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182 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Molecules which contain _______ are organic, whereas those without _________ are inorganic molecules.
carbon, carbon
What are the 8 levels of structural organization within the human body? (smallest-->largest)
subatomic particles, atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissue, organs, organ systems
T/F Protons and neutrons are found in the orbitals of an atom, while electrons fill the nucleus of an atom.
False, protons and neutrons are in the nucleus, electrons are in the orbitals.
T/F Atoms are different because of their arrangement of subatomic particles.
C.H.N.O.P.S. is an acronym for the atoms that play a major structural and functional role in the body. What are the names of the 6 (six) atoms?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorous, Sulfur
While _______ is the most abundant atom, _______ is the heaviest atom in the body.
hydrogen, oxygen
In the structure of an atom, the first orbital can hold _____ electrons while each orbitals of that can hold ______ electrons.
2, 8
Carbohydrates contain carbon. Therefore, carbohydrates are _______ molecules.
The atoms found in carbohydrates are _______, _______, and ______ and the general formula for it is: _________
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen; CH20
T/F There must be water in the body in order for excess carbohydrates to be stored as lipids. This is due to the fact that carbohydrates are water-soluble.
The two types of CHOs are simple and complex. Simple carbohydrates contain ______________ and ______________, while complex carbohydrates contain ______________.
simple: monosaccharides, disaccharides

complex: polysaccharides
T/F Fat is soluble in water and that is why these two products mix so well together.
_________ investigates the structure of the body whereas _________ investigates the functions.
anatomy, physiology
Isotopes are different from atoms because of the difference in the number of __________ they each contain.
The ability to sustain long-term exercise is directly related to how much _________ is in the body.
_________ is the main storage form of carbohydrates and excess CHOs are stored as ________.
glycogen, lipids
Glycogen is commonly stored in two parts of the body, the _______ or in _________ ________.
liver, skeletal muscle
The idea that there is an imbalance in the energy equation balance is related to ________, and can also be seen as putting more calories into the body than those which are burned during activity.
T/F Carbohydrates are not intended to be stored for long periods of time.
Macronutrients consist of ______, _________, and ________.
CHOs, proteins, lipids
Fill in the blank: Gas is to a car as ______ is to the body (they both act as fuel)
While there are two types of carbohydrates (simple and complex), there are ___ types of lipids, ________ (_________ and _________), __________, and __________.
3: simple (saturated & unsaturated), compound, derived
A kilocalorie is a measure of the amount of ______ given off.
T/F 1 kilogram (kg)=2.2 pounds.
List two reasons mentioned in class as to why fat is good for the body.
1) Fat is good for the body because it burns twice as many calories as CHOs
2) CHOs need water, water=weight
95% of all the fats in the body/consumed in diet are in the form of _________ __________.
triglyceride molecules
We can distinguish between the 2 types of fatty acids because __________ fatty acids have a single bond, whereas ___________ fatty acids have a double bond.
saturated, unsaturated
The most significant menopausal change can result in the loss of _____ of ______.
1/3, bone
The two compartment model of the human body takes a look at total body weight, specifically ____ _____ weight and _____-______ _______ weight.
fat mass, fat-free mass
Three components of fat mass weight are: ________ ____, _______ ______, and ____-_______ _____.
storage fat, essential fat, & sex-specific fat
T/F Underwater weighing (hydrostatic) is the "gold standard" method for determining body composition.
T/F Prokaryotes are the simple cells in our bodies which contain mainly just a membrane and fluid environment.
________ are the major type of cell found within the human body.
The three main parts to a cell include ____ __________, _________ and ___________, and _________.
cell membrane, cytoplasm & organelles, and nucleus
What percentage of a membrane is protein? lipid?

_________ is a compound lipid found in the membrane.
The _______ the protein content of a membrane means the _______ the role for that membrane in energy production.
higher, higher
What is the main role of a phospholipids?
making membranes
T/F The head of a phospholipid is hydrophobic and the tail is hydrophilic.
False, it's the other way around
How many types of membrane proteins are there and what are they called?
2--> integral and peripheral
What molecule is the identifying marker on the surface of a cell for cell recognition?
T/F The cell membrane structure is a fluid mosaic model, in that it is dynamic and has the potential to change shape; there is NOT a fixed pattern.
Where is DNA located? RNA?
DNA is in the cell nucleus

RNA associated with the ribosomes
storage and transport of molecules
endoplasmic reticulum
substance in which chemical reactions
"packaging plant" inside cell
golgi apparatus
garbage collection system
energy, ATP production
intracelular guide
protein synthesis
ribosomes occur
allows particle movement along surface
allows for movement of cell, sperm
flagella of cell
T/F Mitochondria are non-membranous structures whereas ribosomes are double-membrane structures, consisting of an inner and outer membrane.
False, its the other way around.
Which membrane of the mitochondria, inner or outer, has a higher protein concentration and is involved in chemical reactions?
inner membrane
What are the eleven systems of the body?
integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive
My toes are _______ to my stomach.
