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441 Cards in this Set

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the "fourth estate"
refers to the press or mass media, and is associated with the idea that the press plays a crucial role in enabling citizens to exercise control over political processes.
democracy
commonly associated with electoral politics, multi-party systems, interest group politics, majority rule, political liberalism, participatory decision making, and pluralistic social and political order.

While loose, this concept should exist prominantly within ideas and principles as opposed to institutions.
democratic rights / CP rights
civil/political rights: right to vote, stand for election, free expression, association, assembly and movement.
ESC rights
economic, social, and cultural rights: right to education, healthcare, adequate food and housing, work, safe and healthy work conditions, and shared benefits of scientific progress.
realism (IR)
International relations theory that focuses upon state action, and reduces state decision making to decisions that ensure relative gains and maintain immediate survival over long term success.

Basic assumptions include an anarchical international community and egoistic states within that community, which will always lead states to make rational decisions that will assure immediate survival in such a hostile environment.
institutionalism (IR)
International relations theory that focuses upon state action, and reduces state decision making to decisions that ensure mutual gains and cooperation to ensure long term success.

Basic assumptions include an anarchical international community and cooperative states within that community that will act in pursuit of peace and cooperation within the international community in order to maximize collective gains.

This is ensured through the creation of international institutions that help provide order over the anarchic state.
Egyptian Revolution
1919: revolution led to mass demonstrations in Egypt, which led to the dissolving of the British Protectorate and the declaration of the Egyptian state.
Battle of Alamein
1942: turning point during World War II in North Africa, as Allied forces finally repelled the Axis in Africa.
King Faruq
Leader of the Egyptian monarchy from 1922-1952. Overthrown via military coup led by Nasser.
Gamal abd-al Nasser
Leader of Egypt from 1952-1970. Came to power by heading a military coup. Once in power, championed a variety of nationalization policies and asserted a great deal of state control over civil society.
Tripartite Aggression/Suez War
1956: Britain, France, and Israel collaborated in attacks to weaken Egypt and help the overthrow of Nasser. Was initially a military success, but was condemned by the UN security council (especially the US) and ultimately ended in Western withdrawal, leading to further alienation between Egypt and the West and a Nasser victory.
War of 1967
Collaboration of Egypt, Syria, and Jordan to attack Israel and reclaim land for Palestinian state. Preemptively repelled by Israeli forces, who destroy the entire Egyptian air force still on the air field. War ended after just six days on June 10, with Israel capturing territory in the Golan Heights and West Bank. Marks the end of Pan-Arabism.
Anwar al-Sadat
President of Egypt from 1970-1981. Presided over a time of great economic opening and Westernization, which eventually led to his assassination in 1981.
infitah
Sadat's economic opening policy to the West, which included privatization of the economy, removal of trade barriers with the West, and normalization of relations with the West, including Israel.
Baghdad Arab Summit
1978: summit of Arab states, who agreed to oust Egypt from the Arab league and impose sanctions because of their Westernizing policies.
Husni Mubarak
President of Egypt from 1982 until the present. Came to power following the assassination of President Sadat. His rule has been controversial, mainly interpreted as a middle ground between Sadat and Nasser, in that economic liberalization remained while state control was increased over political spheres of life.
Ramadan War/October War
1973: Egyptian troops cross over the Suez canal and take the Bar Lev line, providing a symbolic victory for Egypt. This was symbolic because it culminated in a gain in previously lost territory, but did not in any way affect the Palestinian issue of self-determination in the region.
Dr. Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd
Egyptian professor of Arabic language who was persecuted in during the 1990's for his liberal views concerning the interpretation of the Quran as a religious literary work.
Danish Cartoon Crisis
2006: Danish newspapers printed controversial depictions of the prophet Muhammed, igniting a long string of protests across the world. Illustrated a controversial collision of culturally specific rights, regarding sacred prepresentation vs. freedom of expression.
ancien regime
political structure characterized by a ruling king or lord whose title is granted due to their royal birth. Therefore, the crown is continually passed through the family line, legitimized by the family's supposed "divine right" to rule.
Sykes-Picot Agreement
1916: Great Britain and France secretly divide up Ottoman Empire holdings.
Ottoman Empire
Ruling empire over the Middle East and North Africa between 16th and 20th centuries. Based in modern day Turkey.
Balfour Declaration
1919: British openly support creation of a Jewish state in Palestine, which sparked revolution in Egypt.
Israeli Creation
May 14, 1948 - Israel state is created with the support of Western powers, shortly following the end of the British mandate.
UN Resolution 242
Passed by the United Nations Security Council following the 1967 War, and called for a return of the territory seized by Israel, recognition of Israel by the Arab states, a reaffirmation of the principle of free navigation, and for future peace and stability in the region.
UDHR
1948: Universal Declaration of Human Rights
ICCPR
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
ICESCR
International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights
UNGA
United Nations General Assembly
ICERD
International Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination - 1965
CEDAW
Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women
CAT
Convention Against Torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment of punishment
CRC
Convention on the Rights of the Child
CPPCG
Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide
cultural relativism
constructivist critique of the existence of universality based on the dividing influences of history and culture upon people.
natural rights
set of rights that all humans are born with, no matter the state or culture.
International Economics
the study of the flows between countries of goods, services, and financial assets.
absolute advantage
A nation has absolute advantage compared to trading partners when it can produce more output w/ equal amount of inputs.
opportunity cost (OC)
sacrifice you are willing to make to get something you want.
comparative advantage
a nation has a comparative advantage when it can produce an item for a lower opportunity cost than its trading partner.
Production Possibilities Frontier
PPF Graph
Ricardian Model of Comparative Advantage
A country should export what it does most best or least worst and import what it does least best or most worst.
product cost
wage/productivity
NAFTA
North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement
autarky
economic condition where international trade is prohibited, causing the state to depend solely on domestic production.
gains from trade
trade according to comparative advantage makes a country better off by allowing it to consume more than it can produce itself (consume outside PPF)
small trading country
when a country is too small in a given market for its trade to affect world prices.
large trading country
when a country is large enough in a given market for its trade to affect world prices.
Area which determines the economic gains of consumers when a product is at a given price.

Area C on the image

on supply and demand graph, the area above the equilibrium price and below the demand curve.
consumer surplus
Area which determines the economic gains of the producer at the given price.

Area H on the diagram
on supply and demand graph, the area below the equilibrium price and agove the supply curve.
producer surplus
total cost
Indicates the cost for producers to produce a given product.

On supply and demand graph, the area below the supply curve and the equilibrium quantity.
total revenue
P*Q

on supply and demand graph, the area enclosed by the equilibrium price and the equilibrium quantity.
total market surplus
The total ammount of surplus on a supply and demand graph.

consumer surplus + producer surplus
Terms of Trade (TOT)
(Price of exports / price of imports) x 100
DC/LDC
Developed Country/Lesser Developed Country
immiserizing growth
an increase in export productivity can lower national welfare if the negative impact on TOT exceeds positive impact on costs/output
HO Model - A,B,K,L
Hecksher-Ohlin trade model

A: Advanced goods
B: Basic goods
K: Capital
L: Labor

HO Theorem - Each country tends to export good which make relatively intensive use of the country's relatively abundant factors of production
Leontief Paradox
contradiction to the HO model based on empirical data which illustrates that countries tend to spend more domestically on the production of non-specialized goods than specialized goods
Import-substitution Industrialization (ISI)
A labor abundant country produces more capital-intensive goods - attempt to avoid advance goods dependency by LDC's
economic interdependence
economic reality of the 21st century, in which even the largest and wealthiest nations are dependent upon trade and movements of the global market.
1st Wave of Globalization
1870-1914: decreases in tariff barriers and new technologies (steam engine, transcontinental railroads) resulted in reduced transportation costs.
2nd Wave of Globalization
1945-1980: characterized by a continued reduction of trade barriers, but also through agglomeration economies, which allowed for wealthier countries to begin specializing on advanced goods, leaving developing countries far behind.
3rd Wave of Globalization
1980- : characterized by new entries to the market (China, Southeast Asia), as well as massive movement of capital abroad, as LDC's harnessed abundance of labor to gain comparative advantages in labor intensive goods, which has led to outsourcing.
agglomeration economies
wealthy country specialization in manufacturing niches that gain productivity by having multiple factories close together to create one advanced product, such as planes or cars. This was not available to LCD's, due to lack of capital.
outsourcing
process by which certain aspects of a product's manufacture are performed in more than one country in order to reduce costs.
openness
a rough measure of the importance of international trade in a nation's economy.

