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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
inferior border of sup. mediastinum?
plane going from sternal angle to IV disc b/w T4 and T5
what is the mediastinum?
how many divisions does it have?
-the region b/w the 2 pleural sacs
-2 major subdivisions
what subdivisions does inferior mediastinum have?
posterior, middle (heart & great vessels), and anterior
when is the thymus gland active? what does it do post "active period"?
-active in immunity in childhood
-in adulthood, involuted and infiltrated with fat, but still makes T cells
there are two major pairs of nerves that run vertically through the mediastinum. which is more medial?
the vagus nerve is more medial (phrenic is more lateral)
what is the cartilagineous bump at the end of the trachea and what does it delineate?
the carina, and it is the first distinction b/w R and L bronchi
which structure is just anterior to the esophagus? posterior?
ant.: trachea
post.: vertebral column
what nerve can be seen looping beneath the aorta but does not innervate a structure in the mediastinum?
the recurrent laryngeal nerve (innervates larynx)
typically, the aortic arch has how many branches? name them
3. from first to last branch: brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid a., and left subclavian a.
where does the right common carotid artery originate from typically?
it is a subdivision off the brachiocephalic trunk (the other major subdiv. is the right subclavian a.)
what artery that branches directly off the aortic arch travels up the neck?
the left common carotid a.
what is the embryological origin of the ligamentum arteriosum? what two structures does it connect?
ductus arteriosum. connects aorta and pulmonary trunk
where do parasympathetic nerves originate from?
S2-S4 and cranial
where are the pleural sacs in relation to the sympathetic trunks?
the pleural sacs are anterior to the sympathetic trunks
what nerves run medially (towards or ON the vertebral column?)?
splanchnic nerves
do splanchnic nerves innervate the mediastinum?
no, they are sympathetic innervation for abdominal viscera (ie, inferior to the diaphragm)
where does the least splanchnic nerve originate?
T12 sympathetic ganglia
What splanchnic nerve originates at levels T5-T9?
greater splanchnic nerve
what is the general function of parasympathetic innervation?
to restore homeostasis
on what side of the body does the azygous vein run?
what nerve originates from sympathetic ganglia T10-T11?
lesser splanchnic nerve
where is the accessory hemiazygous vein in relation to hemiazygous?
access. hemiazygous is superior
access. hemiazygous and hemiazygous drain into what vein?
what drains the 4-8th posterior intercostal spaces?
accessory hemiazygous vein
where does the azygous drain into? what does it drain?
-dumps into the SVC
-drains all R post. intercostal veins, plus hemiazygous and access. hemiazygous
what is the thoracic duct?
largest lymph channel in the body
where does thoracic duct originate? empty?
-orig: chyle cisterna in abdomen
-dumps: into venous circulation on L side of neck at (L internal jugular and L subclavian) veins
what vein is lateral to the thoracic duct?
costal pleura cover what neural structure?
sympathetic trunk