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40 Cards in this Set

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What are the five different groups you will examine?
arthropods (fruitflies), echinoderms (sea urchin), amphibians (forgs), birds (chicken), and mamals (rat)
What are the three fundamental differences in development?
cleavage patterns and associated control processes, fate of the blastopore, and coelom formation
What is different btwn protostomes and deuterostomes during cleavage?
protostomes show a sprial cleavage pattern and deuterostomes show radial cleavage pattern
cleavage
initial cell divisions of embryo. during cleavage a large cell is cleaved into smaller cells without growth
Which of the two protostomes or deuterostomes have determinate type of development?
protostomes embryonic cells is determined very early. If damaged early cannot "regulate".
In protostomes the blastopore will eventually become what?
the mouth
In deuterostomes the blastopore will eventually become what?
the anus, with the mouth arising secondarily
gastrulation
cells migrate from the surface inward to form a cavity, the archenteron
archenteron
an inward cavity
How is coelom formed during gastrulation for protostomes?
solid masses of mesodermal cells split to form the coeloms
How is coelom formed during gastrulation for deuterostomes?
formed by the outpocketing of mesodermal cells associated with the archenteron
mammals typically have _______ production of gametes.
cyclic
non-primate undergo ____ cycle
estrous cycle
Describe the oogenesis in primates
After DNA rep but prior to first meiosis there is a primary oocyte. 2N 4C. AFter first meiotic division two daughter cells, secondary oocyte. 1N 2C.
seminiferous tubules
site of spermatogenic cells
spermatozoa
fairly mature sperm cells; with tail; found in lumen of semniferous tubule
interstitial cells
small clumps of cells between the seminiferous tubules that produce testosterone
epipdymis
coiled tube on the surface of the testis. Maturation of sperm occurs here
vas deferens
duct that is the distal extension of the epidiymis
primary follicle
small, single-layered cluster of cells surrounding a developing ovum; as the folice develops it secretes nutrients for the ovum; in additon, the follicular cells secrete estrogen
mature follicle
very large follicles, bulging from surface of ovary.
ovum
egg cell
corpus luteum
large mass of cells formed from the follicle after ovulation; secretes estrogen and progesterone
What happens when sperm penetrates the jelly coat and fuses with the cell membrane?
1. rapid depolarization from negative to a positive cell membrane potential. (fast block)
2. fusion of cortical vesicles with the egg cell membrane
3. vesicular contents are released
4. increased separation btwn egg cell membrane and vitelline membrane
5. hardening of vitelline membrane (fertilization membrane)
metamorphosis
from larva into an adult
larval stage
aquatic
embryonic development
egg to larva (tadpole)
Rana pipiens
common grass frog
Xenopus laevis
three clawed frog
which side is lighter in color animal pole or vegetal?
vegetal pole (contains most of the yolk and is heavier)
holoblastic
both cells equal in size
meroblastic
two cells not equal in size
blastocoel
fluid-filled cavity
list three germ layers
endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm
neurulation
process by which the nervous system is formed
notochord
rod-like support characteristic of chordates
albumen
shell membranes
amnion
covering the whole body of the embryonic chick

gas exchange
otic vesicle
small saclike structure alongside the middle of the brain
Echinoderms, like vertebrates, are deuterostomes or protostome?
deuterostomes