openness = (I+x)/GDP
mercantilists
European writers between 1500 and 1800 who were concerned with the concept of nation building. Asserted that the solution to national wealth lay in a strong foreign trade sector, by which a favorable trade balance could be reached (surplus of exports over imports).
price-specie-flow doctrine
written by David Hume, and asserted that favorable trade balances could only be achieved in the short run. This was because an excess of exports would yield to increased money supply, which would increase national price level. This would result in citizens buying foreign goods because they would be cheaper. This would eventually balance out trade surplus, as imports would increase until price levels balanced.
Adam Smith
famous economist who advocated free trade and wrote the Wealth of Nations, where he asserted that wealth is not fixed, and that countries could simultaneously get richer through specialization.
model of praetorianism
Sam Huntington's model that explains the dominant role of the military in politics by drawing correlation between military and the maintainence of stability, which in tern fosters the growth of effective political institutions. This comes at the price of a reduction in democratic features and developed civil society.
Octavius
Self proclaimed the first Julius Caesar and emperor of Rome beginning in 27 BCE.
Ba'th Party
authoritarian party found in modern day Syria and pre U.S. invasion Iraq. Characteristic of secular nationalistic rule, with emphasis on state socialism, and authoritarianism through military influence.
Hafiz al-Assad
Authoritarian leader of the Ba'thist party in Syria. Gained power via military coup in 1970, following the crushing loss to Israel in the 1967 war.
'Alawi sect / Nusayris
developed from the teachings of Muhammad ibn Nusayr and came to reside in Turkey and Syria. Like the Twelver Shi'a, they accept the doctrine of the imamate but more uniquely believe that 'Ali, the son in law of the Prophet Muhammad was the 7th and last appearance of God on earth, which has led to a broad range of worship of both sun, moon, and pagan traditions. Widely regarded as heretics within the majority Sunni Muslim communities in the Muslim world.
doctrine of the imamate
one of the main differences of Shi'a Islamic belief, in which a particular line of imams are the only legitimate source of Muslim authority, through the last of these has disappeared and is in a state of occultation. Therefore Shi'a Muslims believe that this final imam will return to earth to unite the Muslim peoples. This belief is not shared within the majority Sunni community.
Bashar al-Assad
Current leader of Syria, son of Hafiz al-Assad.
Aleppo Military Academy Attacks
1979: umbrella group Islamic Front attacks Aleppo Military Academy in Syria, killing over 60 cadets.
Islamist Takeover of Hama
1982: climax of Syrian state's war with Islamist rebels, in which the Islamists took over the area of Hama and proclaimed a jihad against the government. The government military decimated the city, leaving over 10,000 dead and ultimately reaffirming state control over Syria.
Edict of Milan
313: Also called Edict of Tolerance. Passed in 313 by Roman emperor Constantine, allowing freedom of religion within the Roman Empire.
The Stolper-Samuelson (SS) Theorem
globalization raises real income of a country's abundant factor and lowers real income of a country's scarce factor.
Post Colonial Syria
Syria gains independence following World War II by ousting French colonial presence.

Palestinian issue follows shortly after, leading towards an Alliance with Egypt.

Military emerges as prime force within the state, resulting in a multitude of military coups throughout the 1950's and 1960's. Last coup in 1970 under Assad.
Sigmund Freud
Psychologist in the late 1800’s early 1900’s that advocated theories regarding civilization and the ways in which it damages the human psyche. Id, superego, and ego, and how sex dominates human nature.
Charles Darwin
Naturalist who developed the origin of species. Advocated survival of the fittest and evolution of species. Lived in 1800’s, and was significant in developing post Enlightenment ideas.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Archduke of the Austro-Hungarian empire. Was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist in 1914. This was significant since it vaulted the world into World War I.
Benito Mussolini
Italian fascist leader during World War II. Came to power in 1923 by advocating a restoration of Italian nationalism. First fascist leader in modern Europe, and developed a code that defined fascism. Allied with the Axis powers during WWII.
Adolf Hitler
Austrian born German who emerged as the most controversial leader in human history. Commanded over the Nazi Party. Incited rebellion and was jailed. Wrote Mein Kampf while in prison. After leaving, assembled the Nazi party by initially rounding up the Friekorp who were angered by German defeat in WWI. Once ascended to power, built up the armies of Germany and started WWII with the invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939. Was defeated in 1944 by the allied forces, but not before he had conquered the entirety of Europe and parts of Russia and Northern Africa.
Dreyfus Affair
Refers to a Jewish soldier in France who was jailed for supposedly giving military secrets to the Germans. Divided country on whether or not he was guilty. Happened after World War I. Important due to the evidence that anti-semitism was a common occurrence during this time period throughout Europe.
Vladimir Lenin
Russian leader of the Bolschevik party. After being exiled from Russia due to his controversial communist writings, reemerged in 1917 to head the Russian Revolution to dethrone the monarchy under Nicholas II. Once in power, marked the beginning of the communist state of the U.S.S.R. that would last until its collapse in 1991.
Otto von Bismark
Military general that emerged at the head of German unification in the 1870's. Placed heavy emphasis upon industrialization, and vaulted Germany on a trajectory towards becoming a modern power in Europe.
Freikorp
Disillusioned German veterans of WWI who were mentally damaged by the war, but were upset at the loss. Found it hard reinserting themselves into society after the war, especially as the Weimar Republic advocated a more liberal society that looked to put WWI in the past. These war hungry veterans were very much drawn to radical groups, such as Hitler’s rising Nazi party.
Louis Napoleon
Rose to power on a pro-monarchy platform that critisized the failures of the French Republics and emphasized the strength of authoritarian rule similar to his relative Napoleon Bonaparte. Marks the end of the Revolution period of 1848 in France.
Emily Davidson
Famous suffragette who embodied the more radical wing the women's movement. Was trampled by horses on a racetrack as she stood protesting in front of the English Government.
Wansee Conference
1941: the first meeting of Nazi party to discuss plans for the Final Solution.
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty that ended WWI, signed in 1918. Germany agreed to pay war reparations and disband their army and reserves. Significant because it represented a huge humiliation in the eyes of many Germans, including Hitler, who would eventually use this defeat to rally popular support for Nazism.
Hapsburg Empire
Divine-right kingship in Austro-Hungary. Was the last surviving kingship in Europe. Ended in WWI with the defeat of Germany and Hungary. Existed from pre 1700’s and was significant due to its long dominance by kingship over the region.
D-Day / Invasion of Normandy
Marks the U.S. entrance into WWII in the West. 1 million U.S. soldiers stormed the beaches at Normandy in France, eventually breaking the German blockade and establishing the U.S. presence on the Western front
First Chechen War
1994: Began in 1994 between Russia and rebel groups in the territory of Chechnya. Peace was finally agreed upon in 1996 after extensive diplomatic engagement between the European Union and Russia.
Second Chechen War
1999: began when bomb destroyed a building in Moscow. Attack was blamed on Chechen rebels, but is widely speculated to have been masterminded by Vladimir Putin in an effort to begin hardline policies. While hostilities have died down, violence has continued to the present with constant Russian oppression and various Chechen counter-attacks, most notably on a school in Beslan.
Siege of Grozny
Height of Russian atrocities against Chechnya during Second Chechen War. Russia essentially destroyed the city of Grozny, killing many innocents in the process. Sanctions were placed on Russia but were quickly lifted, illustrating the EU's inability to diplomatically influence the issue.
Korematsu v. United States
1944: Supreme Court ruling that the exclusion order leading to Japanese American Internment was not unconstitutional.
Dred Scott Decision
1857: Supreme Court ruled that people of African descent, whether or not they were slaves, could never be citizens of the United States, and that Congress had no authority to prohibit slavery in federal territories.
Plessy v. Ferguson
1896: milestone United States Supreme Court decision in the jurisprudence of the United States, upholding segregation and the constitutionality of the "separate but equal" doctrine.
Buck v. Bell
1927: United States Supreme Court ruling that upheld a statute instituting compulsory sterilization of the mentally retarded "for the protection and health of the state."
American Reconstruction
process in U.S. history that attempted to resolve the issues of the American Civil War when both the Confederacy and slavery were destroyed. It is also the common name for the era between 1865 and 1877 in the United States that addressed the return of the Southern states that had seceded, the status of ex-Confederate leaders, and the Constitutional and legal status of the African-American Freedmen.
"torture lite"
refers to the systematic process of "interrogation" common in the United States where authorities exploit the gray areas of torture definition. Examples include forcing self-urination and defication, exposure to extreme heat and cold, humiliating treatment, loud noises, and sleep deprivation.
The First Geneva Convention
1864: Formally known as the Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field. It covers the treatment of battlefield casualties and was adopted in 1864 as part of the establishment of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.
The Second Geneva Convention
1906: Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field. Extended the principles from the First Geneva Convention of 1864 on the treatment of battlefield casualties.
The Third Geneva Convention
1949: treaty agreement that primarily concerns the treatment of prisoners of war (POWs), and also touched on other topics. It amends the Geneva Convention (1929).
The Fourth Geneva Convention
1949: relates to the protection of civilians during times of war "in the hands" of an enemy and under any occupation by a foreign power.
Miranda v. Arizona
1966: United States Supreme Court decision of protecting a criminal suspect's Fifth Amendment right to avoid coercive self-incrimination (see right to silence).
Ramzi Binalshibh
the first to be publicly identified as the "20th hijacker." Hunted down and eventually captured in Afghanistan in 2002. In 2006 was officially declared a prisoner at Guantanamo Bay.
Quantitative Restrictions (QR)
Non-tariff barrier to trade, in which the home country gives out a set amount of import licenses to other countries for trade.
Voluntary Export Restraints (VERs)
home country "persuades" other countries to put a limit on export amounts to prevent excess exports from flooding domestic markets.
Tariffication
The process of phasing out QR's and VER's due to their damaging effect on international trade, in favor of tariffs.

