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862 Cards in this Set

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Iron deficiency :Peripheral smear morphology?
microcytic, hypochromic
Iron deficiency :MCV?
low
Iron deficiency :basophilic stippling?
no
Iron deficiency :serum iron?
low
Iron deficiency :TIBC?
high
Iron deficiency :Serum iron/TIBC?
low <10% then definitely iron defic.
Iron deficiency :ferritin?
under 10, iron defic
Iron deficiency :soluble transferrin receptor?
increased
Iron deficiency :absorption site?
duodenum
Beta Thalessemia trait :?
Beta Thalessemia trait
Beta Thalessemia trait :Peripheral smear morphology?
microcytic
Beta Thalessemia trait :MCV?
low
Beta Thalessemia trait :basophilic stippling?
y
Beta Thalessemia trait :Hgb A2 Assay?
positive
Alpha thalessemia trait :?
Alpha thalessemia trait
Alpha thalessemia trait :Peripheral smear morphology?
microcytic
Alpha thalessemia trait :MCV?
low
anemia of chronic disease :?
anemia of chronic disease
anemia of chronic disease :Peripheral smear morphology?
usually normocytic, microcytic (rarely)
anemia of chronic disease :Reticulocyte count?
Low
anemia of chronic disease :MCV?
normal
anemia of chronic disease :serum iron?
low
anemia of chronic disease :TIBC?
high
anemia of chronic disease :Serum iron/TIBC?
>10%
anemia of chronic disease :ferritin?
normalish
anemia of chronic disease :soluble transferrin receptor?
decreased
sideroblastic anemia :?
sideroblastic anemia
sideroblastic anemia :Peripheral smear morphology?
microcytic
sideroblastic anemia :MCV?
low
aplastic anemia :?
aplastic anemia
aplastic anemia :Peripheral smear morphology?
normocytic
aplastic anemia :Reticulocyte count?
Low
aplastic anemia :MCV?
normal
aplastic anemia :Marrow?
hypoplastic
aplastic anemia :platelets?
low
aplastic anemia :PMN's?
low
aplastic anemia :tx?
transplant
pure red cell aplasia :?
pure red cell aplasia
pure red cell aplasia :Peripheral smear morphology?
normocytic
pure red cell aplasia :Reticulocyte count?
stupid low
pure red cell aplasia :MCV?
normal
pure red cell aplasia :platelets?
normal
pure red cell aplasia :PMN's?
normal
pure red cell aplasia :caused by?
dilantin, parvovirus, thymoma, PRCA
pure red cell aplasia :tx?
roids
myelofibrosis :?
myelofibrosis
myelofibrosis :Peripheral smear morphology?
normocytic
myelofibrosis :Reticulocyte count?
Low
myelofibrosis :MCV?
normal
myelofibrosis :Marrow?
fibrosis
myelofibrosis :physcal exam findings?
big ass spleen
myelodysplasia :?
myelodysplasia
myelodysplasia :Peripheral smear morphology?
normocytic
myelodysplasia :Reticulocyte count?
Low
myelodysplasia :MCV?
normal
myelodysplasia :Marrow?
variable
myelodysplasia :iron staining?
ringed sideroblasts
myelophtisic anemia :?
myelophtisic anemia
myelophtisic anemia :Peripheral smear morphology?
normocytic
myelophtisic anemia :Reticulocyte count?
Low
myelophtisic anemia :MCV?
normal
myelophtisic anemia :Marrow?
marrow replacement
B12 deficiency :?
B12 deficiency
B12 deficiency :Peripheral smear morphology?
macrocytic, multilobed polys
B12 deficiency :MCV?
high
B12 deficiency :absorption site?
terminal ileum
B12 deficiency :foods containing nutrient?
meat, animal products
B12 deficiency :serum b12?
low
folate deficiency :?
folate deficiency
folate deficiency :Peripheral smear morphology?
macrocytic, multilobed polys
folate deficiency :MCV?
high
folate deficiency :absorption site?
jejunum
folate deficiency :foods containing nutrient?
veggies
folate deficiency :red cell folate?
low
folate deficiency :serum folate?
low, but easily altered by one meal
Bleeding :?
Bleeding
Bleeding :Reticulocyte count?
High
Hemolytic anemia :?
Hemolytic anemia
Hemolytic anemia :Reticulocyte count?
High
B12 deficiency due to low IF :?
B12 deficiency due to low IF
B12 deficiency due to low IF :schilling?
no radioactive urine, radioactive after IF
Normocytic anemia and low reticulocyte count :?
Normocytic anemia and low reticulocyte count
Normocytic anemia and low reticulocyte count :initial tests?
Do a bone marrow aspirate and biopsy, possibly cytogenetics
Hemolytic anemia :?
Hemolytic anemia
Hemolytic anemia :Reticulocyte count?
up
Hemolytic anemia :bilirubin?
up (unconjugated)
Hemolytic anemia :LDH?
elevated (nonspecific)
Hemolytic anemia :chromium 51 survival?
decreased
bleeding :?
bleeding
bleeding :Reticulocyte count?
up
bleeding :bilirubin?
no effect
bleeding :LDH?
no effect
bleeding :chromium 51 survival?
no effect
warm IgG :?
warm IgG
warm IgG :intra or extra-vascular?
extra
warm IgG :haptoglobin?
no effect
warm IgG :rouleaux?
n
cold IgM :?
cold IgM
cold IgM :intra or extra-vascular?
intra
cold IgM :haptoglobin?
low
cold IgM :rouleaux?
y
pseudoerythrocytosis :?
pseudoerythrocytosis
pseudoerythrocytosis :HCT?
up
pseudoerythrocytosis :plasma volume?
down
pseudoerythrocytosis :which cell lines hyperlastic??
none
pseudoerythrocytosis :big spleen??
no
pseudoerythrocytosis :casued by high EPO?
no
2ndary erythrocytosis :?
