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32 Cards in this Set

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Do structures in the basal ganglia project fibers through the anterior commissure?
No - even though this structure penetrates the basal ganglia, it carries primarily axons between the temporal lobes.
Which limb of the internal capsule is used by the basal ganglia for projection of fibers?
The anterior limb.
What is hemiballismus?
A ballistic flailing of limbs due to unilateral lesions to the subthalamus.
Describe two functions of the basal ganglia.
1.Initiation and planning of movements
2.Suppression of unwanted movements
3.Reinforces ongoing movements in the face of obstacles
What is athetosis?
The symptomatic writhing motion, most often seen in HD patients.
Describe the tremor caused by damage to the basal ganglia. How is this different from the tremor seen in patients with cerebellar damage?
Basal ganglia damage results in a resting tremor that typically disappears when movement is initiated. Cerebellar damage causes an intention tremor that worsens as a movement is performed.
What is the basic function of the cerebellum? Name three aspects of a movement that are monitored by the cerebellum.
*Modification of ongoing movements
*Limb proprioception, motor programs from the cerebral cortex, and vestibular and ocular input concerning balance
What are the three cardinal signs of cerebellar damage?
1.Ataxia
2.Nystagmus
3.Intention tremor
What kind of fibers are carried by the superior cerebellar peduncle? Where do these fibers decussate?
The SCP carries primarily efferent fibers. Deccussation occurs at the level of the inferior colliculus.
What kind of fibers are carried by the middle cerebellar peduncle? From where do these fibers come?
The MCP carries almost exclusively afferent fibers that come in from the contralateral pons.
Which cerebellar peduncle would be affected by an infarct in the PICA?
The inferior cerebellar peduncle as it is passes through the dorsolateral mid-medulla.
What kind of fibers are carried by the inferior cerebellar peduncle?
The ICP carries both efferent (outgoing) and afferent (incoming) fibers.
Which peduncle carries output from the fastigial nucleus? What functions does this nucleus attend to?
*output goes to the inferior cerebellar peduncle
*posture and balance
What are the 2 interposed nuclei? Where do these nuclei send their output fibers? What functions do these nuclei attend to?
*emboliform and globose
*output goes to the SCP
*coordination of limb movement
What is the function of the dentate nucleus?
Motor planning.
Describe the innervation provided by the Purkinje cells of the cerebellar cortex to the deep nuclei.
It is always inhibitory.
T/F:
Afferent fibers that synapse on the deep nuclei directly without contacting the Purkinje cells provide both inhibitory and excitatory stimulation.
False: these fibers provide excitatory stimulation only.
What clinical emergency is often associated with the cerebellar tonsils?
Increased intracranial pressure can cause the tonsils to herniate through the foramen magnum and compress the brainstem
What parts of the cerebellar cortex comprise the spinocerebellar division? The main input to this area comes from where?
*the vermis and intermediate hemispheres
*receives input from the below - i.e. regarding spinal activity (posture and balance and limb movement).
What portions of the cerebellar cortex comprise the cerebrocerebellar area? What function is this area involved with?
*the lateral hemispheres
*involved with motor planning
Which portions of the cerebellar cortex make up the vestibulocerebellar area? What is its function?
*the flocculus and nodulus
*balance and eye movement
What is a significant difference between the wiring of the cerebellar and cerebral cortex, especially in regards to localizing lesions?
The cerebellar cortex is wired ipsilaterally while the cerebral cortex is wired contralaterally.
Where do climbing fibers originate from?
The inferior olivary nucleus.
What five structures make up the basal ganglia?
1.Caudate
2.Putamen
3.Subthalamus
4.Substantia Nigra
5.Globus pallidus
Name three symptoms seen with damage to the basal ganglia.
1.Chorea
2.Athetosis
3.Bradykinesia
4.Rigidity
5.Resting tremor
6.Hemiballismus
In general, what information does output from the cerebellum provide?
Refinement of movements.
Where does the fastigial nucleus receive projections from?
It handles projections from the spinal cord and the vermis of the spinocerebellar cortex, as well as from Purkinje cells in the FN lobe
What part of the cerebellar cortex do the interposed nuclei receive projections from? How does this relate to their function?
They receive projections from the intermediate hemispheres of the spinocerebellar cortex and thus are involved with limb movement.
What part of the cerebellar cortex does the dentate nucleus receive projections from and how does this relate to its function?
It receives projections from the lateral hemispheres of the cerebrocerebellar cortex and thus is involved with motor planning.
What part of the cerebellum does the vestibular nucleus receive projections from?
The flocculus and nodulus, and vermis.
Which of the deep nuclei send their output through the SCP?
The dentate and interposed nuclei.
Which of the deep nuclei send their output through the ICP?
The fastigial nuclei.