This has been occurring at a high rate recently, with VER's phased out by 1999 and QR's by 2001.
Dumping (Economics)
Loophole within Export subsidies, where price abroad is cheaper than domestic price, causing companies to buy goods abroad and then simply resell them domestically for a profit, thereby skipping any production phase.
4 gains from trade
1. Efficiency/Specialization based on factor endowments.

2. New products/technology/innovation

3. Diffusion of new technology leading to rapid development

4. Product variety, intraindustry trade/differing products
Factor-price equalization (FPE) theorem
Globalization tends to make factor prices converge across countries.
mission civilatrice
"civilizing mission" undertaken by the French within their newly acquired colonies in the Middle East and North Africa following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. Undertaken in Algeria, Syria, and Lebanon, this policy was characteristic of spreading the French language and culture as well as a social welfare state.
Camille Chamoun and 1958 Crisis
President of Lebanon 1952-1958. Pro-Western doctrine. Presided over a tumultuous period in Lebanon where the surrounding region was greatly turning towards Arabism, which created many schisms within Lebanon's largely non-homogenous population.
Lebanese Civil War
1975: Governmental collapse in the midst of infighting between sizeable Palestinian minorities and Lebanese Phalangists, Christians, and Maronites. This caused a schism in the government, as the Arabs of Lebanon sided with the Palestinian Movement.

Over 40,000 died before Syria intervened in 1976. This prompted Israeli involvement, who intervened in 1978 and 1982.
Hizbullah
Shi'a group originating in the 1960's. Increased in prominance after the beginning of the Lebanese Civil War of 1975, but has made its largest impact in its resistence of Israeli occupation in southern Lebanon beginning in 1982.
Suez Canal
Built between 1851 and 1869. Key British and French shipping route that increased importance of the region to European economies.
Der Judenstaat
written by Theodore Herzl, heralding the rise of Zionism. First Zionist Congress starts program to resettle Jewish people in Palestine in 1897.
Husayn/McMahon Correspondence
1915-1916: promises independent rule for Arabs under Husayn's Hashemite family rule in both the Fertile Crescent and Arabian peninsula.
Reza Khan
seizes power in Iran in 1921 through military coup -- works to free Iran from Russian and British occupation. FollowingMustafa Kemal's success in Turkey, Khan forms the Pahlavi Empire and attempts to emulate Westernizing model.
Mustafa Kemal
leads military campaign in 1923 to drive out British and Greeks, ultimately establishing the Turkish Republic. Begins process of abolishing remnants of the Ottoman Empire in favor of a Turkish nationalist republic. Caliphate and other Muslim institutions destroyed.
Hassan al-Banna
Founder of the Muslim Brotherhood in 1928, the first modern Islamic fundamentalist movement.
British White Paper
British doctrine promising an independent Arab state in Palestine within 10 years.
United Arab Republic (UAR)
Alliance between Syria and Egypt to form one sovereign republic in 1958. Peak of Arab Nationalism. Ends in 1961 as Syria pulls out.
Khartoum Conference
1967: Response to UN Resolution 242. Defined the 3 No's with regards to Israel: No recognition of Israel, no negotiation with Israel, no cessation of hostilities with Israel.
Lebanese National Pact
1943: extends 6-5 ration in Lebanon to all public offices, determining that the president should always be a Maronite Christian, Prime Minister Sunni, Speaker of the Parliament a Shia, etc. and that Christians would not seek alliances with "Christian" countries and Muslims would not seek unity with other Arab states.
Justinian
Hugely significant ruler of the Byzantine Empire from 527-565 C.E. - claimed to be the heir of Constantine, and was influential in popularizing Constantine as the first Roman ruler to convert to Christianity.
Quraysh
Dominant tribe in Mecca during the time of the prophet Muhammad.
neoclassical institutionalism
IPE theory that maintains that economic institutions are the consequence of international actions by rational individuals to maximize their own economic interests.
public-choice school
IPE position distinguished by is explicitly normative commitment to unfettered markets and strong opposition to government intervention in the economy.

This position asserts that politicians, liberal reformers, and others distort the efficient functioning of the market as they use the apparatus of government to further their own private interests.
new political economy
IPE theory that sees national policy emerging solely from private group efforts to employ public means to further their own private interests. Economic policy, this position argues, is the outcome of distributional politics and competition among powerful groups for private advantage.
economies of scale
characterizes a production process in which an increase in the scale of the firm causes a decrease in the long run average cost of each unit.
Reciprocal Trade Act of 1934
provided a bilateral forum by which tariff reduction could be negotiated.
Francis Fukuyama
Prominant neoliberal IR theorist of the 20th and 21st centuries - gained worldwide notoriety with his essay "The End of History," which argued that the end of the Cold War and the victory of liberal democracy represented the final frontier of human achievement.
Alfred Marshall
Prominant British economist during the late 19th century. His book, Principles of Economics (1890), brings the ideas of supply and demand, of marginal utility and of the costs of production into a coherent whole. It became the dominant economic textbook in England for a long period.
Michel Foucault
prominant French critical theorist of the 20th century. Michel Foucault is best known for his critical studies of various social institutions, most notably psychiatry, medicine, the human sciences, and the prison system, as well as for his work on the history of human sexuality. Foucault's work on power, and the relationships among power, knowledge, and discourse, has been widely discussed and applied.
Bretton Woods Conference
gathering of 730 delegates from all 45 Allied nations at the Mount Washington Hotel, situated in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire to regulate the international monetary and financial order after the conclusion of World War II.
Marshall Plan
primary plan of the United States for rebuilding and creating a stronger foundation for the allied countries of Europe, and repelling communism after World War II.
"sick man" of Europe
Deragatory term used by the imperialist West to define Turkey at the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries.
David Ricardo
Early 19th century economist considered the founder of modern economic theories. Prominant theories attributed to him include the division of factors of production, Riccardian model of comparative advantage, and the law of diminishing returns.
Paul Samuelson
Nobel Laureate economist who helped integrate classical microeconomic theory with Keynsian macroeconomic theory, creating the field of neoclassical economics.
Gary Becker
Influential 20th century economist who articulated basic assumptions regarding the economic assessment of social and political life.

