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306 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Exaggerated over-curvature of thoracic area of vertebral column
Lateral deviation of vertebral column
Major feature of cervical vertebrae
transverse foramina
Vertebra located at level of iliac crest
Ligament that connects internal surface of laminae of vertebrae
ligamentum flavum
Ligament that checks hyperextension of vertebral column
anterior longitudinal
Ligament affected with whiplash injury
anterior longitudinal
Ligament which limits skull rotation
Defective portion of vertebra with spondylolisthesis in cervical area
Defective portions of vertebra with spondylolisthesis in lumbar area
Pars Interarticularis; Lamina
Common direction of all superior articular facets of vertebrae
Structure in contact with posterior surface of dens
Transverse Ligament of Atlas (part of cruciate ligament)
Most commonly herniated intervertebral disc
Most common nerve compressed with herniated intervertebral disc
Spinal nerve affected by protrusion of the disc between C5/6
Thoracic intercostal space located deep to triangle of auscultation
Vertebral level of lumbar puncture
Innervation of suboccipital muscles
suboccipital nerve
Roof of suboccipital triangle
semispinalis capitis
Floor of suboccipital triangle
Posterior Arch of the atlas; Posterior atlanto-occipital membrane
Major vessel within suboccipital triangle
vertebral artery
Synonym for dorsal ramus of C2
Greater Occipital nerve
Inferior extent of dura - arachnoid sac
Inferior extent of spinal cord
Inferior extent of spinal cord
extradural (epidural) space
Most frequently fractured bone of body
Most frequently dislocated carpal bone
Most frequently fractured carpal bone
Name of fracture of distal radius that produces "dinner fork" appearance
colles' fracture
Nerve injured with fracture of surgical neck of humerus
Nerve injured with fracture of medial humeral epicondyle
Nerve injured with fracture of shaft of humerus
Nerve injured with wrist drop
Muscle that is chief flexor and chief extensor at shoulder joint
Muscles innervated by axillary nerve
Deltoid, teres minor
Muscle that initiates abduction of arm
Most commonly torn tendon of rotator cuff
Two muscles that rotate scapula for full abduction of arm
Trapezius, serratus anterior
Tendon that courses through shoulder joint
Long head of biceps
Chief supinator muscle of hand
Biceps brachii
Injury to what nerve causes winged scapula
Long thoracic nerve
spinal levels of axillary nerve
c5 and c6
spinal levels of muscle of hand
c8 and t1
dermatome thumb
Nerve to thenar compartment
Recurrent branch of median
Innervation of all interosseous muscles
Ulnar (deep branch)
Region affected by upper trunk injury of brachial plexus
Shoulder muscles
Region affected by lower trunk injury of brachial plexus
Intrinsic hand muscles
Nerve compressed with carpal tunnel syndrome
Nerve affected by cubital tunnel syndrome
Paralysis of which results in total "claw" hand
Boundaries of femoral triangle
Inguinal ligament, sartorius, adductor longus
Structure immediately lateral to femoral sheath
Femoral Nerve
Structure immediately medial to femoral artery in femoral sheath
Femoral Vein
Contents of femoral canal
Deep inguinal lymph node
Medial boundary of femoral ring
Lacunar Ligament
Structures that course throughout entire length of the adductor canal
Femoral Artery and vein
Structures that course through only portion of the adductor canal
Saphenous nerve, nerve to vastus medialis, descending genicular vessels
Muscle that forms floor of popliteal fossa
Muscle that is chief flexor at hip joint
Muscle that prevents pelvis from tilting when walking
gluteus medius
Muscle that extends leg
quadriceps femoris
Muscle that unlocks knee joint
Muscle affected with "foot slap"
Tibialis Anterior
Chief invertors of foot
Tibialis anterior and tibialis posterior
Chief elevators of foot
Fibularis Longus and fibularis brevis
Ligament that checks backward displacement of femur on tibia
Anterior Cruciate
ligament laxity with positive valgus maneuver
Medial Collateral
Most commonly injured ankle ligament
Anterior talofibular
Ligament stretched with "flat foot
Spring (calcaneonavicular)
Joints for movements of inversion and eversion
Subtalar and transverse tarsal (midtarsal)
Major artery to head of femur in adult
Medial femoral circumflex
Nerve affected with fracture of head and neck of fibula
Common fibular
Tendon affected with avulsion fracture of fifth metatarsal bone
Fibularis brevis
Innervation of adductor magnus
Obturator, tibial portion of sciatic nerve
Nerve affected with tarsal tunnel syndrome
Cutaneous innervation to medial side of foot
Saphenous (L4)
Cutaneous innervation to lateral side of foot
Sural (S1)