2ndary erythrocytosis
2ndary erythrocytosis :HCT?
up
2ndary erythrocytosis :plasma volume?
no effect
2ndary erythrocytosis :which cell lines hyperlastic??
red
2ndary erythrocytosis :big spleen??
no
2ndary erythrocytosis :casued by high EPO?
yes
polycythemia vera :?
polycythemia vera
polycythemia vera :HCT?
up
polycythemia vera :plasma volume?
no effect
polycythemia vera :which cell lines hyperlastic??
red, wbc, platelets
polycythemia vera :big spleen??
yes
polycythemia vera :casued by high EPO?
EPO independent
Pelger Huet :abnormality?
bilobed PMN
May Hegglin :?
May Hegglin
May Hegglin :abnormality?
basophilic inclusions in WBC
chediak Higashi :?
chediak Higashi
chediak Higashi :abnormality?
giant neutrophil granules, faulty lysosmes
Alders :?
Alders
Alders :abnormality?
deep purple granules, mucopolysaccharide disorder
Maroteaux Lamy :?
Maroteaux Lamy
Maroteaux Lamy :abnormality?
Red-violet granules and lymphocyte vacuoles
Erlichiosis :?
Erlichiosis
Erlichiosis :abnormality?
?? Caused by rickettsia, ticks
Dohle Bodies :?
Dohle Bodies
Dohle Bodies :abnormality?
1-2 micron oval blue RER fragments
CML :?
CML
CML :Anemia?
no
CML :RBC morphology?
no change
CML :WBC?
>100K
CML :Other cells?
up baso's and eosinos
CML :>5% myelocytes or younger?
Yes
CML :LAP?
low
CML :Marrow?
myeloid hyperplasia, B&E
CML :Splenomegaly?
yes
CML :t(9:22)?
yes
Myelofibrosis :?
Myelofibrosis
Myelofibrosis :Anemia?
yes
Myelofibrosis :RBC morphology?
teardrop and nucleated
Myelofibrosis :WBC?
maybe up
Myelofibrosis :Other cells?
no change
Myelofibrosis :>5% myelocytes or younger?
possible
Myelofibrosis :LAP?
variable
Myelofibrosis :Marrow?
fibrosis
Myelofibrosis :Splenomegaly?
yes
Myelofibrosis :t(9:22)?
no
Leukemoid :?
Leukemoid
Leukemoid :Anemia?
no
Leukemoid :RBC morphology?
no change
Leukemoid :WBC?
30-40K
Leukemoid :Other cells?
no change
Leukemoid :>5% myelocytes or younger?
no
Leukemoid :LAP?
high
Leukemoid :Marrow?
myeloid hyperplasia
Leukemoid :Splenomegaly?
no
Leukemoid :t(9:22)?
no
CLL :?
CLL
CLL :abnormal cell type?
B
CLL :CD5+?
yes
Mono :?
Mono
Mono :abnormal cell type?
B
Hairy cell leukemia :?
Hairy cell leukemia
Hairy cell leukemia :abnormal cell type?
B
Hairy cell leukemia :splenomagaly?
fuckin huge
Hairy cell leukemia :CD5+?
no
Hairy cell leukemia :cytopenia type?
pancytopenia (& lymphocytosis)
Hairy cell leukemia :diagnostic test?
tartrate resistant acid phosphatase, TRAP
AML :?
AML
AML :population?
adult
AML :cytopenia type?
neutropenia, also could have elevated WBC (myeloblasts)
ALL :?
ALL
ALL :population?
children
CML :?
CML
neutropenia :?
neutropenia
neutropenia :1st step in dx of host defense disorder?
WBC and diferential
B cell disorder :?
B cell disorder
B cell disorder :1st step in dx of host defense disorder?
quantitative Ig's
Complement deficiency :?
Complement deficiency
Complement deficiency :1st step in dx of host defense disorder?
CH50, C3, if bad then quantitative C1-9
T cell disorder :?
T cell disorder
T cell disorder :1st step in dx of host defense disorder?
quantitative T and B lymphocytes, skin test to recall antigens
early complement deficiency :?
early complement deficiency
early complement deficiency :infection type?
pyogenic
late complement deficiency :?
late complement deficiency
late complement deficiency :infection type?
neisseria
platelet problem :Physical exam findings?
petechiae
clotting factors :?
clotting factors
clotting factors :Physical exam findings?
echymosis, joint bleeding
vWD :?
vWD
vWD :Physical exam findings?
joint bleeding
vasculitis :?
vasculitis
vasculitis :Physical exam findings?
palpable purpura
XII and XI :?
XII and XI
XII and XI :what activates in PTT?
kaolin
disorder of: XII, XI, IX, VIII, X, V, II, fibrinogen :?
disorder of: XII, XI, IX, VIII, X, V, II, fibrinogen
disorder of: XII, XI, IX, VIII, X, V, II, fibrinogen :which test?
PTT
heparin :?
heparin
heparin :which test?
PTT
Intrinsic pathway :?
Intrinsic pathway
Intrinsic pathway :which test?
PTT
extrinsic pathway :?
extrinsic pathway
extrinsic pathway :which test?
PT
add trhomboplastin to activate VII :?
add trhomboplastin to activate VII
add trhomboplastin to activate VII :which test?
PT
kaolin to activate XII and XI :?
kaolin to activate XII and XI
kaolin to activate XII and XI :which test?
PTT
VII, X, V, II, fibrinogen :?
