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69 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the goal of science?
The goal of science is to investigate and understand the natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions.
An organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world is _____________.
The process of gathering information about events or processes in a careful, orderly way is __________.
What is data?
The information gathered from observation.
What are the two main types of data? Describe each one.
Quantitative: numbers
Qualitative: can't be expressed in numbers
An _________ is a logical interpretation based on prior knowledge or experience.
What is a hypothesis?
A proposed scientific explanation for a set of observations.
What do scientists use to generate a hypothesis?
1) prior knowledge
2) logical inference
3) logical interpretation
Scientific hypothesis must be proposed in a way that enables them to be _____________.
Science is not unchanging knowledge and fact, it is an _____________.
ongoing process
Good scientists are: ____________ and ______________.
skeptical and open minded
Scientists believe the universe is ______________.
A system made up of a collection of parts.
________ help us balance scientific discovery and personal morals.
What is the scientific method?
QHERC: Question, hypothesis, experiment, record, conclusion
___________ means that life can arise from nonliving matter.
spontaneous generation
Who proposed that flies produce maggots?
Whenever possible, a hypothesis should be tested by an experiment in which only __________ is changed at a time. All others are __________.
one variable
An experiment in which only one variable at a time is manipulated is known as ______________.
controlled experiment
The variable that is deliberately changed is known as the _____________.
independent variable
The variable that is observed and that changes in response to the manipulated variable is called the ________________.
dependent variable
In Redi's experiment what were the controlled variables? Independent? Dependent?
controlled- jars, meat, etc.
independent- gauze
dependent- whether maggots appear
As scientists look for explanations for specific observations, they assume the patterns in nature are _____________.
Who discovered "animalcules" in the water and air?
Who proposed that spontaneous generation could occur under the right conditions, which he tested by heating gravy and checking back on it several days later?
Who refuted the spontaneous generation theory by heating gravy in a jar with a crooked neck, and allowing the organisms to get caught in the neck?
Why is it important not to disturb animals in their natural state?
So the animals will behave normally.
As evidence from numerous investigations build up, a particular hypothesis may become so well supported that scientists consider it a ___________.
In science, the word __________ applies to a well tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations.
What is biology?
The science that seeks to understand the living world.
What are the characteristics of a living thing? (8)
1) made up of at least one cell
2) reproduces fertile, viable offspring
3) based on universal genetic code, DNA
4)grows and develops
5) obtain and use material for energy independently
6) adaptation
7) homeostasis
8) evolution
A _______ is a collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates the cell from its surroundings.
What are the smallest units of an organism that can be considered alive?
There are two types of cells. Name and explain.
unicellular: single-celled
multicellular: many-celled
In ___________ reproduction, two sources of DNA produces a new organism.
In __________ reproduction, one source of DNA produces a new organism.
Our genetic code is called __________.
For some single-celled organisms, growth is simply an ________________.
increase in size
The combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes is called ___________.
A ___________ is a signal to which an organism responds.
____________ is the process of keeping a stable, internal environment.
The ability of a group of organisms to change over time is called ___________.
Most scientists use the __________ when collecting data and performing experiments.
metric system
The __________ is a decimal system of measurement whose units are based on certain physical standards and scaled on multiples of ten.
metric system
Why is a graph much easier to use than a table?
You can detect a pattern.
___________ are devices that produce magnified images of structures that are too small to see with the unaided eye.
____________ microscopes produce magnified images by focusing visible light rays.
___________ microscopes produce magnified images by focusing beams of electrons.
______________ microscopes allow light to pass through the specimen and use two lenses to form an image.
Compound light
__________ microscopes use beams of electrons rather than light to produce images.
__________ microscopes shine a beam of electrons through a thin specimen.
__________ microscopes scan a narrow beam of electrons back and forth across the surface of a specimen.
The cell is able to reproduce so that a group of cells, called a _________, develops from the single original cell.
cell culture
______________ is the process of separating cell parts.
cell fractionation
In science, a hypothesis is only useful if it can be __________.
A hypothesis can never be _________.
Scientists use the data from a controlled experiment to ___________.
draw a valid conclusion
What is used in every experiment?
the scientific experiment
Kilo= ___________
Milli= __________
What is the basic unit of:
mass/weight __________
volume ___________
length ___________
The levels of organization of life are: (10) smallest to largest
cells, tissues, organs, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem, biome, biosphere
In the _________ group, all conditions are kept the same except for the single condition being tested.
If you reject your hypothesis what should you do? If you accept it?
Observe and form a new hypothesis
Publicize your results, test more, and hopefully prove it to be a theory
What are the three forms of matter?
solid, liquid, and gas
Pure substances are either __________-cannot be broken down by chemical means or _____________-can be broken down by chemical means.
A _________ change does not involve chemical bonds, while a ________ change does.
A __________ mixture is the same throughout, while a ____________ is different throughout.
Kinetic energy is either ________, _______, or __________.
electrical, mechanical, or radiant
Potential energy is chemical, which is stored in chemical bonds, such as __________.
Abiotic means it never __________.