Cutaneous innervation to heel
Cutaneous innervation to dorsal aspect of web between toes 1 and 2
Deep fibular
Cutaneous innervation to most of dorsum of foot
Superficial fibular
Major dermatome to big toe
Dermatome to small toe
Spinal level of patellar reflex
Spinal level of Achilles reflex
Locking of knee when walking suggests
Meniscus Injury (tear)
Major injury triad with lateral impact to knee
Medial collateral, medial meniscus, anterior cruciate
Dermatome around nipple
Vertebral level at inferior angle of scapula
Structure that lies immediately posterior to manubrium
Rib related to oblique fissure of lung posteriorly
2nd rib
Rib paralleled by horizontal fissure of right lung
4th rib
Inferior extent of lung at midciavicular line
6th rib
Inferior extent of pleura in midclavicular line
8th rib
Inferior extent of lung in midaxillary line
8th rib
Inferior extent of pleura in midaxillary line
10th rib
Inferior extent of lung posteriorly
10th rib
Inferior extent of pleura posteriorly
12th rib
Innervation of costal pleura
Intercostal nerves
Innervation of mediastinal pleura
Phrenic nerve
Site for auscultation of pulmonary valve
Left 2nd interspace
Site for auscultation of aortic valve
Right 2nd interspace
Site for auscultation of tricuspid valve
Xiphisternal joint
Site for auscultation of mitral valve
Left 5th interspace midclavicular line
Heart chamber with greatest sternocostal projection
right ventricle
chamber that forms the apex of the heart
left ventricle
major chamber that forms the base of the heart
left atrium
Heart chamber that contains moderator band
Right ventricle
Artery that determines coronary dominance
Posterior interventricular
Usual origin of SA and AV nodal arteries
Right coronary artery
location of the sa node
christa terminalis
Major vessel that drains musculature of heart
coronary sinus
innervation of fibrous pericardium
phrenic nerve
Most common cause of systolic ejection murmur
aortic stenosis
Rib associated with sternal angle
Second rib
Vertebral level associated with sternal angle
Disc between TV 4 - TV5
Location of ductus arteriosus
Between left pulmonary artery and aorta
Nerve potentially injured with repair of patent ductus arteriosus
Left recurrent laryngeal
Veins that unite to form brachiocephalic
Subclavian and internal jugular
Veins that unite to form superior vena cava
right and left brachiocephalic
Termination of azygos vein
Superior vena cava
Structures that lie to right and left of thoracic duct
Azygos vein, aorta
Spinal levels of greater splanchnic nerve
T5 - 9
Spinal levels of lesser splanchnic nerve
Spinal levels of least splanchnic nerve
Thoracic structures that can compress esophagus
Left bronchus, aorta, diaphragm
Disease often associated with thymoma
Remnant of umbilical vein
Round ligament of liver
Dermatome to umbilical area
Dermatome to suprapubic area
Vertebral level associated with origin of celiac artery
Vertebral level associated with origin of superior mesenteric artery
Vertebral level associated with origin of renal arteries
Vertebral level associated with origin of gonadal arteries
Vertebral level associated with origin of inferior mesenteric artery
Vertebral level of umbilicus
Vertebral level of aorta bifurcation
Vertebral level for formation of lVC
Spinal levels to muscles of anterior abdominal wall
Structure that forms superficial inguinal ring
Aponeurosis of External oblique
Structure that forms deep inguinal ring
Transversalis fascia
Structure that forms floor of inguinal canal
Inguinal ligament
Bony attachments of inguinal ligament
ASIS and pubic tubercle
Structures that form conjoined tendon
Internal Oblique and transverses abdominus
Abdominal layer continuous with external spermatic fascia
External oblique
Abdominal layer continuous with cremasteric fascia
Internal oblique
Abdominal layer continuous with internal spermatic fascia
Transversalis fascia
Structure that lies between protrusion sites of direct and indirect inguinal hernias
Inferior epigastric artery
Type of hernia that enters deep inguinal ring
Indirect inguinal
Most common type of hernia
Indirect inguinal
Most common side for indirect inguinal hernia
Type of hernia that protrudes through Hesselbach's triangle
Direct inguinal
Boundaries of Hesselbach's triangle
Inguinal ligament, rectus abdominus, inferior epigastric artery and vein
Type of hernia that traverses both deep and superficial rings
Indirect inguinal
Fluid in processus vaginalis
Communication between greater and lesser sacs
Epiploic foramen
Superior border of epiploic foramen
Caudate lobe of liver
Inferior border of epiploic foramen
part one of duodenum
Posterior border of epiploic foramen
Ligament that contains portal vein, hepatic artery and bile duct
Hepatduodenal (lesser omentum)
Hepatduodenal (lesser omentum)