VII, X, V, II, fibrinogen
VII, X, V, II, fibrinogen :which test?
PT
hemophilia A :?
hemophilia A
hemophilia A :deficiency?
VIII
Hemophilia B :?
Hemophilia B
Hemophilia B :deficiency?
IX (christmas disease....but it's in Jews!)
loose fibrin :?
loose fibrin
loose fibrin :deficiency?
XIII
clotting factors :?
clotting factors
clotting factors :Vd?
40 ml/kg
I :?
I
I :vitamin K??
no
I :PT?
yeah (fibrinogen)
I :PTT?
yeah (fibrinogen)
I :made in liver??
yeah (fibrinogen)
I :coumadin effects??
no
I :protein C & S inhibit?
no
II :?
II
II :vitamin K??
yep
II :PT?
yes
II :PTT?
yes
II :made in liver??
yes
II :coumadin effects??
yes
II :protein C & S inhibit?
no
II :cryoprecipitate?
no
II :prothombin complex concentrates?
yes
III :?
III
III :vitamin K??
no
III :PT?
no
III :PTT?
no
III :made in liver??
no
III :coumadin effects??
no
III :protein C & S inhibit?
no
IV :?
IV
IV :vitamin K??
it's friggin calcium
IV :PT?
it's friggin calcium
IV :PTT?
no
IV :made in liver??
no
IV :coumadin effects??
no
IV :protein C & S inhibit?
no
V :?
V
V :vitamin K??
no
V :PT?
yes
V :PTT?
yes
V :made in liver??
yes
V :coumadin effects??
no
V :protein C & S inhibit?
yes
V :prothombin complex concentrates?
NO (low in liver disease)
VI :?
VI
VI :vitamin K??
no
VI :PT?
yeah (Va)
VI :PTT?
yeah (Va)
VI :made in liver??
in a manner of speaking (Va)
VI :coumadin effects??
no
VI :protein C & S inhibit?
yeah mufucka
VII :?
VII
VII :vitamin K??
yep
VII :PT?
yes
VII :PTT?
no
VII :made in liver??
yes
VII :coumadin effects??
yes
VII :protein C & S inhibit?
no
VII :cryoprecipitate?
no
VII :prothombin complex concentrates?
yes
VIII :?
VIII
VIII :vitamin K??
no
VIII :PT?
no
VIII :PTT?
yes
VIII :made in liver??
no
VIII :coumadin effects??
no
VIII :protein C & S inhibit?
yes
VIII :cryoprecipitate?
yes
VIII :prothombin complex concentrates?
no
IX :?
IX
IX :vitamin K??
yep
IX :PT?
no
IX :PTT?
yes
IX :made in liver??
yes
IX :coumadin effects??
yes
IX :protein C & S inhibit?
no
IX :cryoprecipitate?
no
IX :prothombin complex concentrates?
yes
X :?
X
X :vitamin K??
yep
X :PT?
yes
X :PTT?
yes
X :made in liver??
yes
X :coumadin effects??
yes
X :protein C & S inhibit?
no
X :cryoprecipitate?
no
X :prothombin complex concentrates?
yes
XI :?
XI
XI :vitamin K??
no
XI :PT?
no
XI :PTT?
yes
XI :made in liver??
no
XI :coumadin effects??
no
XI :protein C & S inhibit?
no
XI :cryoprecipitate?
no
XII :?
XII
XII :vitamin K??
no
XII :PT?
no
XII :PTT?
yes
XII :made in liver??
no
XII :coumadin effects??
no
XII :protein C & S inhibit?
no
XII :cryoprecipitate?
no
XIII :?
XIII
XIII :vitamin K??
no
XIII :PT?
no
XIII :PTT?
no
XIII :made in liver??
no
XIII :coumadin effects??
no
XIII :protein C & S inhibit?
no
XIII :cryoprecipitate?
yes
fibrinogen :?
fibrinogen
fibrinogen :PT?
yes
fibrinogen :PTT?
yes
fibrinogen :specific test?
elevated FSPs
fibrinogen :cryoprecipitate?
yes
vWF :?
vWF
vWF :cryoprecipitate?
yes
DIC :?
DIC
DIC :PT?
elevated
DIC :FSPs?
elevated
DIC :platelet count?
low
DIC :fibrinogen?
low (non specific)
circulating angicoagulant :?
circulating angicoagulant
circulating angicoagulant :screening?
1:1 normal plasma and test mix, if inhibitor present still won't clot
ITP :?
ITP
ITP :PT?
no effect
ITP :PTT?
no effect
ITP :pathophys?
anti-platelet Ab
DIC :?
DIC
DIC :PT?
high
DIC :PTT?
high
TTP :?
TTP
TTP :pathophys?
WTF
vWD :?
vWD
vWD :VIII activity?
proportionally low (reduced # mols)
vWD :VII number?
normal
vWD :Ristocetin cofactor test?
doesn't clump w/ vWD (clumps normal platelets)
vWD :bleeding time?
hi
hemophilia :?
hemophilia
hemophilia :VII activity?
stupid low, yo
hemophilia :VII number?
normal
heparin :?
heparin
heparin :PT?
not so much
heparin :PTT?
markedly
INR :?
INR
INR :PT?
yes
INR :PTT?
no
coumadin :?
coumadin
coumadin :PT?
yes
coumadin :PTT?
yeah, but use PT
coumadin :INR?
yep
Type and screen :?
Type and screen
Type and screen :ABO type?
yes
Type and screen :Rh type?
yes
Type and screen :antibody screen with identified antibody panel?
yes
Type and screen :crossmatch for # units ordered?
no
Type and cross :?
