Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
(voiding / urination) – the process of emptying the bladder (p 2)
– the excretion of abnormally large amounts of urine(may be >2,500 ml/24 hrs) can lead to excessive fluid loss and dehydration May be d/t: excessive fluid intake, diabetes, ingestion of ETOH, caffeine, chronic kidney disease, hormone imbalance, use of diuretics (p 6)
Residual urine
– client voids first and then is catheterized. Urine remaining in the bladder after voiding is called the “residual”. Normally = 0 – a few ml. (p 5)
Functional incontinence
– impairment or loss of continence d/t functional deficits, including altered mobility, dexterity, cognition, environmental barriers) (p 7)
Total incontinence
– the state in which the individual experiences continuous and unpredictable loss of urine d/t an extra urethral cause (p 7)
Bladder training program
– requires client, nurse and support person. Client voids according to a timetable. The time interval between voiding is gradually lengthened. Can only be used with alert, oriented client. Reward successes. Encouragement. (p 8)
–inflammation of the bladder. (UTI).The second most common infection. 40% of all nosocomial infections!
(p 9 & 10)
–the bladder becomes stretched out or swollen as a result of overfilling (3-4 L) and may be painful
(p 5)
– abnormal presence of blood in the urine. May appear pink, red or smoky. Not always visable, may be microscopic. Symptomatic of many renal diseases and disorders of the genitourinary system
(Mosby’s medical dictionary)
Describe the process of micturition
·Urine collects in the bladder
·Pressure stimulates sensory nerves called stretch receptors in the bladder wall (usually approximately 250-450 ml of urine)
·Stretch receptors transmit impulses to the spinal cord’s voiding reflex center in the sacral area to relax the internal sphincter
·If the time and place is appropriate, the brain sends a message via the spinal cord to release the urine from the bladder
·Conscious portion of the brain relaxes the external uretheal sphincter and urination takes place
Describe factors that affect the volume of urine and the voiding process
Normally people void 5 or more times/day (200 – 300 ml), usually upon awakening, at HS, and at meals. 70% of urine is eliminated during waking hours. Very young and elderly may void more frequently. (Find out a person’s normal pattern.) (p 2)
Describe the changes that occur in urinary elimination throughout the life cycle
Developmental level / life cycle – many changes
Infants and newborns have immature kidneys and are born without urinary control.Most will develop this between the ages of 2 and 5 years. Urine output varies according to fluid intake but gradually increases to 250 – 500 ml / day during the first year.
Preschoolers – are able to take responsibility for independent toileting.
School-age children – elimination system reaches maturity during this period. The kidneys double in size between ages 5 and 10 years. During this period,the child urinates 6 – 8 times / day.
Elders– the excretory function of the kidney diminishes with age,but usually not significantly below normal levels unless a disease process intervenes.The more noticeable changes with age are those related to the bladder.
Psychological variables –
(ie: privacy, time, dirty bathrooms –don’t want to use, etc)behaviors and routines. People are used to certain behaviors and conditions when voiding