Phrenicocolic ligament Hepatduodenal (lesser omentum)
Structure that limits spread of ascitic fluid within infracolic compartment
Root of mesentery
Superior extent of right paracolic gutter
Hepatorenal recess
Most inferior portion of peritoneal cavity in female
Rectouterine pouch
Structures supplied by celiac artery
Stomach, duodenum, liver, spleen, gallbladder, pancreas
Branches of celiac artery
Left gastric, common hepatic, splenic
Blood supply to stomach
Right and left gastroepiploics, right, left and short gastrics
Major structures of stomach bed
Pancreas, spleen, left kidney and suprarenal, diaphragm
Ducts that join to from common bile duct
Cystic and common hepatic
Structure that separates right and left lobes of liver
Falciform ligament
Origin of cystic artery
Right hepatic artery
Ribs directly related to spleen
Ribs 9-11
Organs related to spleen
Stomach, colon, left kidney and tail of pancreas
Artery to small intestine
Organs supplied by both celiac artery and SMA
Duodenum, pancreas
Organ supplied by both SMA and IMA
Transverse colon
Vessel located posterior to head of pancreas
Vessel located posterior to neck of pancreas
Portal Vien
Veins that unite to form portal vein
Splenic, superior mesenteric
Clinically important organs for portacaval anastomoses
Esophagus, rectum, liver
Two structures that lie posterior to SMA near Its origin
Left renal vein, duodenum
Three distinguishing features of large intestine
Tenia coli, Haustra, and fatty appendages
Termination of left ovarian (testicular) vein
Left renal vein
Termination of right ovarian (testicular) vein
Location of initial pain of appendicitis
Umbilical region
Motor innervation of diaphragm
Sensory innervation of diaphragm
Phrenic, intercostal nerves
Spinal levels of phrenic nerve
C3- 5
Vertebral level that inferior vena cava traverses diaphragm
Vertebral level that esophagus traverses diaphragm
Structures that traverses diaphragm with esophagus
Right and left vagus nerves
Vertebral level that aorta traverses diaphragm
Structure that traverses diaphragm with aorta
Thoracic duct
Structures that traverses diaphragm through crura
Greater, lesser and least splanchnic nerves
Structure that separates pelvis and perineum
Pelvic diaphragm
Two major components of pelvic diaphragm
levator ani, coccygeus
Two major components of levator ani
Pubococcygeus, iliococcygeus
Two muscles which close lateral pelvic wall
Obturator internus, piriformis
Means by which obturator intern us exits pelvis
Lesser sciatic foramen
Means by which piriformis exits pelvis
Greater sciatic foramen
Innervation of detrusor muscle
Pelvic splanchnics (S2 - 4)
Remnant of umbilical arteries
Medial umbilical ligaments
Chief artery to rectal mucosa
Superior rectal
Most common type of pelvic inlet in females
Two remnants of gubernaculum in females
Ovarian ligament, round ligament
Ligament that contains ovarian vessels
Suspensory ligament of ovary
Lymph nodes for ovary and testis
Lateral aortic (lumbar)
"Normal" position of uterus
Anteverted, anteflexed
Chief uterine support
Ligament that contains uterine vessels
lateral cervical (cardinal)
Structure potentially injured with hysterectomy
Relation of ureter to uterine artery
Ureter is inferior and posterior
Structure that separates deep and superficial perineal spaces
Perineal membrane (Inferior fascia of UGD)
Bony landmarks between anal and UG triangles
ischial tuberosities
Lateral wall of ischioanal fossa
Fascia of obturator internus
Structure that forms pudendal canal
Fascia of obturator internus
Structure that separates internal and external hemorrhoids
Pectinate line
Lymph nodes for area superior to pectinate line of anal canal
Internal iliac, inferior mesenteric
Lymph nodes for area inferior to pectinate line of anal canal
Superficial inguinal
Major structure of deep perineal space
Sphincter urethrae
Lymph nodes for glans penis
Deep inguinal
Muscle which compresses bulb of penis
Muscle which compresses crus of penis
Muscles which meet at perineal body
Superficial and deep perinei, bulbospongiosus, external anal sphincter, pubococcygeus
Vertebral level of hyoid bone
Vertebral level of thyroid cartilage
Vertebral level of cricoid cartilage
Muscles that are innervated by CN XI
Trapezius, sternocleidomastoid
Structures that course between anterior and middle scalene
Brachial plexus, Subclavian artery
Innervation of omohyoid, sternohyoid and sternothyroid
Ansa cervicalis
Innervation of digastric muscle
Anterior belly, CN V3 Posterior belly, CN VII
Innervation of carotid sinus and carotid body
Major structures to pass through pharyngeal wall superior to superior constrictor muscle
Auditory tube levator veli palatini
Nerves of pharyngeal plexus
CN IX, CN X. sympathetics
Only muscle innervated by CN IX