My ears are ________ to my nose.
My heart is ________ to my skin.
My tailbone is _________ to my pelvis.
My skull is __________ to my knees.
My pelvis is __________ to my tailbone.
My upper arm is _______ to my forearm.
What is anatomy?
scientific discipline that investigates the body's structure
What is physiology?
scientific discipline that investigates the processes or functions of living things
What are the levels of structural organization within the human body?
chemical (atomic & molecular), organelle & cellular, tissue, organ, systems
What are some examples of different body systems?
integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive
The terms proximal and distal are used in reference to what?
Which three categories fall under the chemical level in the structural organization?
subatomic particles, atoms, molecules
What are the three types of subatomic particles?
protons, neutrons, and electrons
What are the different types of atoms that play a major role both structurally and functionally? (HINT: chnops)
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur and other
Which two categories fall under the cellular level of structural organization?
organelle and cell
Carbon has ____ protons, ____ electrons, and ____ neutrons. The _______ and _______ are located in the nucleus and the _______ are located in the orbitals. The first orbital of any atom can contain ____ electrons and each additional orbital can have a maximum of ____ electrons. Therefore, carbon can have ____ interactions with other atoms.
6,6,6,protons, neutrons, electrons, 2,8,4
Oxygen is composed of ____ protons, ____ neutrons, and ____ electrons and thus can have ____ interactions.
Hydrogen is composed of ____ protons and _____ electrons and thus can have ____ interactions.
Carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen are all chemically _________.
Hydrogen contains what percent of body weight and what percent of all atoms in the body?
Carbon contains what percent of body weight and what percent of all atoms in the body?
Nitrogen contains what percent of body weight and what percent of all atoms in the body?
Oxygen contains what percent of body weight and what percent of all atoms in the body?
Of these four elements (c,h,n, & o) the total percent of body weights is ______ and therefore phosphorus, sulfur and others make up the balance.
Of c,h,n, & o the total percent of all atoms in the body is _____ and therefore phosphorus, sulfur and other make up the balance.
How are molecules formed?
When two or more atoms combine
What are the three types of molecular bonds?
covalent, ionic, and hydrogen
The study of chemicals or molecules which contain carbon is called what?
organic chemistry
The study of chemicals or molecules that do not contain carbon is called what?
inorganic chemistry
The five types of molecules we are studying are?
carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and other (vitamins, minerals, and water)
Which three of these 5 molecules are considered energy nutrients?
carbs, lipids and proteins
What is the recommended daily caloric intake?
2000-2200 cal/day (varies)
What is the minimum number of calories needed to sustain vital organ function?
1200 cal/day (varies)
What percentage of your calories should be carbs? lipids? proteins?
carbs: 60-65
lipids: 30 or less
proteins: 15-20
What is an essential nutrient?
nutrients that the body cannot synthesize and we therefore must ingest
What is a non-essential nutrient?
nutrients that the body can produce
In what year did the federal government pass the Dietary Supplemental Health and Education Act (DSHEA)?
What three things did the DSHEA change?
1. supplements became a new food group
2. supplements don't have to be scrutinized by the FDA before selling them
3. people can make claims about their product that they don't have to prove
Are carbs organic or inorganic?
organic (they contain carbon)
What three atoms do carbs contain?
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
What percent of body weight do carbs compose?
What is the chemical formula for glucose?
Which two major parts of our body live almost exclusively off of glucose/carbs?
brain and spinal cord
What are the two subclassifications of carbs?
simple and complex
Simple carbs can consist of 1 or 2 molecules which are called _____________ and ______________.
monosaccharide, disaccharide
Table sugar is called ________ and is _________ + __________.
sucrose: glucose + fructose
Milk sugar is called ________ and is _________ + __________.
lactose: glucose + galactose
Malt sugar is called _________ and is _________ + ___________.
maltose: glucose + glucose
Complex carbs consist of more than 2 CHO and is called what?
Do you need more simple or complex sugars?
What are the primary carb sources?
starch and sugars in foods of plant origin and from glycogen in meats.
Taking small carb molecules and building large structures (building tissue and mass) is called what?
anabolic (steroids)
Breaking down large structures to molecules is called what?
Anabolic + catabolic= __________?
What is co-morbidity?
sickness that follows obesity
In which disease does the pancreas not produce insulin or the body not regulate sugar (problem with carb metabolism)?
How many diabetics have Type I diabetes (juvenile onset diabetes)?
How many diabetics have Type II diabetes (formerly called adult onset)?
What is the recommended daily amount of carbs for adults in grams? Percent of total caloric intake?
275-300 grams
What is the main function of carbs?
energy source
The storage of muscle glycogen (carbs) is direcly related to what?
carb intake
Muscle glycogen level dictates what?
ability to exercise
Any excess nutrients are turned into what?
What percent of a cell's structure is carb?
One pint of water weighs what?