These include:

1. The assumption that people are rational and calculating.

2. Rational individuals seek to obtain stable preferences.

3. Markets develop naturally in order to ensure efficiency.
John Meynard Keynes
20th century economist credited with beginning the theory of macroeconomics, effectively reshaping the field of economics from a study of individual behavior to the study of behavior of markets.
stagflation
Rare and dangerous example of market failure that consists of low economic growth, rising unemployment, and severe inflation.
McCracken Report
Result of the Organization of Economic Cooperation Development effort to study the 1973 stagflation crisis.

Led by Paul McCracken, the report concluded that the world economic failures were the result of poor decisions by governments, and not due to the market problems.
Godkin Lectures
1965 lecture session at Harvard where economist Walter Heller proclaimed that the time of the "economist" was at hand, due to his faith in the economists newfound ability through macroeconomics that both recession and inflation could be mastered.
technonationalism
efforts by governments to prevent diffusion of their most important technologies.
New Growth Theory
Set forth byPaul Romer and Robert Lucas in late 1980's.

Breaks from traditional economic theories by placing technology alongside labor and capital as a function for growth.

This focus results in markets being imperfect, as well as a rejection of convergence theory, instead predicting the gap between rich and poor states to increase.
Neoclassical Growth Theory
Furthered by Robert Solow in the 1950's, it views growth as a combination of the increase in labor, capital, and technical progress.

Government policies can only provide short-term changes, and can have detremental side effects.

Since capital and labor are unchanging, technology becomes the only variable that allows for continuous growth, since innovation can break the barrier of diminishing returns.

This belief results in the theories suggestion for the government to play an active role in the economy, especially regarding technology and the development of human capital
New Economic Geography
Economic theory that attempts to explain the core/periphery economic structure articulated by critical theorists in the 19th and 20th centuries.

NEG accounts for this phenomenon by rejected perfect competition, instead stating simply that regional leaders could have simply started sooner, and that it has little to do with resources.

NEG theorists also attribute this maintained regionalization to lowering transportation costs, making the demand for such goods easy to fulfill, allowing the firm to remain regionalized as opposed to moving.

This theory acknowledges core/periphery structures, and thus rejects neoclasical economic theories of convergence, because the core industrial areas perpetuate themselves.
path dependence
the historical past and cumulative processes largely determine the choices available to decision-makers. This can result quite negatively, as a periphery underdeveloped country can become "dependent" upon more developed countries.
Strategic Trade Theory
economic theory that rejects free trade in favor of protectionism on the grounds that markets tend to be oligopolistic, and large firms have an incentive to act strategically regarding trade in order to maximize profits.

This means the government encouraging practices such as dumping, preemption, subsidies, quotas, etc, in order to maintain market position.
henotheism
religious structure that contains multiple gods or spirits, but all of which are products of a single all powerful God.
sample
a subset of the population, selected for study in some prescribed manner
population
the entire collection of individuals or objects about which information is desired
descriptive statistics
numerical, graphical, and tabular methods for organizing and summarizing data
categorical data
individual observations are categorical responses (nonnumerical)
frequency
the number of times a particular value appears in a data set
relative frequency
frequency divided by the number of observations
density
rectangle height = relative frequency of class/class width
numerical data
individual observations which are quantitative in nature
continuous numerical data
possible values from an entire interval along the number line
discrete numerical data
possible values are isolated points along the number line
bivariate and multivariate data
each observation consists of two (bi) or more (multi) response or values
frequency distribution for categorical data
a table that displays frequencies, and sometimes relative frequencies, for each of hte possible values of a categorical variable
bar chart
a graph of a frequency distribution for a categorical data set. Each category is represented by a bar, and the area of the bar is proportional to the corresponding frequency or relative frequency
dotplot
a picture of numerical data in which each observation is represented by a dot on or above a horizontal measurement scale
stem-leaf plot
a method of organizing numerical data in which the stem values (leading digit of observation) are listed in a column and the leaf for each observation (trailing digit) is listed beside the corresponding stem. Leaves extend horizontally to stretch display.
scatterplot
a picture of bivariate numerical data in which each observation (x,y) is represented as a point with respect to a horizontal x-axis and a vertical y-axis
histogram
a picture of the information in a requency distribution for a numerical data set. a rectangle is drawn above each possible value (discrete data) or class interval. The rectangle's area is proportional to the corresponding frequency or relative frequency
sample mean
measure of centrality for a sample - calculated by summing all values and dividing by the number of values. Sensitive to outliers.
population mean
the average x value in an entire population
sample median
measure of central tendency - calculated by finding the middle value of the data set. If n is even, this middle is calculated by finding the mean of the middle two numbers. This method is insensitive to outliers.
trimmed mean
a measure of center in which the observations are first ordered from smallest to largest, then one or more observations are deleted from each end, and finally the remaining observations are averaged. Less sensitive to outliers than mean.
sample variance
the most frequently used measures of variability for sample data
sample standard deviation
the square root of the sample variance
z score
the distance between an observation and the mean expressed as a certain number of standard deviations. the z-score is positive (negative) if the observation lies above (below) the mean.
IQR
interquartile range - calculated by subtracting Q1 from Q3.
five number summary
a summary of a data set that includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum
boxplot
a picture that conveys information about the most important features of a data set: center, spread, extent of skewness, and presense of outliers
modified boxplot
boxplot that does not include outliers, defined as 1.5x larger than Q3 or 1.5x smaller than Q1.
extreme outlier
outlier with a value 3x greater than Q3 or 3x smaller than Q1
unimodal
function that has one rise and fall (hump)
bimodal function
function with two distinct rises and falls
multimodal function
function with multiple rises and falls
skewed distribution
occurs when modes of a function are not centered or symmetrical, usually due to the existence of outliers. Graphs are therefore either left or right skewed, or positively or negatively skewed
sample correlation coefficient
a measure of the extent to which sample x and y values are linearly related; -1<r< 1, so values close to 1 or -1 indicate strong linear relationships.

Equation is r = summation of ZxZy / n-1

summation of all z scores for x and y, then divided by number of values minus 1.
coefficient of determination
the proportion of variation in observed y's that can be explained by an approximate linear relationship.

calculated by squaring r, the sample correlation coefficient
agm
agreement measure - numerical measure for a categorical data set, generally used for 0 or 1 relationships.

#(x=y) - #(x \= y) / n
Basic Properties of Probability
1. For any event E, 0 =< P(E) =< 1
2. If S is the sample space for an experiment, P(S)=1
3. If two events E and F are disjoin, then P(E and F)= P(E) + P(F)
4. For any event E, P(E) + P(not E) = 1
chance experiment
activity or situation in which there is uncertainty about which of two or more possible outcomes will result
sample space
the collection of all possible outcomes of a chance experiment
simple event
event consisting of exactly one outcome
disjoint / mutually exclusive
two events that have no common outcomes
IMF
International Monetary Fund - institution created under the Bretton Woods System following World War II, with an emphasis on helping nations avoid balance of payment crises.

Also exists as a lender of last resorts to countries who experience economic collapse. Also works to further monetary stability through financial advice.
GATT
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade - institution created by the Bretton Woods system following World War II.