Type and cross
Type and cross :ABO type?
yes
Type and cross :Rh type?
yes
Type and cross :antibody screen with identified antibody panel?
yes
Type and cross :crossmatch for # units ordered?
yes
Febrile Transfusion Reaction :?
Febrile Transfusion Reaction
Febrile Transfusion Reaction :pathophys?
cytokines in transfusion
ITP :?
ITP
ITP :platelets transfusion?
NO
ITP :fresh frozen plasma?
NO
TTP :?
TTP
TTP :platelets transfusion?
NO
TTP :fresh frozen plasma?
yah
platelets under 10K :?
platelets under 10K
platelets under 10K :platelets transfusion?
yeah, x4
coumadin related bleeding :?
coumadin related bleeding
coumadin related bleeding :fresh frozen plasma?
yea
volume expansion :?
volume expansion
volume expansion :fresh frozen plasma?
no
hypercoaguability :?
hypercoaguability
hypercoaguability :fresh frozen plasma?
no
sensitivity :define?
sensitivity = true positives / (all with disease)
specifity :?
specifity
specifity :define?
specifity = true negs / (all without disease)
prevalence :?
prevalence
prevalence :define?
number of cases in a given population
positive predictive value :?
positive predictive value
positive predictive value :define?
true positives / (true positives + false positives); low prevalence means lower positive predictive value
diabetes :screening test?
dipstick for for urine glucose
rare sugar diseases :?
rare sugar diseases
rare sugar diseases :screening test?
clinitest (picks up galactose, fructose, etc)
hemoglobin in urine :?
hemoglobin in urine
hemoglobin in urine :serum color?
pink
hemoglobin in urine :dipstick for blood in urine?
positive
myoglobin in urine :?
myoglobin in urine
myoglobin in urine :serum color?
clear
myoglobin in urine :dipstick for blood in urine?
positive
RBCs in urine :?
RBCs in urine
RBCs in urine :dipstick for blood in urine?
positive
metabolic acidosis with urine pH > 6 :?
metabolic acidosis with urine pH > 6
metabolic acidosis with urine pH > 6 :dx?
renal tubular acidosis
systemic alkalosis with urine pH < 7 :?
systemic alkalosis with urine pH < 7
systemic alkalosis with urine pH < 7 :dx?
potassium depletion or volume depletion
very alkaline urine pH > 8 :?
very alkaline urine pH > 8
very alkaline urine pH > 8 :dx?
infection with urea splitting bacteria
alkalemia :?
alkalemia
alkalemia :pH?
> 7.44
acidemia :?
acidemia
acidemia :pH?
< 7.36
anion gap :?
anion gap
anion gap :equation?
anion gap = Na - (Cl +HCO30 ...pos minus negs
respiratory compensation :?
respiratory compensation
respiratory compensation :equation?
pCO2 = 1.5(HCO3) + 8 +/- 2; if equal, well compensated. Otherwise respiratory alkilosis/acidosis
delta anion gap :?
delta anion gap
delta anion gap :equation?
delta anion gap = anion gap - 12
creatinine clearance :?
creatinine clearance
creatinine clearance :calculated by urine?
Cr(cl) = U(v) * U(cr) / P(cr)
acute tubular necrosis :?
acute tubular necrosis
acute tubular necrosis :estimate?
Cr(cl) = kg * (140 - age) /(72*Cr) *.85 (chicas)
acute tubular necrosis :Urine Na?
> 30 mEq/L
acute tubular necrosis :FE(Na)?
> 1%
volume depletion :?
volume depletion
volume depletion :Urine Na?
<10 mEq/L
volume depletion :FE(Na)?
<1%
extracelluar osmolality :?
extracelluar osmolality
extracelluar osmolality :equation?
P(osm) = 2Na + gluc/18 + BUN/2.8
hyperglycemic diabetic hyonatremia :?
hyperglycemic diabetic hyonatremia
hyperglycemic diabetic hyonatremia :tonicity?
hypertonic
low volume hyponatremia (from vomiting) :?
low volume hyponatremia (from vomiting)
low volume hyponatremia (from vomiting) :tonicity?
hypotonic
normal volume SIADH related hyponatrimia :?
normal volume SIADH related hyponatrimia
normal volume SIADH related hyponatrimia :tonicity?
hypotonic
excess volume (edema) hyponatremia :?
excess volume (edema) hyponatremia
excess volume (edema) hyponatremia :tonicity?
hypotonic
diabetes insipitous related hypernatremia :?
diabetes insipitous related hypernatremia
diabetes insipitous related hypernatremia :tonicity?
hypertonic
alveolar oxygen :?
alveolar oxygen
alveolar oxygen :equation?
PAO2 =147 – (PaCO2)/0.8
alveolar arterial oxygen gradient :?
alveolar arterial oxygen gradient
alveolar arterial oxygen gradient :equation?
PAO2 - PaO2 (PaO2 from arteries)
normal A-a gradient :?
normal A-a gradient
normal A-a gradient :equation?
normal A-a = (Age / 4) +4
CO poisoning :?
CO poisoning
CO poisoning :pulse oximetry?
ur fucked
Obstructive lung disease :?
Obstructive lung disease
Obstructive lung disease :FEV1/FVC?
below 70%
Obstructive lung disease :FEV1?
fucked
Obstructive lung disease :FVC?
not so fucked
COPD :?
COPD
COPD :FEV1/FVC?
below 70%
COPD :FEV1?
fucked
COPD :FVC?
not so fucked
asthma :?
asthma
asthma :FEV1/FVC?
below 70%
asthma :FEV1?
fucked
asthma :FVC?
not so fucked
Restrictive lung disease :?