Structures that pierce thyrohyoid membrane
Internal laryngeal nerve, superior laryngeal artery
Only muscle to abduct vocal cords
Posterior cricoarytenoid
Innervation of cricothyroid
External laryngeal nerve
Innervation of laryngeal muscles exclusive of cricothyroid
Recurrent laryngeal
Muscle that increases tension on vocal cords
Sensory nerve to larynx superior to vocal cords
Internal laryngeal
Sensory nerve to larynx inferior to vocal cords
Recurrent laryngeal
Site of aspirated lodged fishbone
Piriform recess
Afferent - efferent limbs of gag reflex
Afferent - efferent limbs of cough reflex
Nerve injury that causes hoarseness following thyroid surgery
Recurrent laryngeal
Chief structures that traverse internal acoustic meatus
Foramen where CN VII exits skull
Stylomastoid foramen
Major arterial supply to calvaria and supratentorial dura
Middle meningeal
Major cutaneous nerve of face
Major artery to internal structures of head
Spinal levels of sympathetic fibers to head
T1 and T2
Autonomic ganglion for CN III
Sensory ganglion for CN VII
Autonomic ganglia for CN VII
Submandibular, Pterygopalatine
Autonomic ganglion for CN IX
Muscle attached to disc of TMJ
lateral pterygoid
Muscle which retracts mandible
Major nerve to TMJ (pain with TMJ syndrome)
Specific nerves that elicit secretion from parotid gland
Tympanic branch of CN IX; lesser petrosal
Branch of CN V that carries parasympathetics to parotid
Structure that opens into superior meatus of nasal cavity
Posterior ethmoid sinus
Structures that opens into middle meatus of nasal cavity
Frontal, maxillary, anterior and middle ethmoidal sinuses
Structure that opens into inferior meatus of nasal cavity
Nasolacrimal duct
Major artery to nasal cavity
Most common site of nose bleed
Kiesselbach’s plexus
Innervation of levator veli palatini
Muscle that opens auditory tube
Tensor veli pallatini
Innervation of tensor veli palatini
Nerve that provides taste to anterior 2/3rds of tongue
Chorda tympani
Site of cell bodies for nerve that has taste to anterior 2/3rds of tongue
Geniculate ganglion
Specific nerve that elicits secretion from submandibular gland
Chorda tympani
Branch of CN V that carries parasympathetics to submandibular
Nerve injured when tonsillar pillars sag and uvula deviates
Nerve potentially injured with tonsillectomy
Muscle that protrudes tongue
Nerve injured when deviation of protruded tongue
Ipsilateral CN XII
Specific nerve that stimulates tear production
Greater petrosal (CN VII)
Sensory nerve to cornea
CN V1 (nasociliary)
Muscle that elevates and abducts eye
Inferior oblique
Muscle that depresses and abducts eye
Superior oblique
Site of preganglionic nerve cells that elicit dilation of pupil
Lateral horn, T1 and T2
Site of postganglionic nerve cells that elicit dilation of pupil
Superior Cervical ganglion
Site of preganglionic nerve cells that elicit constriction of pupil
Edinger westphal nucleus
Site of postganglionic nerve cells that elicit constriction of pupil
Ciliary ganglion
Innervation of external surface of tympanic membrane
Auriculotemporal, CN X
Innervation of internal surface of tympanic membrane
. Innervation of internal surface of tympanic membrane
Level where ascending aorta is continuous with arch of the aorta
TV4 / TV5
Level where the arch of the aorta is continuous with the descending aorta
TV4 /TV5
Effect of sympathetic nerves on the lungs
Bronchodilation, Vasoconstriction
Effects of parasympathetic nerves on the lungs
Bronchconstriction, Vasodilation, Glandular secretion
Rationale for aspired small objects to go to the right pulmonary primary bronchus
Wider diameter, shorter, more vertical
Needle location for therapeutic pleural tapping
Superior to the 12th rib posteriorly
Name given to portion of right ventricle prior to beginning of pulmonary trunk
Conus arteriosus or Infundibulum
Name given to orientation where the uterus and vagina intersect at an angle of 90 degrees
Name given to orientation where uterine body and cervix intersect at angle of 10-15 degress
Ridge located between the sinus venarum and right auricle
Crista terminalis
Nerve at risk when repairing a patent ductus arteriosus surgically
Left recurrent laryngeal
Nerve at risk when performing thyroidectomy surgically
BOTH left and right recurrent laryngeal nerves
Specific muscle that holds the patella in place
Vastus medialis
First portion of quadriceps femoris to atrophy with injury to femoral nerve
vastus medialis
First portion of quadriceps femoris to atrophy with injury to femoral nerve
vastus medialis
Last portion of quadriceps femoris to recover following injury
vastus medialis
Innervation to nail bed of middle finger
median nerve
Innervation to nail bed of ring finger
Ulnar and median
Spinal nerve affected with herniated disc at L3/L4