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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which element is not present in DNA?
sulfur
In a nucleic acid, what chemical group is found in the 3' end and 5' end?
hydroxyl group
During which phase of the cellular cycle does replication take place?
S phase
The first experiment demonstrating that DNA was the molecule carrying hereditary information was made by?
Hershey & Chase
Which cell type has multiple origins of replication in its genome?
Eukaryotic Cell
DNA is:
-semi-conservative
-proceeds in two directions from the origin of replication
How many replication forks are generated from one OriC?
2
How are nucleotides added?
5' deoxynucleotide triphosphates are added to 3' OH end of new strand
What is providing the energy necessary to add a nucleotide in a forming strand?
breaking bonds between the triphosphates
What is the difference between the leading strand and lagging strand?
leading strand is synthesized continuously and lagging is replicated through Okazaki fragments
RNA primase=
synthesizes RNA primer from DNA template
DNA polymerase III=
synthesizes DNA from DNA template and adds nucleotides
DNA polymerase I=
hydrolyzes RNA primer and replaces it with DNA. Also involved with repair
Ligase=
catalyzes phosphodiester bond between 2 fragments
Topoisomerase=
eliminates supercoiling to facilitate unwinding by helicase
Helicase=
unwinds double helix
What is the function of single-strain binding proteins?
they bind to one strand to make sure polymerase can do its job; stops DNA from recoiling
Where does replication take place?
nucleus
Where does transcription occur?
nucleus
Where does translation occur?
Rough ER or cytoplasm
3' End
The end of a strand of nucleic acid that has a hydroxyl (OH) group on the number 3 carbon of the deoxyribose or ribose and is not linked to another nucleotide
phosphodiester bond
the covalent bond that links ribonucleotides together to form RNA
coding sequence
the portion of DNA that contains the actual message for protein synthesis
mRNA
a molecule synthesized by complementary base pairing of ribonucleotides with deoxyribonucleotides to match a portion of one strand of DNA coding for a polypeptide or protein
codon
a series of three consecutive mRNA bases coding for one specific amino acid
promoter
a segment of DNA that determines what region of the DNA and which strand of DNA will be transcribed into RNA`
RNA polymerase
the enzyme that initiates transcription, joins the RNA nucleotides together, and terminates transcription
termination site
a "stop" signal at the end of a gene that causes the completed mRNA to drop off the gene
precurser mRNA
the RNA synthesized after RNA polymerase copies both the exons and the introns of a gene
mature mRNA
the RNA produced after noncoding regions (introns) are excised and coding regions (exons) are joined together by complexes of ribonucleoproteins called spliceosomes
cap
an unusual nucleotide, 7-methylguanylate, that is added to the 5' end of the pre-mRNA early in transcription. It helps ribosomes attach for translation
introns
Non-protein coding regions of DNA that are not part of the code for the final protein that are interspersed among the coding regions of DNA in most genes of higher eukaryotic cells
exons
the coding regions of DNA in most genes of higher eukaryotic cells that actually code for the final protein
poly A tail
a series of 100-250 adenine ribonucleotides that is added to the 3' end of the pre-mRNA
anticodon
a series of three tRNA bases complementary to a mRNA codon
peptidyl-transferase
the ribozyme that forms peptide bonds between amino acids during translation
30s or 40s ribosomal subunit
the ribosomal site that binds to mRNA to form the initiation complex
A site
the ribosomal site where aminoacyl-tRNA first attaches during translation
P site
the ribosomal site where the growing amino acid chain is termporarily being held by a tRNA as the next codon in the mRNA is being read
aminoacyl tRNA
a complex of amino acid and a tRNA molecule
ribosome binding site
the sequence of bases on mRNA to which a 30s or 40s ribosomal subunit first attaches
nonsense or stop codon
a series of three mRNA bases coding for no amino acid and thus terminates the protein chain
initiation complex
a complex consisting of a 30s or 40s ribosomal subunit, a tRNA having the anticodon UAC and carrying an altered form of the amino acid methionine (N-formylmethionine or f-Met), and proteins called initiation factors
tRNA
a three-dimensional, inverted cloverleaf-shaped molecule about 70 nucleotides long to which a specific amino acid can be attached; transports amino acids to the ribosome during translation