Restrictive lung disease
Restrictive lung disease :FEV1/FVC?
around 70%
Restrictive lung disease :FEV1?
fucked
Restrictive lung disease :FVC?
fucked
jaundice with normal colored urine :bilirubin type?
unconjugated
bilirubin chronically over 5 :?
bilirubin chronically over 5
bilirubin chronically over 5 :bilirubin type?
conjugated
Gilbert's disease :?
Gilbert's disease
Gilbert's disease :bilirubin type?
unconjugated, up to 3
Gilbert's disease :where's the fuckup?
bilirubin metabolism
type I crigler Najjar syndrome :?
type I crigler Najjar syndrome
type I crigler Najjar syndrome :bilirubin type?
unconjugated
type I crigler Najjar syndrome :where's the fuckup?
bilirubin metabolism
dubin johnson syndrome :?
dubin johnson syndrome
dubin johnson syndrome :where's the fuckup?
impaired billiary excretion of conj bili
rotor syndrome :?
rotor syndrome
rotor syndrome :where's the fuckup?
impaired billiary excretion of conj bili
viral hepatitis :?
viral hepatitis
viral hepatitis :which transaminase?
ALT
alcoholic hepatitis :?
alcoholic hepatitis
alcoholic hepatitis :which transaminase?
AST (in mitochondria, see w/ massive necrosis)
cholestatic hepatobiliary lesions :?
cholestatic hepatobiliary lesions
cholestatic hepatobiliary lesions :alkaline phosphatase?
elevated
chronic hep C :?
chronic hep C
chronic hep C :lab marker?
hep C antibody
Chronic hep B :?
Chronic hep B
Chronic hep B :lab marker?
Hep B sAg and cAb
hemochromatosis :?
hemochromatosis
hemochromatosis :lab marker?
iron and iron binding capacity
wilsons disease :?
wilsons disease
wilsons disease :lab marker?
serum ceruloplasmin
Sprue :?
Sprue
Sprue :lab marker?
Antiendomysial and antigliadin Ab
Muscle disease :?
Muscle disease
Muscle disease :lab marker?
creatine kinase and aldolase
Hep A :?
Hep A
Hep A :Virus nuc acid?
RNA
Hep A :Incubation?
30 days
Hep A :Transmission?
Fecal oral, epidemics
Hep A :Fatality?
<<1%
Hep A :Chronic?
No
Hep B :?
Hep B
Hep B :Virus nuc acid?
DNA
Hep B :Incubation?
60 days
Hep B :Transmission?
fuckin, parenteral, birth
Hep B :Fatality?
w/ chronic
Hep B :Chronic?
0.1
Hep C :?
Hep C
Hep C :Virus nuc acid?
RNA
Hep C :Incubation?
6-8 weeks
Hep C :Transmission?
transfusions, parenteral (rarely fuckin)
Hep C :Fatality?
w/ chronic
Hep C :Chronic?
most, some clinically f'd
Hep D :?
Hep D
Hep D :Virus nuc acid?
RNA
Hep D :Transmission?
sexin', IV drugs
Hep D :Chronic?
0.45
Hep E :?
Hep E
Hep E :Virus nuc acid?
RNA
Hep E :Incubation?
40 dias
Hep E :Transmission?
Fecal oral, epidemics
Hep E :Fatality?
1%, preg 25%
Hep E :Chronic?
NO
Hep A 4-12 weeks :?
Hep A 4-12 weeks
Hep A 4-12 weeks :lab marker?
IgM Anti HAV
Hep A beyond 12 wks :?
Hep A beyond 12 wks
Hep A beyond 12 wks :lab marker?
IgG Anti HAV
Acute Hep B (4wks) :?
Acute Hep B (4wks)
Acute Hep B (4wks) :lab marker?
HBsAG
Acute Hep B 8-30 wks :?
Acute Hep B 8-30 wks
Acute Hep B 8-30 wks :lab marker?
IgM Anti HBc
resolved Hep B, over 25 wks :?
resolved Hep B, over 25 wks
resolved Hep B, over 25 wks :lab marker?
IgG anti HBs and Anti HBc
chronic Hep B > 6 months :?
chronic Hep B > 6 months
chronic Hep B > 6 months :lab marker?
HBsAg; HBeAg; Anti HBvAg; HBV-DNA
vaccinated against Hep B :?
vaccinated against Hep B
vaccinated against Hep B :lab marker?
antibody to surface Ag, but not core
Hep C after 12 wks :?
Hep C after 12 wks
Hep C after 12 wks :lab marker?
Anti HCV (ELISA)
Hep C before 12 wks :?
Hep C before 12 wks
Hep C before 12 wks :lab marker?
PCR for HCV RNA, RIBA confirms
Hep D 4-16 weeks :?
Hep D 4-16 weeks
Hep D 4-16 weeks :lab marker?
HDAg
Hep D > 8 wks :?
Hep D > 8 wks
Hep D > 8 wks :lab marker?
Anti HDV
Hep E 4-8 wks :?
Hep E 4-8 wks
Hep E 4-8 wks :lab marker?
IgM anti HEV
Hep E previous exposure :?
Hep E previous exposure
Hep E previous exposure :lab marker?
IgG Anti HEV but no IgM
Ascites from Blockage of thoracic duct (lung cancer, lymphoma) :?
Ascites from Blockage of thoracic duct (lung cancer, lymphoma)
Ascites from Blockage of thoracic duct (lung cancer, lymphoma) :Pressure?
High pressure in lymphatic duct (watch out for rupture)
Ascites from Blockage of thoracic duct (lung cancer, lymphoma) :Ascites Contents?
high protein, chylous ascites (opalescent)
Ascites from heart failure, pericarditis, Budd Chiari (thrombosis of hepatic vein) :?