Existed to emphasize free trade and the reduction of trade barriers and protectionist policies, since protectionism was believed to be a serious factor that contributed to the economic depression that helped the rise of Nazi Germany.

Was replaced by the WTO
WTO
World Trade Organization - overtook the role of the GATT, and exists to help promote free trade and liberal economic policies.
World Bank
One of the Bretton Woods institutions that emerged following World War II.

Initially focused upon providing loans for European and Japanese reconstruction, but expanded heavily in the 1970's towards a focus on poverty reduction in the underdeveloped world. This usually consists of funding projects within the country such as agriculture, infrastructure, education, disease control, etc.
Abyssinia
Present day Ethiopia - existed as a significant Christian region during the early Christian period.

Was a strong ally of Byzantium during the rise of Byzantine culture in opposition to the Sassanid empire in present day Iran.
Saracens
Name given by the Greeks to the "tent people" that lived in the harsh desert.

Maily refers to the Arabs that were nomadic and tribal in nature during the Greek and Christian periods, as opposed to the Southern Arabs.
hanif
term for a wandering non-denominational monotheist during the pre-Islamic period.
kahin
spirit talkers - considered wise men in pre-Islamic culture, and were believed to have the power to speak to spirits and djinns.
Khadija
Muhammad's first wife, of the clan of Hashim and the tribe of Quraysh. She was a highly distinguished woman within Mecca, with wealth, power, and Christian influences. By most accounts was 40 years old when she married Muhammad, who was then 25.

She was said to be a strong woman, and very influential upon Muhammad. He never married another woman while she was alive. She was officially his first convert, as well as the first person he told of his revalation on Mount Hira.

Died in 619 CE.
Abu Talib
Uncle of Muhammad that took him in following the death of his parents.

Powerful member of the Hashim clan, and provided protection over Muhammad until his death in 619.

Never converted to Islam.
Ali
Both cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad. Considered to be the closest male heir to Muhammad.
Mount Hira
Mountain outside of Mecca where Muhammad received his first revalation.
A'isha
Muhammad's second wife following the death of Khadija (first was Sawda), and daughter of Abu Bakr.

Married her when she was only six years of age.
numenous
the nonexperience of nonpresence, a definition for what occurs when one sees God.

Articulated by Rudolf Otto.

Can also be conceptualized as the complete incomprehensibility and irrationality that coincide with a vision of God.
mysterium
term referring to the unknowability of God by mortals - as well as the uncanny desire for mortals to seek truth. This combination creates the mysterium identity characteristic of the theophany, which explains why the fear and horror that occurs can somehow create greater attachment by the mortal to continually attempt to understand the unknown.

Similar to more popular ideas of interest in ghosts or aliens - where an actual experience would be terrifying, yet we still pursue in the hopes to find out more.
tremendum
word to describe the terror, panic, and utter destruction of order that occurs during God's wrath, a manifestation not of anger, but simply of unmeasurable power - witnessed during a theophany.
creature-feeling
feeling experienced during theophany by the mortal, who is reduced to "dust and ash" in the midst of God. Such reduction of worth to a nearly infinite level creates a sense of absolute dependence upon God.
Muhammad
Prophet of Islam, lived from 570-632. Only a man, but perceived to maintain the highest qualities imaginable.

Received first revalation in 610 and proceeded to convert many towards God's message that he espoused - which consisted of radical religious and social change in favor of devotion to God and the community.

Met severe hardships between 619 and 622, after which he fled to Medina and help found the Islamic state, which grew rapidly after his death in 632 into the Islamic Empire, which ruled over half of the known world for nearly 1,000 years.

There are currently today over one billion Muslims that have emerged from the teachings of this one man in the 7th century.
Meccan Period
period between Muhammad's first revalation in 610 CE and his departure from Mecca in 619 CE.

Considered the initial phase of the growth of Islam, consisting of Muhammad's first conversions, articulation of the religious message, social critique of the Meccans, and earliest encounters with opposition to his ideas.
Medinan Period
Period beginning with Muhammad's arrival in Medina following his flee from Mecca in 622, and ending with his death in 632.

Consisted of the second and far more dramatic phase of the growth of Islam, including the emergence of social and political norms, articulation of religious doctrine, accumulation of wealth, establishment of military force, persecution and cleansing of enemies, and the general ascendance of Islam into a seat of world power.
Nestorians
Assyrian Christian sect that did not acknowledge Mary Mother of Jesus and were thus strongly persecuted by the Byzantine Empire.

Forced to leave the Byzantine Empire after Nestorius was deposed for heresy by the Council of Ephesus in 431.
Abu Bakr
One of the earliest converts to Islam, and represented one of Muhammad's closest councils. His status was significant because he was one of the few respected members of the Meccan society to convert.

Was also the father of one of Muhammad's wives, A'isha.

Was chosen as the first caliph, or protector of Islam, following the death of Muhammad in 632 CE. Helped consolidate the power of the Muslims in the Arabian Peninsula, yet died before other expansion could take place, in 634 CE.
Sassanid Empire
Major world empire during the first few centuries of the Common Era - evolution of the Persian Empire in present day Iran.

Constituted one piece of the bipolar world, the other being the Christian empire in Byzantium.
Zarathustra
Influential Persian prophet who is credited with the beginnings of Zorastrianism, the dominant religious ideology of the Persan and Sassanid Empires.
Ptolemy
Prominant Greek philosopher/scientist who was the first to develope a detailed map of the lands of Arabia, of which he had particular interest.
Khusro I
Ruler of the Sassanid Empire from 531-579, during which time major advances were made into Byzantine territories including Antioch and the gates of Constantinople. Significant because it not only demonstrated the strength of the empire, but created world-wide strife during the time of Muhammad and the rise of Islam.
containment
foreign policy used against the Soviet Union during the Cold War, founded in a belief that the isolation of Communism would cause its downfall.

Strong belief in this practice led to many foreign conflicts, most notably the Vietnam War.
X Article
Formally titled the "Sources of Soviet Conduct," was a secret document written by George Kennan in 1947.

Articulated the policy of containment that would dominate Cold War policy for the next three decades.
Birth of Muhammad
570 CE in Mecca (Rodinson says 571) to Abdallah and Amina.

Born into his father's clan of Hashim within the tribe of Quraysh.
First revalation for Muhammad
610 CE on Mount Hira. He would regularly frequent a cave on the mountain to spend time alone. But, during the month of Ramadan in 610, he was visited by the angel Gabriel and given the first message of Allah.

The story goes that he was asked to read, to which he responded that he could not read, and after several successive displays of God's power, he recited the first verses of the Qu'ran.
Departure of Muhammad
619 CE, from Mecca. This followed the deaths of both Khadija and Abu Talib, leaving Muhammad without the tribal protection he had enjoyed while his uncle was alive.

Abu Talib's brother became head of the Hashim clan, and inquired about the fate of Abu Talib and Abu Muttalib since they had not converted to Islam, whereby Muhammad answered that they were damned to Hell.

This infuriated all of the Quraysh - and in fear for his life, Muhammad went into hiding. He apparently hid for three years (or just stayed on the down-low), until he decided to leave and not return.

He convinced his small group of followers to travel to Yathrib where they should wait for him, and when all had gone, he snuck out of the city and made his way for Yathrib. This occurred in 622 CE.

Arrives in Medina in 622 CE.
Death of Muhammad
632 CE
hadith
religious documents written by supposedly reliable sources regarding the things Muhammad said and did. Much of Islamic law has been derived from such writings, which is thus considered highly important to Islamic culture.

Important to note that the hadith, while sacred, is not the word of God like the Qu'ran.
public goods
goods that are inexcludable (universal access) and non-rivalrous (no scarcity).
prisoner's dilemma
Highly references scenario within relations theory, which places two prisoners in a decision making exercise that addresses maximum vs. rational gains.

Basically, if both prisoners stay silent, they will serve 6 months. If one of them rats out the other, the one in denial would serve 6 years while the other would go free. But if both rat each other out they will each serve 4 years.

