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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Where are the kidneys?
The kidneys are encapsulated by:
Dense irregular connective tissue
Outer region of the kidney just deep to the capsule:
What structures are in the cortex?
-Renal corpuscles
-Proximal/distal tubules
-Medullary rays
What does a Renal Corpuscle consist of?
-Mesangial cells
-Bowman's capsule
What is a glomerulus?
A tuft of fenestrated capillaries
What are mesangial cells?
Modified smooth muscle cells that support the glomerulus and may maintain its basement membrane.
Can you distinguish mesangial cells by light microscopy?
What is bowman's capsule?
A double-walled epithelial chamber surrounding the glomerulus.
Which part of Bowman's capsule can you see via light microscopy?
The parietal layer
What is the PARIETAL layer of bowman's capsule made of?
Simple Squamous Epithelial cells
What does the VISCERAL layer of bowman's capsule consist of?
To what 3 types of cells do the nuclei seen in a glomerulus belong?
-Capillary endothelial cells
-Mesangial cells
What is the clear space between the parietal and visceral layers of Bowman's space?
Urinary space
What is in the urinary space?
Plasma ultrafiltrate
What are the 3 layers of the filtration barrier?
1. Fenestrated capillary endothelium
2. Fused basal laminae of capillary endothelial cells and podocytes
3. Diaphragm-covered filtration slits between podocyte foot processes
How do you tell apart primary and 2ndary foot processes?
Primary are big, 2ndary are like little babies
What are the pores on the endothelial side of the filtration barrier?
What are the pores on the urinary space side o the filtration barrier?
Filtration slits
Where do the afferent/efferent artioles enter the glomerulus?
At the vascular pole
What side is opposite the vascular pole?
The urinary pole
What does the plasma ultrafiltrate draining the urinary space enter into?
The proximal tubule
What is the lumen of a proximal tubule like?
Occluded with brush border
How do you tell apart a proximal from a distal tubule?
The distal tubules have much wider open lumens and no brush border.
How can you tell what a loop of henle is?
It has really thin walls and will look almost like a capillary.
What type of epithelial cells do proximal tubules have?
High cuboidal cells
Features of PCT cells:
-Eosinophilic via many mitochon.
-Granular cytoplasm
-Abundant long microvilli
-Brush border
Can you see many nuclei in cross-sections of PCTs?
What type of epithelial cells are distal tubules made of?
Low cuboidal
Features of Distal tubule cells:
-Not so eosinophilic
-No brush border
-Centrally placed nuclei
Cany you see many nuclei within a given cross section of a distal tubule?
Yes - because the cells are smaller.
What special cells can you see in the distal tubule? How do you know what they are?
Macula densa cells - they are tightly packed COLUMNAR cells - so contrast to the cuboidal cells.
What do macula densa cells do?
Detect NaCl in the filtrate and signal Renin release from JG cells in the afferent arteriole.
Where do descending limbs of the Loop of Henle descend?
Within medullary rays into the medulla.
How do you know when you're looking at thin loops of henle?
They have SQUAMOUS epithelial cells and are in the medulla, not the cortex.
So what would you NOT see near henle's limbs?
Corpuscles - they're only in the cortex.
How would you know if you're not looking at a thin limb of LOH even if it has squamous cells?
if it has bright red RBCs in it - then it's a capillary.
How do you identify collecting ducts?
They have LARGER lumens, DISTINCT cell borders, and will not be in the cortex.
What type of epithelium do collecting ducts have?
Cuboidal to columnar
Are the cytoplasms of collecting duct epithelial cells eosinophilic?
NO they are PALE
Where are the nuclei in collecting duct cells?
Centrally located
How does the # of visible nuclei per cross-section vary between the tubule ducts?
-Proximal = fewest/eosinophilic
-Distal = more
-Collecting duct = most/pale
What is the stroma of the kidney made of?
Reticular fibers
3 Tunics of the Ureter:
So the innermost layer of the ureter (facing lumen) is made up of what type of cells?
Transitional epithelium
What lies directly under the transitional epithelium?
Lamina propria
What is under the lamina propria?
The muscular layers
What are the 2 muscular layers in the ureter? Arrangement?
Inner = longitutinal
Outer = circular
What is under the muscular layer?
The adventitia
How does the inner/outer arrangement of muscle in the ureter compare to in the digestive system?
It is opposite.
What does the mucosal layer of the BLADDER consist of?
Transitional epithelium
What lies underneath the urothelium?
Lamina propria
what can be seen in the lamina propria of the bladder?
Pink/Refractile fibers that become very coarse in the muscularis.
What are the PINK fibers in the lamina propria under the transitional epithelium of the bladder made of?
How many layers of smooth muscle are in the bladder? Why?
3 - because it is saccular
How are the muscular layers of the bladder arranged?
-outermost is longitudinal
-Middle is circular
-Innermost is also longitudinal
What lies beyond the outermost longitudinal layer of muscle?
What is the most common type of bladder cancer?
Transitional cell carcinoma