Ascites from heart failure, pericarditis, Budd Chiari (thrombosis of hepatic vein)
Ascites from heart failure, pericarditis, Budd Chiari (thrombosis of hepatic vein) :Pressure?
high pressure in hepatic vein, not transmitted back
Ascites from heart failure, pericarditis, Budd Chiari (thrombosis of hepatic vein) :Ascites Contents?
high protein fluid from hepatic sinusoid
Ascites from Cirrhosis :?
Ascites from Cirrhosis
Ascites from Cirrhosis :Pressure?
high pressuer transmitted back
Ascites from Cirrhosis :Ascites Contents?
Low protein/water leak from mesenteric capillary
Ascites from Cirrhosis :protein concentration?
> 3 gm/dl
Portal vein thrombosis ascites :?
Portal vein thrombosis ascites
Portal vein thrombosis ascites :Pressure?
high pressure in mesenteric capillary
Portal vein thrombosis ascites :Ascites Contents?
low fluid production, reabsorbed by lymphatics
peritoneal infection :?
peritoneal infection
peritoneal infection :CBC and diff?
> 300 PMNs/mm3
TB peritonitis :?
TB peritonitis
TB peritonitis :CBC and diff?
>300 lymphocytes/mm3
TB peritonitis :culture?
centrifuge several 100 mL of fluid into pellet
ascites w/ ruptured pancreatic duct :?
ascites w/ ruptured pancreatic duct
ascites w/ ruptured pancreatic duct :lab marker?
amylase, lots of the shit
Zollinger Ellison :?
Zollinger Ellison
Zollinger Ellison :BAO/MAO?
> 60%
Zollinger Ellison :Serum gastrin?
>1000 w/ acid secretion
Zollinger Ellison :Secretin test?
gastrin inc more than 200 pg/ml after secretin infusion
chronic pancreatitis :?
chronic pancreatitis
chronic pancreatitis :Secretin test?
HCO3 ~70 + pain
pancreatic exocrine insufficiency :?
pancreatic exocrine insufficiency
pancreatic exocrine insufficiency :Secretin test?
HCO3 < 50
pancreatic exocrine insufficiency :bentiromide test?
low urinary arylamine metabolites
H pylori peptic ulcer disease :?
H pylori peptic ulcer disease
Rheumatoid arthritis :site of pain?
small joints of hand/wrist
Rheumatoid arthritis :symmetrical polyarticular??
yes
Rheumatoid arthritis :"articularity"?
polyarticular
Rheumatoid arthritis :sx time of day?
morning stiffness
Rheumatoid arthritis :synovial inflammation?
yes
Rheumatoid arthritis :synovial complement?
low
Rheumatoid arthritis :age?
30-50
Rheumatoid arthritis :gender?
female
Rheumatoid arthritis :anti-phospholipid??
no
osteoarthritis :?
osteoarthritis
osteoarthritis :site of pain?
large joints
osteoarthritis :symmetrical polyarticular??
no
osteoarthritis :sx time of day?
end of day stiffness
osteoarthritis :radiographs?
osteophytes, joint space narrowing
osteoarthritis :synovial inflammation?
no
osteoarthritis :age?
young
osteoarthritis :gender?
male
SLE :?
SLE
SLE :blood tests?
ANA+; Anit-DNA+
SLE :synovial inflammation?
mild
SLE :anti-phospholipid??
yea
Ankylosing spondylitis :?
Ankylosing spondylitis
Ankylosing spondylitis :site of pain?
back
Ankylosing spondylitis :"articularity"?
oligoarticular
Ankylosing spondylitis :radiographs?
sacroiliitis, vertebral squaring
Ankylosing spondylitis :synovial inflammation?
yes
Ankylosing spondylitis :synovial complement?
high
gout :?
gout
gout :synovial fluid?
negatively birefringent cyrstals
fibromyalgia :?
fibromyalgia
fibromyalgia :site of pain?
chronic pain all over
scleroderma :?
scleroderma
scleroderma :clinical feature?
skin tightening
scleroderma :anti-phospholipid??
no
polymyositis :?
polymyositis
polymyositis :site of pain?
muscles
polymyositis :clinical feature?
muscle weakness and pain
drug induced lupus :?
drug induced lupus
drug induced lupus :ANA staining patterns?
smooth
mild cutaneous lupus :?
mild cutaneous lupus
mild cutaneous lupus :ANA staining patterns?
speckled (Anti-Sm, anti-RNP, anti-Ro, anti-La)
scleroderma :?
scleroderma
scleroderma :ANA staining patterns?
nucleolar
CREST :?
CREST
CREST :ANA staining patterns?
centromere binding
gout :?
gout
gout :crystal chemistry?
sodium urate
gout :crystal shape?
needle
gout :crystal bifringence?
negative
pseudogout :?
pseudogout
pseudogout :crystal chemistry?
calcium pyrophosphate
pseudogout :crystal shape?
cuboidal
pseudogout :crystal bifringence?
positive
non-inflammatory :?
non-inflammatory
non-inflammatory :synovial fluid category?
Group I
non-inflammatory :synovial cell count?
2500/mm3
non-inflammatory :synovial WBC diff?
<50% PMN
inflamatory :?
inflamatory
inflamatory :synovial fluid category?
Group II
inflamatory :synovial cell count?
2500-50K
inflamatory :synovial WBC diff?
>50% PMN
bacterial infection :?
bacterial infection
bacterial infection :synovial fluid category?
Group III
bacterial infection :synovial cell count?
over 50K
bacterial infection :synovial WBC diff?
