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29 Cards in this Set

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The empirical approach to knowledge is based on
observations
The purposes of experiments is to
explore cause-effect relationships
background characteristics such as socioeconomic status
demographics
causal comparative study
1.describe/observe some current condition
2.look to the past to identify possible causes of condition
Survey
describe the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of a population
Census
interviewing entire population
Field Research
thorough, intensive case study of a group as a participant or non-participant researcher
longitudinal research
repeatedly measuring traits of participants over a long period of time to trace developmental trends
correlational research
degree of relationship among two or more quantitative variables
historical research
1. examine data to understand the past
2. attempt to understand the dynamics of human history
3. develop theories that may explain historical events and patterns
exhaustive variable
variable with a category for each respondent
Independent variable
presumed cause
Dependent variable
response or outcome
Conceptual definition
general topic
Operational definition
redefining a variable in terms of physical steps
debriefing
reviewing the purpose of the study and procedure, offering to share results with participants
theory
unified explanation for observations that may otherwise be considered unrelated
functions of research
1. test hypotheses derived from a theory
2. provide observations and conclusions that we can use to formulate a theory
inferential statistics
help draw inferences about the effects of sampling errors and make generalizations about the characteristics of populations
significance tests
help us decide if descriptive stats from studies are reliable

*LOOK FOR LESS THAN 0.5
Samples yeild
statistics
populations yeild
parameters
Nominal
naming level
frequencies are also referred to as
"numbers of cases"
ordinal
ranking level
interval
equal interval with no absolute zero
Ratio
level with equal intervals and an absolute zero
proportions
alternatives to percentages
Standard deviation:
calculating the number of points you must move outward from the mean (bell curve) to encompass 68% of cases