The idea is that both will rat the other out despite the maximum gains if both stayed silent, because the risk of betrayal makes 3 years a worthy risk in the light of the 6 that could be served if the other backstabs you.
IBRD
International Bank of Reconstruction and Development - one of the founding institutions of the Bretton Woods project, which focused upon funding the Marshall Project through loans to Europe and Japan to help rebuild after World War II.

Changed into the World Bank.
Hegemonic Stability Theory
Theory that asserts that global stability in both economic and political senses cannot emerge without the influence of a hegemon, or superpower.

Proponents of this theory also assert that the stability is dependent upon the strength of the hegemon, and if that strength rescinds, stability will falter.
Regime Theory
Liberal response to Hegemonic Stability Theory, that agrees that a hegemon is required to initiate movements towards global stability of economics and politics, but that such emerging regimes are capable of gaining their own identities and maintaining stability even if the hegemon loses power.
event
a subset within the sample space of a chance experiment
union
the union of E and F is the set of all outcomes in S that are in at least one of E or F.
intersection
the intersection of E and F is the set of all outcomes in S that are in both E and F.
complement
the complement of E is all the elements of S that are not in E
Battle of Badr
Significant battle between Muslims of Medina and Meccan traders at the well of Badr in 624 CE.

Marks decisive victory of the Muslims over a much larger but divided force of tribal mercenaries.

Muslim forces gained great wealth from this victory, but more importantly, Muhammad returned a legend for his faith in their victory, thus beginning massive conversions in Medina and the beginnings of the Muslim state.
Conversion of the Banu Khatma
Following the victory of the Meccans at Badr, the Muslims began their movement to rid Medina of naysayers and Jews. One particular naysayer was a female poet named Asma. Muhammad asked someone to kill her, a request that was undertaken by a man of her clan named Umayr ibn Adi. He killed her in her sleep, to which Muhammad rejoiced.

This brutal display of force by a man of the Banu Khatma clan upon their own was so shocking that all of the Banu Khatma clan (who had previously never converted) converted on the spot - in awe of Muhammad's power.
Battle of Uhud
Massive counterattack made by the Quraysh of Mecca in 625 - following the embarrassing defeat at Badr.

The Meccan army, led by Abu Sufjan, of roughly 3,000 soldiers marched up to the mountains of Uhud near Medina, destroyed many crops, and then badly routed the Muslim army.

Marks a huge defeat for Muhammad, who was nearly killed in the battle.
historic Orientalism
refers to the historical significance of the creation of the "Eastern other" to help articulate the emergence of a distinctly "Western" identity.

Witnessed in early Greek writings when referring to the Saracen savages of Arabia, and is significantly rearticulated as a form of resistance to the Islamic Empire. Inspires crusades and animosity between East and West, where East represents all that is bad, but more importantly, all that the West is not (and the West is of course the seat of good - according to those in the West).

Overall, refers to the whole spectrum and evolution of Orientalism.
modern Orientalism
centered mostly around the modern imbalance of power between the East and West, influenced hugely through colonialism. This orientalism is perpetuated through the passing of knowledge and scholarship, upon hundreds of years of essentially biased studies on the other, to the point where the East cannot be looked through any other lens but the distinct other from the West.

Overall, the Orientalism that has been perpetuated through literature and scholarship that justifies and expands upon the inferiorities of the East, in order to maintain the imbalance of power that is essential to the Western hegemonic identity.
latent Orientalism
.
manifest Orientalism
.
rational theology
articulated by Otto as positive theology, or theology that attempts to apply excesses of human characteristics upon to God in an effort to bring it closer to the believer.

In this light, God is a figure of absolute good, absolute benevolence, grants absolute love and devotion. It is infinitely powerful, and often male... gender, power, good can all be experienced by people, and therefore God is brought closer in terms of conceptualization.
holy
the idea of the divine articulated by Rudolf Otto - which he explains through the experience of theophany and the subsequent mysterium tremendum that occurs when in the presence of the numenous wholly other.
Wholly Other
term used by Otto to describe the whole and complete otherness of God, not based on finite characteristics, but of knowing and understanding.
The Early Message of Islam
1. All being is from God and kept in existence by God.

2. God will at some point show itself and proceed with the judgement or reckoning of deeds.

3. God is the source of all being and should therefore be constantly worshipped with gratitude for all that is had.

4. The way to display such gratitude is through generosity and egalitarianism - and care of the entire community of God.
Yathrib
alternate name for Medina, the focal point for the spread of Islam beginning in 622 CE.
Hijaz
Western region of the Arabian Peninsula, defined by its proximity to the Red Sea. Was a central trading route between the Levant and the southern Arabian trading communities in present day Yemen.
al-ummi
arabic phrase meaning illiterate, and one of Muhammad's various nicknames.

Rationale for this title was due to the fact that despite his supposed illiteracy, he was able to articulate some of the most beautiful poetry that is contained in Qu'ran, considered the highest form of Arabic language.

This certaily constitutes a miracle if true, although some dispute these claims in favor of an idea that Muhammad was actually well educated, and claims of illiteracy were created after his death to add to the mystique of the Qu'ran.
Muhammad's Critique
while Muhammad only claimed to be the messenger of Allah during the Meccan period, such messages exemplified social critique.

It is well known that Muhammad was unhappy with the intense materialism of the Meccan culture, where huge amounts of inequality, individualism, and selfishness were common.

The message of Islam articulated the need for the opposite of this society: one characteristic of equity, distribution of resources, and improvements over the social welfare of the people.
Satanic Verses
Verses articulated within the hadith, told by A'isha, which recount a critical speech made by Muhammad towards a group of Quraysh who were pressuring him to soften his monotheist message:

"Have you considered Allat and al 'Uzza and Manat, the third, the other? They are the Exalted Birds and their intercession is desired indeed."

The verse in the Qu'ran, at 53:20, reads as follows:

"Have you considered Allat and al 'Uzza and Manat, the third, the other? What! For you the male sex, and for Him, the female? Behold, such would be indeed a division most unfair!"
Hijra
Arabic word for emigration, referring to Muhammad's journey to Medina in 622 CE.

The date of the Hijra, July 16 of 622 CE, begins the Islamic Calendar, whereby every following year is cited as the nth year of the hijra.
Islam and Ibrahim
Arabic translation of Abraham, considered by Muhammad to be the father of both the Arabs and the Jews, and of monotheism itself. It was said that Ibrahim had erected a Temple of God and requested to Allah that a messenger emerge to spread the word of God. Obviously this city was Mecca, and the messenger, Muhammad.

This groundation was further significant because it allowed him to establish a severe critique of the Jews, whom he accused of rejecting the instructions of God and veering from the path passed by Ibrahim. Because the Jews diverted from the path, Muhammad concluded that Islam incorporated the tenets that Ibrahim and God had desired, granting Islam a higher level of transcendence and legitimacy.
Exile of the Nadir
In 626 CE, following various internal controversies, Muhammad decided to confront one of the most powerful Jewish tribes in Medina, the Banu-n-Nadir.

In fear of assassination, Muhammad pinned the Nadir down inside their fortress and pushed them into submission, whereby they were told to leave and never return.

This verdict was actually a compromise agreed upon due to sympathizers.
Massacre of the Qurayza
May of 627 CE - Following the Siege of Medina, Muhammad used the opportunity of victory to rid himself of political enemies within the Jewish clan of Qurayza.

The Jews were accused of plotting to backstab Muhammad during the siege, and he had between 700 and 900 men beheaded - with the remaining women, children, and property divided up amongst the Muslims.
The Siege of Medina
March of 627 CE - Major Meccan assault upon Medina with the goal of killing Muhammad and destroying the Muslims.