> 90% PMN
Testicular Cancer :Markers?
HCG and AFP
Ovarian Cancer :?
Ovarian Cancer
Ovarian Cancer :Markers?
CA 125 (many flase positives, not good for screening)
Colorectal Cancer :?
Colorectal Cancer
Colorectal Cancer :Markers?
CEA
Prostate Cancer :?
Prostate Cancer
Prostate Cancer :Markers?
PSA >4 (specific for prostate, not cancer) PSA velocity best
Normal :CSF protein?
15-45 mg/dl
Normal :CSF glucose?
45-80 mg/dl
Normal :CSF cells?
very few, no RBC
traumatic tap :?
traumatic tap
traumatic tap :spinned down color?
clear
subarachniod hemmorhage :?
subarachniod hemmorhage
subarachniod hemmorhage :spinned down color?
xanthochromic (pink)
viral meningitis :?
viral meningitis
viral meningitis :shaking chills?
no
viral meningitis :peripheral white count up?
no
viral meningitis :altered sensorium?
no, or mild delirium
viral meningitis :CSF count?
<1000, mostly lymphs
viral meningitis :CSF glucose?
normal, slightly low
viral meningitis :CSF protein?
under 130
bacterial meningitis :?
bacterial meningitis
bacterial meningitis :shaking chills?
yes
bacterial meningitis :peripheral white count up?
yes
bacterial meningitis :altered sensorium?
yes
bacterial meningitis :CSF count?
over 1K, pmns
bacterial meningitis :CSF glucose?
stupid low
bacterial meningitis :CSF protein?
high to stupid high
Exudates :?
Exudates
Exudates :specific gravity?
over 1.016
transudate :?
transudate
transudate :specific gravity?
under 1.016
R arm -> L Arm :Lead?
I
R arm -> L Leg :?
R arm -> L Leg
R arm -> L Leg :Lead?
II
L arm -> R Leg :?
L arm -> R Leg
L arm -> R Leg :Lead?
III
Right Arm+ :?
Right Arm+
Right Arm+ :Lead?
aVR
Left arm + :?
Left arm +
Left arm + :Lead?
aVL
Left foot + :?
Left foot +
Left foot + :Lead?
aVF
4th intercostal space, right of sternum :?
4th intercostal space, right of sternum
4th intercostal space, right of sternum :Lead?
V1
4th intercostal space, LEFT of sternum :?
4th intercostal space, LEFT of sternum
4th intercostal space, LEFT of sternum :Lead?
V2
Midway between left sternum 4thIS and Midclavicular line 5th IS :?
Midway between left sternum 4thIS and Midclavicular line 5th IS
Midway between left sternum 4thIS and Midclavicular line 5th IS :Lead?
V3
5th intercostal space, midclavicular line :?
5th intercostal space, midclavicular line
5th intercostal space, midclavicular line :Lead?
V4
direction of most electrical activity in Precordial lead :?
direction of most electrical activity in Precordial lead
direction of most electrical activity in Precordial lead :Lead?
V4
anterior axillary line :?
anterior axillary line
anterior axillary line :Lead?
V5
Mid Axillary line :?
Mid Axillary line
Mid Axillary line :Lead?
V6
I :?
I
I :Lead Location?
R arm -> L Arm
II :?
II
II :Lead Location?
R arm -> L Leg
III :?
III
III :Lead Location?
L leg -> L Arm
aVR :?
aVR
aVR :Lead Location?
Right Arm+
aVL :?
aVL
aVL :Lead Location?
Left arm +
aVF :?
aVF
aVF :Lead Location?
Left foot +
V1 :?
V1
V1 :Lead Location?
4th intercostal space, right of sternum
V2 :?
V2
V2 :Lead Location?
4th intercostal space, LEFT of sternum
V3 :?
V3
V3 :Lead Location?
Midway between left sternum 4thIS and Midclavicular line 5th IS
V4 :?
V4
V4 :Lead Location?
5th intercostal space, midclavicular line
V5 :?
V5
V5 :Lead Location?
anterior axillary line
V6 :?
V6
V6 :Lead Location?
Mid Axillary line
depolarization of atria :?
depolarization of atria
depolarization of atria :ECG event?
P wave
beginning of P to beginning of QRS :?
beginning of P to beginning of QRS
beginning of P to beginning of QRS :ECG event?
PR interval
depolarization of ventricles :?
depolarization of ventricles
depolarization of ventricles :ECG event?
QRS complex
QRS to end of T :?
QRS to end of T
QRS to end of T :ECG event?
QT interval
End of QRS to beginning of T :?
End of QRS to beginning of T
End of QRS to beginning of T :ECG event?
ST segment
ventricular repolarization :?
ventricular repolarization
ventricular repolarization :ECG event?
T wave
seen in hypokallemia :?
seen in hypokallemia
seen in hypokallemia :ECG event?
U wave
Wolf-Parkinson-White :?
Wolf-Parkinson-White
Wolf-Parkinson-White :PR interval?
Short
Wolf-Parkinson-White :QRS width?
Wide
Right bundle branch block :?
Right bundle branch block
Right bundle branch block :QRS width?
Wide
Right bundle branch block :axis?
normal or rightward (over 90 degrees)
Right bundle branch block :terminal QRS deflection in V1/2?
positive
Right bundle branch block :Terminal QRS deflection V5/V6?
negative
Right bundle branch block :RSR' leads?
V1/V2
Right bundle branch block :significant S leads?
lateral leads (I, aVL, V6, V6)
Left bundle branch block :?
Left bundle branch block
Left bundle branch block :QRS width?
wide
Left bundle branch block :terminal QRS deflection in V1/2?
negative
Left bundle branch block :Terminal QRS deflection V5/V6?
positive
Left bundle branch block :RSR' leads?
