurons
How many columns of white matter are in the SC?
6
What are the white matter columns in the SC?
-2 anterior funiculi
-2 lateral funiculi
-2 posterior funiculi
What is White matter?
Nerve fibers
What is a bundle of nerve fibers (white matter) called?
A tract
What is the function of tracts?
Relay information between the SC and brain
What type of sensation is carried in the posterior tract (funiculi)?
Proprioceptive information regarding touch and position.
How far down the SC does fasiculus cuneatus extend?
To T6
How many layers are in the CEREBELLUM cortex?
3
What are the layers in the cerebellum? What does each layer consist of?
1. Molecular - Dendritic process of stellate/basket cells
2. Purkinje cell layer
3. Granule cell
(from superfic -> deepest)
How are stellate and basket cells differentiated?
Stellate: superficial
Basket: closer to purkinje layer
WHat does the purkinje layer consist of?
Large Purkinje cells that make a 1-cell-thick layer
What does the Granular layer consist of?
-Granule cells (small)
-Golgi cells (larger)
How does the Purkinje layer relate to the Molecular layer?
An extensive dendritic network extends from it all the way into the superficial molecular layer.
Where do purkinje AXONS project?
Deep into the cerebellar cortex - to nuclei within it.
Why are purkinje cells important?
They are the only OUTPUT cells of the cerebellar cortex.
What's more superficial in the granular layer; Granule or Golgi cell nuclei? What's bigger?
Golgi - bigger - superficial and closer to purkinje cells

Granule - smaller/deeper
What is the innermost covering of the cerebellum?
Pia mater
How does information ultimately get from the cerebellar cortex out?
Via axons of deep cerebellar nuclei
Where are the deep cerebellar nuclei located?
Embedded within the white matter of the cerebral cortex
What is the function of gyri in the cerebrum?
To increase its surface area
What type of tissue makes up the cortex?
Gray matter
Which gyrus has more defined cell layers? Precentral or Postcentral?
Sensory - postcentral
Which is a thicker gyrus; Precentral or Postcentral?
Precentral - the motor gyrus is thicker.
What are Betz cells?
Particularly large pyramidal cells in layer V of the motor cortex.
In what direction are the apical dendrites of pyramidal cells oriented in the cortex?
toward the cortex surface.