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54 Cards in this Set

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Normal magnesium level is ___.
1.5-2.5 mEq/liter
What ion moves with potassium?
magnesium
Conditions that cause K+ depletion?
vomiting, diarrhea, diuretics
Reasons for decreased Mg include?
Chronic diarrhea, diuretic use, malabsorption syndrome, prolonged gastric drainage
Increased Mg levels may be due to?
renal failure of insufficiency, DKA before treatment (after treatment there may be a low Mg level), dehydration
Normal potassium level is __.
3.5-5.5 mEq/liter
What ion is important for the rate and force of contractions and cardiac output?
Potassium
Decreased levels of potassium are due to?
diarrhea
pyloric obstruction
starvation
malabsorption
severe vomiting
severe burns
diuretic administration-MOST COMMON (i.e. Lasix)
NPO status with no K replacements
Increased potassium levels are due to?
renal failure
DKA
Internal hemorrhage
Over correction of low potassium levels
Can potassium be given IV push?
No
Can potassium be given by IM?
No
If giving po, should potassium be taken on a full or empty stomach?
Full stomach
IV potassium must be diluted. Give only __ mEq an hour.
10
What is the most abundant ECF electrolyte?
Sodium
The normal level of sodium is ___.
135-145 mEq/liter
Reasons for low sodium?
Severe burns
Severe diarrhea
Vomiting
Excessive IV fluids of non electrolytes
Pyloric obstruction
DKA
Edema-most common
Stomach suction accompanied by water or ice chips by mouth
Reasons for high sodium?
Hypovolemia
Dehydration
Fever
Diabetes insipidus-Results in increased urine output
Increased salt intake
Hyperventilation
Cushing syndrome
With ___ (electrolyte) imbalances watch for CNS changes.
sodium
Causes of increased calcium levels are due to?
Acidosis
Hyperparathyroidism
Bone cancer
Immobility-Most common
Causes of decreased calcium levels?
Alkalosis
Hypoparathyroidism
Inadequate intake of calcium and/or vitamin
Describe the two tests that elicit signs of calcium deficiency?
Chvostek's sing (facial spasms)
Trousseau's sign (carpopedal spasm)
Normal glucose range is ___.
80-120 mg/dl
Patients on steroids will see an increase in their ___.
blood sugar
Increased levels of glucose is seen with what conditions?
diabetes mellitus
shock, trauma
obesity
stress
Decreased levels of glucose is seen with what conditions?
Starvation
Increased insulin dosage
Malabsorption problems
The liver normally removes ___ and changes it to ___.
ammonia, urea
___ is a laxative which causes the ammonia to be eliminated from the body.
Lactulose
What lab value is used as a gross indicator of kidney function?
BUN
What lab value is usually due to inadequate excretion due to kidney disease or urinary obstruction/renal failure?
BUN
Elevated ___ is often seen with elevated BUN (or poor kidney function).
creatinine
Normal WBC count is?
4,100-10,900 cell/uL
What lab value is used to determine infection/inflammation?
WBC count
What lab value is used to determine if differential or bone marrow biopsy is needed?
WBC count
What lab value is used to monitor chemotherapy or radiation therapy?
WBC count
What term is used to refer to an elevated WBC?
leukocytosis
What term is used to refer to a deficiency in WBCs?
leukopenia
A low ___ indicates bone marrow depression.
WBC count
What term is used to refer to a sign of acute infection?
shift to the left
___ are immature neutrophils.
___ are mature neutrophils.
bands, segs
A shift to the left indicates more ___ than ___.
bands, segs
What is hematocrit (HCT)?
Volume of RBC in 100 cc of blood.
See a decrease in anemia with ___.
overhydration
RBC percentage in males?
40-54%
RBC percentage in females?
37-47%
___ is the oxygen carrying pigment and main component of the RBCs.
hemoglobin (Hgb)
Hemoglobin level for males?
13-18 gm/dl
Hemoglobin level for females?
12-16 gm/dl
A blood infusion is usually given if Hgb is less than ___.
8
Normal platelet range?
150,000-400,000
The terminology for low platelet count?
thrombocytopenia
___ are important for clotting.
Platelets
What enzyme is increased with pancreatic disease?
amylase
This test is increased with inflammation.
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
ESR is ___ (increased or decreased) with inflammation.
increased