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97 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Clinical reasons for performing urinalysis testing
important indicator of health, used to detect renal, unrinary tract and systemic disease.
What happens to urine when left at room temperature?
It will decompose and leave inaccurate results due to presence of bacteria
Urine specimens should be analyzed while fresh and preferably within how many hours?
If immediate analysis is not possible, then urine should be
refrigerated until examined
Urea splitting bacteria in unpreserved urine will cause what?
amonia (which causes pH to increase in combination with hydrogen ions)
An increase in pH will disolve what in urine if present?
How much Toluene should be used in a specimen?
2mL per 100 mL of urine
What effect does tolune have?
floats on the surface of specimen creating an airtight seal from the environment
How much Formalin should be used in a specimen?
1 drop per 30 mL of urine
What is Formalin used for?
to preserve urinary sediment/cells
Thymol has what effect?
preserves urine by inhibiting bacteria/fungus
What does thymol cause?
false positive protein level
How much preservative should be used?
1 tablet per 30 mL of urine.
What do preservatives release?
What does chloroform do?
inhibits bacterial growth
Name the benefits of first morning void.
Most concentrated
Increase number of abnormal elements
Decreased deterioration of formed elements
What is recommended for chemical and microscopic exams?
First morning void
What is the advantage of collecting a random urinalysis?
collect anytime
most convenient and most common
can detect abnormalities, but not as sensitive as FMV
What is specimen of choice for bacterial cultures?
clean catch (midstream)
What is the purpose of the 24 hour urine specimen?
quantitative results
Describe the physical examination of urine
color, odor and clarity
Describe the chemical examination of urine.
pH, protein, glucose, ketones, occult blood, leukocyte esterease, nitrate, urobilirubin and bilirubin
Normal value of a 24 hour period?
600-2000 mL
Normal average of urine in 24 hour period?
Pigment of urine is called what?
Dark Orange urine indicates what?
Blue green urine?
methylene blue
olive green to brown urine?
Why would urine have a cloudy or turbid appearance?
phosphate and carbonates
If urine had a pinkish turbidity what may be present?
urates (crystals)
Why would tones be present?
decrease intake of carbohydrates, , digestive disturbance, dietary imbalance, eclampsia, prolonged vomiting and diarhhea.
What is ketonuria?
result of imcomplete fatty acid utilization.
What may ketones indicate?
DM, restricted carbohydrates and following anesthesia
What is the presence of blood in urine termed as?
Intact RBC's present is indicative to what?
damage to kidney or urinary tract
Urine may appear as what if blood is present in urine?
red and "smoky"
Normal range for specific gravity?
Purpose of specific gravity?
measures the concentrating and diluting ability of kidney
If bilirubin is present in the urine what condition does the patient most likely have?
How does bilirubin appear in the urine?
brown to black (amber)
What does bilirubinuria indicate the prescense of?
hepatocellular disease or intra or extra hepatic biliary obstruction
What is normally present in urine, but concentration of 1 EU or less?
May be indicative of UTI
Severe proteinuria
greater than 3.5 g/day
Proteinuria is an important indicator for what disease?
renal disease
Proteinuria may cause what in patients?
Glomerular damage
What is Intercapillary glomerulosclerosis?
severe venous congestion of the kidney.
Severe Proteinuria is indicative of what?
Lupus nephritis
amyloid disease
lipoid nephrosis
intercapillary glomerulosclerosis
Range for Moderate proteinuria
0.5-3.5 g/day
Moderate proteinuria is indicative of what?
Tubular Interstitial disease
Range for Minimal proteinuria
less than 0.5 g/day
What is indicative to minimal proteinuria?
polycystic kidneys
chronic pyelonephritis
What is the quanity of glucose in the urine dependent on?
blood glucose level, rate glomerular filtration, and the degree of tubular reabsorption.
Most concentrated urine psecimen?
First morning void
squamous epithelial cells are considered what?
contaminents in urine
Cystine crystals are what shaped?
Triple phosphate crystals are what shaped?
coffin lid
If urine is exposed to light what happens to the pH?
Crystals found in alkaline urine are what?
triple phosphate, calcium carbonate and ammonium biurates
If uric acid in urine is present suspect what?
what crystals are seen together in urine?
tyrosine and luecine
Describe calcium oxalate crystals
octahedral, envelope shaped ot biconcave discs
Important indicator for renal disease
Glucose will appear in urine once the threshold of what in the blood if exceeded?
160-180 mg/dl
What is polyuria?
increase urine output
What is oliguria?
decrease urine output.
UTI by E.coli is
acidic urine
UTI by pseudomonas is
alkaline urine
pH of urine is
average pH of urine is
most common casts found in urine
increase of hyaline cast are due to what?
strenuous exercise and dehydration
Red cell casts are due to what?
glomerulonephritis, nephritis and renal trauma
Granular casts are due to what?
renal disease or following strenuous exercise
How are crystals and casts documented
Waxy casts are due to what?
renal failure, malignant HTN, renal amyloidosis, diabetic nephrology, tubular inflammation and degeneration, and during renal allograft rejection
How is yeast and mucous documented?
How is bacteria documented?
How are parasites and sperm documented?
Fields that must be counted when counting wbc's in urine is
10-15 fields
Fecal oocult blood is defined as the presence of what in the stool?
hidden or unseen blood
When fecal occult blood is present in large amounts, fecal blood may be readily indentified how?
Bright red blood can coat the surface of the stool with what kind of condition?
Lower GI tract bleeding
Upper GI tract may cause the stool to appear how?
dark or mahogany
Fecal blood is a frequent and early symptom of what?
colorectal cancer
50% of GI tract cancers are what?
colorectal cancer
What type of diet should a patient be on before collecting a fecal sample
meat free for 3 days and high fiber
How many specimens and for how many days should a patient collect a fecal sample for?
3 specimens from 3 seperate days
Before placing the stool sample on the test card where would you collect the sample from
use aliquot from the center of the stool sample
Test kits are designed to pick up samples between __________, passages of more than_________ may be an important sign of GI disease
5-10 mL

2.8 mL
How many times must a test be repeated to be completely valid?
3-6 times
Patient's diet should be free of meats, fish and vegetables with _______ activity
peroxidase (Vitamin C)
What test should be completed if results require further studies?
What drugs can cause false positives?
Boric Acid
Inorganic iron
Oxidizing agents
Within how many days should a sample be tested within?
6 days
What percentage of false positives occur in tests?
What color will a positive reaction show?