V5/V6
Left bundle branch block :significant S leads?
V1, V2, V3
Ischemia :?
Ischemia
Ischemia :ST?
depressed, usually localized depression
Inferior :?
Inferior
Inferior :Lead (s)?
II, III, aVF
Anterior :?
Anterior
Anterior :Lead (s)?
V1, V2
Septal :?
Septal
Septal :Lead (s)?
V3, V4
Lateral :?
Lateral
Lateral :Lead (s)?
V5, V6m I, aVL
transmural infarction :?
transmural infarction
transmural infarction :ST?
elevated
Hyperacute infarction :?
Hyperacute infarction
Hyperacute infarction :ST?
elevated ST at site, reciprocal ST depression in opposite leads
Hyperacute infarction :T waves?
elevated
Hyperacute infarction :Q waves?
not yet present
Acite (hrs) inarction :?
Acite (hrs) inarction
Acite (hrs) inarction :ST?
elevated ST
Acite (hrs) inarction :T waves?
inverts
Acite (hrs) inarction :Q waves?
develop
Recent infarction (wks-mos) :?
Recent infarction (wks-mos)
Recent infarction (wks-mos) :ST?
normal ST
Recent infarction (wks-mos) :T waves?
inverted
Recent infarction (wks-mos) :Q waves?
remain
Prior MI :?
Prior MI
Prior MI :ST?
normal
Prior MI :T waves?
normal
Prior MI :Q waves?
remain
Pericarditis :?
Pericarditis
Pericarditis :ST?
elevated in all leads
2-6 hours after infarction :?
2-6 hours after infarction
2-6 hours after infarction :Troponin complex?
rise
10-24 hours after infarction :?
10-24 hours after infarction
10-24 hours after infarction :Troponin complex?
peak
7-14 days after infarction :?
7-14 days after infarction
7-14 days after infarction :Troponin complex?
normalize
infarction :?
infarction
infarction :CKMB?
over 6.5 ng/ml
infarction :CKMB2/CKMB1?
over 1.5
left ventricular hypertrophy :?
left ventricular hypertrophy
right ventricular hypertrophy :?
right ventricular hypertrophy
hypothyroid with no pituitary disease :TSH?
elevated
hyperthyroid :?
hyperthyroid
hyperthyroid :TSH?
low
pregnancy :?
pregnancy
pregnancy :thyroid binding globulin (TGB)?
increase
liver disease :?
liver disease
liver disease :thyroid binding globulin (TGB)?
decrease
malignant thyroid nodule :?
malignant thyroid nodule
malignant thyroid nodule :temperature metaphor?
cold
benign thyroid ndule :?
benign thyroid ndule
benign thyroid ndule :temperature metaphor?
hot
primary adrenal failure (dysfunction) :?
primary adrenal failure (dysfunction)
primary adrenal failure (dysfunction) :ACTH?
up
primary adrenal failure (dysfunction) :pigmenation or pallor?
hyperpigmentation
primary adrenal failure (dysfunction) :aldosterone?
down
primary adrenal failure (dysfunction) :potassium?
up
secondary adrenal failure (H/P axis) :?
secondary adrenal failure (H/P axis)
secondary adrenal failure (H/P axis) :ACTH?
down
secondary adrenal failure (H/P axis) :pigmenation or pallor?
pallor
adrenal insuficiency :?
adrenal insuficiency
adrenal insuficiency :cortosyn (synthetic ACTH) injection?
suprressed cortisol secretion response
Cushing's syndrome :?
Cushing's syndrome
Cushing's syndrome :ACTH?
high
Cushing's syndrome :24 hours urine cortisol?
3x normal or more is diagnostic
Cushing's syndrome :response to Dexamethasone?
suppression of cortisol
Cushing's syndrome :midnight cortisol?
too high
adrenal tumor :?
adrenal tumor
adrenal tumor :ACTH?
low
adrenal tumor :midnight cortisol?
high
ectopic ACTIH :?
ectopic ACTIH
ectopic ACTIH :response to Dexamethasone?
no suppression
1 gram decrease in albumin :?
1 gram decrease in albumin
1 gram decrease in albumin :corresponding decrease in Ca++?
0.8 mg/dl
hypercalcemia :?
hypercalcemia
hypercalcemia :QT interval?
short
hypercalcemia :trousseau's sign (carpal spasm w/ BP cuff)?
no
hypercalcemia :Chvostek's sign (facial muscle twitching from tapping VII)?
no
hypercalcemia :could be low albumin??
no
hypocalcemia :?
hypocalcemia
hypocalcemia :QT interval?
long
hypocalcemia :trousseau's sign (carpal spasm w/ BP cuff)?
yes
hypocalcemia :Chvostek's sign (facial muscle twitching from tapping VII)?
yes
hypocalcemia :could be low albumin??
yes
hyperparathyroidism :?
hyperparathyroidism
hyperparathyroidism :renal stones?
yes
hypercalcemia of malignancy :?
hypercalcemia of malignancy
hypercalcemia of malignancy :renal stones?
no
diabetes :?
diabetes
diabetes :random plasma glucose?
over 200
diabetes :fasting plasma glucose?
over 126
diabetes :oral glucose tolerance test?
over 200
diabetes :Hemoglobin A1C?
over 10%
time of diabetic control assessed :?
time of diabetic control assessed
time of diabetic control assessed :Hemoglobin A1C?
2-3 months
time of diabetic control assessed :Serum fructosamine?
4-6 weeks
Acromegaly :?
Acromegaly
Acromegaly :oral glucose tolerance test?
GH not suppressed