Led by Abu Sufyan, who had 10,000 men at his command. They were repelled after weeks of siege due to extensive trenches dug as defense around Medina. The Meccans pleaded for the Jews in Medina to create internal dissent and attack from south, but the Jews did not attack and the Meccans retreated after nearly no fighting after a few weeks.
Muhajjirun
those who followed Muhammad from Mecca. Word for the first followers essentially.
Ansar
the later converts to Islam during the Medinan period.
Charter of Medina
contract written in 622 CE by Muhammad to unite the divided peoples of Medina by uniting everyone under a common belief in peace in Medina.

"the believers and Muslims of Quraysh and Yathrib and those who follow them and are attached to them and fight alongside them...form a single community, distinct from other men..."

In addition, Muhammad in this set out a decree for all "believers" certain obligations such as charity, prayer, and devotion to God and to other believers above all else."

Muhammad would be the mediator in the case of discrepency, due to his transcendence of truth and contact with Allah.
4 Caliphs
Ali, Umar, Uthman, Ali
The Exortium
The first chapter, or sura, of the Qu'ran. Reads:

In the name of Allah
The Cherisher and Sustainer of the Worlds;
Most Gracious, Most Merciful;
Master of the Day of Judgement.
Thee do we worship,
And Thine aid we seek.
Show us the straight way,
The way of those on whom
Thou hast bestowed Thy Grace,
Those whose (portion)
Is not wratch,
And who go not astray.
Raid of Nakhla
624 CE - first raid by Muhammad's followers upon Qurayshi caravan due to extreme poverty in Medina.

Also significant because blood was spilled, which Muhammad justified due to the evil nature of the Meccans. This is important as it is the first time Muhammad justifies such actions.
industrial policy
refers to deliberate efforts by a government to determine the structure of the economy through such devices as financial subsidies, trade protection, or government procurement.
shareholder capitalism
business system where a firm's fundamental purpose is to make profits for its investors or shareholders. This is encouraged because high shareholding is uncommon, creating intense competition for business ownership among shareholders - common in the United States.
stakeholder capitalism
business sytem where the corporation is assumed to have a major responsibility toward its stakeholders (workers, subcontractors, etc.) and fulfill social demands. This occurs in the Japanese and German systems, where shareholding is much more controlled.
Meiji Restoration
1868 - period of time in Japan characterized by massive social and economic changes that transformed Japan into an international imperial power by the beginning of the 20th Century.
developmental state capitalism
term used by Robert Gilpin to describe the Japanese economy, characteristic of:

1. an overwhelming emphasis on economic development
2. key role of large corporations in organizing society and economy
3. subordination of the individual to the group
4. primacy of the producer over the consumer
5. close cooperation among government, business, and labor.
MITI
Ministry of International Trade and Industry - powerful Japanese economic beaurocracy that determines industrial policy for Japan.

The existence of such control is an example of the command aspect of Japanese capitalism, due to the unchallenged control that MITI has on influencing the Japanese economy.
keiretsu
Japanese business grouping whose members are bound together by mutual trust and long term relationship among major firms, suppliers, and distribution networks.

At the heart of these groupings is a bank that supplies credit and influences economic strategy.

There are horizontal keiretsu, which are bound major firms that share profits and thus influence each others decisions.

There are also vertical keiretsu's, which consist of a major parent manufacturer and tons of smaller companies that act as subcontractors - an example of such a company being Toyota.

Such policies have been criticized by American economists, because generate oligopolies and economies of scale difficult to rival and also make FDI very resisted.
"New Economic Paradigm"
term for the shift in the US economy in the 1980's and 1990's that encouraged globalization through supporting deregulation, open markets, and minimal government intervention.
market oriented capitalism
economic system in the United States where the purpose of economic activity is to benefit consumers while maximizing wealth creation.

Distribution of wealth holds a secondary importance. This is furthered through competition promotion and free trade, which come through increased exposure to global markets.

State intervention into the economy is kept at a minimum under this system, as compared to other capitalist forms such as Germany or Japan.
social market capitalism
capitalist model found in present day Germany, this system emphasizes the role of the global market, but uses interventionist forces from both government and banks to ensure a high level of social welfare.

This emphasis on state intervention is believed to have risen out of Germany's late industrialization, which occurred through state catch up policy as opposed to through more organic means such as happened in Britain and the United States.
National Economic Council
US economic agency created by Bill Clinton in 1993, it serves the government by formulating domestic and international economic policy.
neoclassical convergence theory
theory that economic interdependence and forces of globalization will force a convergence in economic performance among national economies as ates of economic growth, productivity, and national incomes move toward one another.
Underwood Tariff Act
Passed in 1913, and proposed the first federal income tax following the passage of the Sixteenth Amendment. Additionally, it reduced tariffs from 40 to 25%.
Pax Britannica
refers to the period of British hegemony during the 19th century that resulted in the expansion of British influences through both economic and imperialistic endeavors abroad.

This was largely due to the rapid industrialization experienced in Britain during the mid-1850's, which was replicated in both France, the United States, and Germany.

As industrialization spread and other nations caught up with Britain, this hegemony dwindled, with the eventual end signified by World War I.
Corn Laws
British corn tariffs that were in effect between 1815 and 1846 and greatly helped domestic production of corn.

Were most significant in their elimination, due to the emphasis on international trade that emerged from such a move. Can be seen as one of the earliest attempts at free trade between nation-states, and heralded the period of rapid industrialization and openness of the late 19th century.
Cobden-Chevalier Treaty
Free trade treaty signed between France and Britain in 1860.
Kennedy Round
held between 1964 and 1967, this sixth trade round of the GATT was successful in slashing 40 billion dollars worth of global tariffs, improving the strength of the global market.
Tokyo Round
1973-1979 - agreed upon trade openness and the elimination of over 300 billion in tariffs.
"Nixon Shocks"
refer to two different policy measures taken by U.S. President Richard Nixon in 1971 and 1972.

In 1971 Nixon unilaterally canceled the Bretton Woods system and stopped the direct convertibility of the United States dollar to gold.

The second shock was the 1972 Nixon visit to China that brought a surprising new twist to Cold War diplomacy.
Navigation Laws
series of laws which, beginning in 1651, restricted the use of foreign shipping in the trade of England (later the Kingdom of Great Britain and its colonies).

Repealed in 1828 during the period of internationalism fostered by the British.
Imperial Preference
proposed system of reciprocally-levelled tariffs or Free trade agreements between different Dominions and colonies within the British Commonwealth of Nations. The purpose of such practices was to promote the mutual prosperity, and thus unity, of allied imperial nations.
Three Faces of Hegemony
Articulated by Scott James and David Lake, these three policies emerge from a hegemon in order to shape the global economic order.

1. Positive and negative sanctions, used against foreign governments to influence policy.

2. international market power, in order to influence world prices and thereby empower foreign industies favorable towards domestic interests. Also called the "Trojan Horse" strategy.

3. Use of ideas, or propaganda, to influence global opinion regarding the hegemon's policies.
intra-industry trade
exchange of similar commodoties between similarly endowed countries.

Has rapidly grown to account for a huge amount of foreign trade due to the expansion of economies of scale, causing large firms to expand to foreign markets to ensure continued growth.

Automobiles constitute a clear example of an economy of scale, which explains why the United States is both a major importer and exporter of cars. (has less to do with comparative advantage and more to do with the expansion and influence of large firms)
portfolio investment
represents passive holdings of securities such as foreign stocks, bonds, or other financial assets, none of which entails active management or control of the securities' issuer by the investor.
foreign direct investment
defined as "investment made to acquire lasting interest in enterprises operating outside of the economy of the investor."

The FDI relationship consists of a parent enterprise and a foreign affiliate which together form a transnational corporation (TNC). In order to qualify as FDI the investment must afford the parent enterprise control over its foreign affiliate.

The UN defines control in this case as owning 10% or more of the ordinary shares or voting power of an incorporated firm or its equivalent for an unincorporated firm.
City of London
The City of London is today a major business and commercial centre, ranking alongside New York City as the leading centre of global finance.

