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57 Cards in this Set

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Two componenets of blood.
Blood plasma (liquids) and formed elements (solids).
Three types of formed elements in blood.
Erythrocytes, thrombocytes, and leukocytes.
Erythrocytes
Red blood cells.
Thrombocytes
Blood platelets.
Leukocytes
Whtie blood cells.
Hematopoiesis
Formation of blood cells.
Where does hematopoiesis take place?
In red bone marrow, in the epiphyses of long bones or the spongy bone of flat bones.
Hemosytoblast
A luripotential stem cell which can turn into erythrocytes, thrombocytes, or leukocytes.
Polycythemia
Too many red blood cells.
Anemia
Too few red blood cells.
Thromocytosis
Too many blood platelets.
Thrombocytopenia
Too few blood platelets.
Leukocytosis
Too many leukocytes.
Leukopenia
Too few leukocytes.
Approximately how many red blood cells are in one microliter of blood?
4-6 million.
What is the shape of red blood cells?
They are circular and biconcave discs.
Are red blood cells nucleated or anucleated?
Anucleted, which means they can't divide.
Erythropoiesis
Formation of red blood cells.
Start cell and end cell of erythropoiesis.
Starts as a hemocytoblast and ends as a erythrocyte.
What is the function of erythrocytes?
To transport respiratory gases.
About how many hemoglobin molecules are there per red blood cell?
250 million.
How many oxygen molecules can a single hemoglobin molecule carry?
4.
Why can a hemoglobin molecule carry only 4 oxygen molecules?
Because the oxygen binds to the heme group and each hemoglobin molecule only has 4 heme groups.
What percent of oxygen is carried by hemoglobin?
98.5%.
What percent of carbon dioxide is carried by hemoglobin?
20%.
About how many thrombocytes are there per microliter of blood?
150,000-400,000.
What are thrombocytes (from what do they originate)?
They are cytoplasic fragments of megackaryocytes.
Megakaryocyte
A cell in red bone marrow.
What is the function of thrombocytes?
The stoppage of blood flow; blood clotting.
Three steps from the formation of throbocytes.
Hemocytoblast, megakaryocyte, platelets.
List all five leukocytes.
Neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes.
Eosin
An acid dye which stains red.
Methylene Blue
A basic dye which stains dark blue/black.
List all five leukocytes in order of abundance from most to least abundant.
Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas. Neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil.
Neutrophil
50-70%, 10-12 micromiters, basophilic, banded or 2-6 lobes, eosin & methylene blue eye, functions in phagocytosis and exocytosis, granulocyte, microphage, polymorphonuclear leukocyte.
Basophil
0.5-1%, 10-14 micrometers, basophilic, usually biloped, methylene blue dye, causes inflammation and allergies, granulocyte, similar to mast cells in tissues.
Eosinophil
2-5%, 10-14 micrometers, basophillic, usually bilobed, eosin dye, functions in destroying parastic worms and stopping inflammation, granulocyte, works hand in hand with basophils.
Monocyte
3-8%, 14-24 micrometers, basophilic, often folded or indented, functions in phagocytosis (cell eating), agranulocyte, becomes a macrophage in tissues.
Lymphocyte
25-45%, 5-17 micrometers, basophilic, clumped cromatin, functions in immune response, agranulocyte, has 3 main types (B cells, T cells, and NK cells).
Which leukocyte is the largest?
Monocyte.
Clumsp of this are seen in the nucleus of a lymphocyte.
Chromatin.
Leukocyte which has relatively large cytoplasim granules that stain red.
Eosinophil.
Larger of the two blood cells that lack a nucleus.
Erythrocyte.
The nucleus of this leukocyte looks foamy or spongy.
Monocyte.
The usual shape of nuclei of basophils and eosinophils.
Bilobed.
Leukocyte which has rather large cytoplasmic granules that stain blue-black.
Basophil.
leukocyte whichhas a large round nucelus that almost fill the cell.
Lymphocyte.
Lympocyte that has a nucleus which can be banded or segmented.
Neutrophil.
A monocyte that goes into tissues.
Macrophage.
Generally the least plentiful type of white blood cell.
Basophil.
Leukocyte which releases chemicals that help cause inflammation.
Basophil.
Because of their function, neutrophils have this nickname.
Macrophage.
Because of the shape of their nuclei, neutrophils have this nickname.
Polymorphonuclear leukocyte
Leukocyte which has relatively small granules in the cytoplasm that are visible with the compound microscope.
Neutrophil.
The most plentiful type of blood cell.
Red blood cell.
Leukocyte which releases chemicals that help stop inflammation.
Eosinophil.
Leukocyte which has cytoplasmic granules that are both acidophilic and basophilic.
Neutrophil.