Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

14 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Communication Types
between cells - short and long range

electrical and chemical
Communication Types
-local hormones

-when released from one cell , they have effect on cell next door (diff. cell type)

-endothelium lines vasculature--> relataxion of vascular smooth muscle
Communication Types
-specific for each neuron

-NTs bind as released--> short distances

-released by exocytosis--> neurons, muscles, and endocrine cells

-removal involves digestion (chemically destroyed), diffusion, reuptake, and recycling
communication types
-cells derived from epitholium

-release hormones into blood--> hormones(H) go everywhere
communication types
-H's released from neurons

-faster release than simple endocrine H's

-effect is like other hormones: depend on receptors on different cells
hydrophilic/hydrophobic hormones
hydrophilic (water soluble)
-amino acids/small peptides
-bind to membrane receptors---> 2nd messengers

hydrophobic(not very water soluble)
-bound to protein in plasma
-diffuse into cells in nucleus: raise protein synthesis
-many side effects
Second Messengers
-produced by hydrophilic H's which bind to membrane receptors
-receptor activate enzyme produces intracellular product-2nd messenger
-2nd messenger will alter cell functions
Second messengers
-cyclic AMP
-activate kinases(add phosphate to molecules)
-kinases amplify signal to activate cascade pathways. 1-10-100-->
Second Messengers
activate kinases
Second Messengers
-causes release of Ca(2+) from sarcoplasmic reticulum
-SA derived from ER
Nuclear Receptors
-bind hydrophilic H's
-form interface between H's and your genes
-presence of particular N. Rec. cause activation of specific genes
-variations in gene activation basis for different effects and side effects
-released by IP3 from SR
-bind proteins-> alter protein activity often, raise enzyme activity
-Ca(2+) gap junctions coordinate ciliary motion in oviduct/lungs
-muscle contraction, exocytosis, WBC movement, phagocytosis
G Proteins
-connect receptor to an enzyme
-G protein binds GTP - [whole system is active]
-stay active until GTP->GDP->[not active]
-timing element - vision, growth, vesicle movement
Neural-Endocrine Comparisons
-neurons are rapid, precise, brief, and produce virtually no side-effects
-H's have long duration, slow, widespread effects receptor dependent
-H's have side effects especially the H-phobic H's
-neurohormones like other hormones-release is faster from neurons