1 pound
What percent of body weight are lipids for an average college aged male? Female?
Which three molecules compose lipids?
carbon, hydrogen, and oxgen
What are the subclassifications of lipids?
simple, compound, derived
What are the two types of fatty acids?
saturated and unsaturated
Saturated simple lipids have _______ bonds between carbon atoms and are typically found in _______ products: egg yolk, dairy fats, and shellfish. Every carbon has at least ____ hydrogens associated with it.
single, animal, 2
Unsaturated simple lipids have ______ bonds between carbon atoms and are typically found in ______ sources. At least ______ carbon in the backbone has only _____ hydrogen associated with it.
double, plant, 1, 1
_______ lipids are solid at room temperature and _________ lipids are liquid at room temperature.
saturated, unsaturated
What are simple lipids primarily used for?
What are compound lipids used for?
making anatomical structures
Compound lipids have a ______ string tail and one of the most common are __________.
2, phospholipids
What are derived lipids used for?
regulation of bodily functions
_________, like testosterone and progesterone, are derived lipids.
95% of all dietary fats are in the form of __________ molecules.
Triglycerides consist of a glycerol molecule (head), and _______ fatty acid molecules (tails).
The head of a triglyceride molecule is water-loving, or _________, and the tails are water-hating, or __________.
hydrophilic, hydrophobic
What are the two types of unsaturated fatty acids?
Monounsaturated fatty acids have _______ double bond and polyunsaturated have ________ double bonds.
1, multiple
[C(16):1]9 this notation means that there are ______ carbon atoms, ______ double bond, and it occurs after the ______ carbon molecule.
16, 1, 9th
[C(18):3]9,12,15 this notation means that there are _____ carbon atoms, _______ double bond, and it occurs after the ____,_____, and _____ carbon molecules.
18,3, 9th,12th, and 15th
______ fatty acids are a type of unsaturated (mono or poly) fat that are neither required nor beneficial.
______-___ fatty acids are polyunsaturated fats that are good for you and are often found in _________.
omega-3, fish
What is the recommended daily amount of lipids in grams for adults?
80-100 grams
Fat is the ideal ______ source because each molecule carries large quantities of energy per unit weight.
While the body needs extra ______ to store carbs, lipids do not require this.
Your ______-______ ______ is your amount of weight besides fat.
fat-free mass
An average college female weighing 140 pounds would have ______ pounds of fat and therefore _______ pounds of lean body mass/fat-free mass)
An average college male weighing 185 pounds would have ______ pounds of fat and therefore _______ pounds of lean body mass/fat-free mass.
Fats serve as a hunger depressant because they have the slowest _________ process.
Fat is wet/dry tissue?
What are the four fat-soluble vitamins that are transported by dietary fats?
Of carbs, lipids, and proteins, ________ have the fastest digestion process, ________ a medium process, and _____ the slowest.
carbs, proteins, lipids
While carbs play a minimal role in cell structure, lipids compose what percent of cell structure?
While an average college male has 15% fat, the essential is what percent? Females?
In the first 5 years of post-menopausal, women can lose up to ______ of bone density.
_______ is the most metabolically active tissue in the body which means that it burns calories.
About what percent of body weight do proteins consist?
Which type of molecule is unique in proteins?
The building blocks of proteins are __________ ________, of which there are ______ different kinds used to make protein.
amino acids
There are 8 _______ amino acids, which means they must be obtained through diet. This means that there are _____ non-essential amino acids that can be synthesized by the body.
A _______ protein contains all of the essential amino acids whereas an ________ protein does not contain all the essential amino acids.
What are the four subclassifications of proteins?
primary, secondary, tertiary, quarernary
Which type of proteins do enzymes fall under?
tertiary or quarternary
________ speed up chemical reactions.
What are the four types of indirect methods for assessing body composition?
underwater weighing, bod pod, skinfold analysis and bioelectric impedance analysis
Which type of test is considered to be the "gold standard"?
underwater weighing
For an adult, the recommended daily amount of protein is _____g/kg of body weight, but is ______g/kg of body weight for athletes.
What percentage of energy per day comes from breakdown of protein?
What percent of body weight is made up of nucleic acids?
Similar to the way amino acids form proteins, __________ are the building blocks for nucleic acids.
What are the two types of nucleic acids?
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
_______ make up a small percentage of body weight, act as __________ in metabolic reactions, and are _________ molecules.
What are the two subclassifications of vitamins?
fat soluble
water soluble
Minerals constitute what percent of total body weight?
What percent of minerals are stored in the bones?
Minerals do not contain ________ which means they are inorganic.
What is the most common mineral in the body?
What percent of body weight is water?
The atoms that compose water are _________ and ________.
hydrogen, oxygen
_________ water is that which is inside the cell and constitutes 30-40%. __________ water is that which is outside the cell and is 60-70%
________ is a condition opposite of dehydration in which the __________ level in the body drops and you consume too much water.
ATP and NADH(2) are sources of ________.