Was the center of global finance during Britain's role as global hegemon during the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Pax Americana
term to describe the period of relative peace in the Western world since the end of World War II in 1945, coinciding with the dominant military and economic position of the United States.
embedded liberalism
.
institutional substitutablity
.
global public domain
an arena of discourse, contestation and action organized around global rule making - a transnational space that is not exclusively inhabited by states, and which permits the direct expression and pursuit of human interests, not merely those mediated by the state.

- John Gerard Ruggie
USAID
.
CSO
.
DeMorgan's Rule
The compliment of E union F is equal to the compliment of E intersection compliment of F.
classical probability
P(E) = #E/#S

the probability of event E is equal to the number of outcomes for E divided by the number of total outcomes in the sample S.
simple random sample
sampling with replacement
Monophysites
Christian sect scattered among the Sassanid and Arabian areas during the early Christian period - declared heretical by the Byzantines after the Council of Chalcedon in 451.
Apostacy (Ridda) wars
Consolidation of power by Abu Bakr following the death of Muhammad.

The first caliph sent armed bands of Believers to the main centers of oppostion in Arabia: Yemen, Nejd, and Yamama. These campaigns picked up allies and grew large enough to defeat all opponents in the Arabian Peninsula by 634 CE.
Musaylima
Rival prophet during the time of Muhammad, who was deposed by Abu Bakr and the Muslims.
Battle of Yarmuk
Battle between the Byzantines and the Muslims in 636 CE.

Heraclius, ruler of Byzantium, sent an army to counter the expanding Muslim armies, and was decimated at the valley of Yarmuk.
Battle of al-Qadisiyah
Decisive battle on the Eastern front, in which the Muslim armies, in 637 CE, broke the Sassanid Empire and took the lands of present day Iraq, and eventually Iran.
Umar ibn al-Khattab
Early follower of Muhammad, who was later chosen as the second caliph by Abu Bakr in 634 CE.

Presided over a period of great expansion of the Islamic faith, which saw the borders of the Islamic Empire expand into Egypt, into the Levant, and deep into the Sassanid Empire to the East. Died in 644 CE.
Uthman ibn Affan
Third caliph of the Islamic Empire - ruled between 644 and 656 CE.

Unlike the previous two caliphs, the succession of Uthman prompted significant resistance among believers, which led to his assassiniation and the subsequent First Civil War within the Islamic Empire.
First Islamic Civil War
656-661 CE. Occurred following the assassination of the third caliph Uthman.

While the conspirators were largely vilified, they received support from those who believed that succession should have gone to Ali ibn Abi Talib - the closest male relative to the prophet Muhammad.

Thus those who followed Ali's leadership constituted one side of the civil war, while the other side was composed of the majority of the Empire, specifically those of the Umayya clan as well as some of Muhammads closest supporters, including Aisha.

Ended at the Battle of the Camel and the victory of the supporters of Ali.
Battle of the Camel
661 CE - victory of the supporters of Ali over the supporters of Uthman, effectively ending the First Islamic Civil War and beginning the reign of the fourth caliph, Ali.

Ali and his supporters shifted the center of the Empire to Kufa in present day Iraq. The forces of Ali then consolidated and began marching towards Syria to spread their cause and defeat Muawiyah, the leader of the Umayya clan and son of Uthman, who was to succeed his father as fourth caliph.
Muawiyah
Leader of the Umayya clan following the assassination of the third caliph Uthman.

Emerged as the first caliph of the Umayyad caliphate in 661 following the assassination of Ali.
Umayyad Caliphate
Ruling clan of the Islamic Empire between 661 and 750 CE.

While based on a specific clan, the ruling Umayyad's constituted a separate sect of Islam that differed from Shiites and Kharijites on the issue of succession.

The Umayyad's claimed that consensus of the community of Believers was the most important element in electing a new caliph - a belief that would become articulated by the Sunni sect of Islam for years to come.

Began in 661 with the leadership of Muawiyah, and was overthrown in 750 by the Abbasid family.

Presided over the period of greatest expansion, with the Islamic Empire stretching as far as Spain, across Africa, Italy, the Levant, Arabia, into Africa, and east towards Pakistan and India.
Kharijites
sect of Islam that emerged following the death of the prophet - who believed that succession should be based on true piety and impeccably righteous behavior, in memory of the prophet Muhammad.

Constituted an important sect during the early Islamic period, due to their abandonment of Ali during the first civil war. Ali responded harshly to this, leading his army to slaughter many Kharijites at the battle at Nahrawan - undoubtedly influencing his early death at the hands of a Kharijite assassin in 661 CE.
Second Islamic Civil War
680-692 CE. Begun following the death of Muawiyah, whereby previous hostilities that characterized the first civil war continued. The Umayyad caliphate was succeeded during this time by his son Yazid, and then by Abd al-Malik - based in Damascus.

They were challenged by the Shiites from Ali's stronghold in Kufa by the followers of Ali's youngest son Husayn, who was massacred in 680 by Umayyad troops.

Resistance also came, more seriously, from Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, who consolidated power in Mecca and was regarded as the rightly guided caliph by many in the area.

Following twelve years of bitter strife, Abd al-Malik was able to pacify both the Shiites in Iraq and al-Zubayr in Arabia and reunite the entire Islamic Empire under the Umayyad caliphate.
Abd al-Malik
Leader of the Umayyad caliphate following the deaths of Muawiyah and Yazid. Managed to reunite the Islamic empire under the Umayyad caliphate by destroying the resistance of the Shiites in Iraq and dissidents in Mecca.
Shiites
Sect of Islam that diverged from the Umayyads and Kharijites on the issue of succession. Shiites believe that only a member of the prophet's clan of Hashim should hold power.

This desire was first articulated when Uthman was elected caliph instead of Muhammad's closest blood relative Ali. This dispute grew, eventually leading to the first Islamic civil war that resulted in the brief rule of Ali before his assassination in 661 CE.

The Shiites, or Aliids as they were then called, followed Ali's son Husayn, who continued the resistance against the Umayyad caliphate from their base in present day Iraq.

The Shiites bid for power ended with the death of Husayn at Karbala, which exists as the major division between the two sects.
Husayn
Son of Ali and champion of the Shiite community. The story goes that he was to meet a large contingent of Shiites to battle the Umayyad's at Karbala, but was met with no assistance and was slaughtered.

The Shiites, distraught by their lack of courage, viewed Husayn's martyrdom with much praise, and thereby began basing their minority status around his martyrdom - which has prevented reconciliation with his Sunni foes to this day.
Abbasid Caliphate
Ruling clan of the Islamic Empire between 750 and 1258 CE.

Rose against the ruling Umayyad Caliphate in the second quarter of the 8th century - rallying supporters by claiming to be of the family of Muhammad.

Once in power, the capital shifted from Damascus to Baghdad, where the base of Abbasid support originated.
Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah
First caliph of the Abbasid caliphate, ruling from 750-754 CE.
Abu Jafar al-Mansur
Second caliph of the Abbasid caliphate, ruling from 754-775 CE.
Conditional Probability (Statistics)
P(E!F) = P(EnF)/P(F)

Probability of E given P(F) has already occurred is equal to the probability of the intersection of P and F divided by the probability of P.
Multiplication Rule of Conditional Probability (Statistics)
P(EnF) = P(E!F)P(F)

Probability of the intersection between E and F is equal to the probability of E given that F has occurred times the probability of F.
Independent Events (Statistics)
events that each offer no information about the probability that another event will occur.

P(EnF) = P(E)P(F)
Weak Law of Large Numbers for Bernoulli Trials
as the number of independent repititions of a chance experiment increases, the chance that the relative frequency of the occurrence of a particular event will differ from the true probability of the event by more than any given small number approaches 0.
Khurasanians
core of the Abbasid army, who were settlers of Arab origin that were elevated to soldier roles due to their support for the Abbasid clan.

Despite their status as soldiers, they had ties to society and were only called upon when needed, and were otherwise just ordinary peasants.
ghulams
highly trained corps of professionally trained soldiers that began under the caliph al-Mutasim in the 9th century.

Mark the evolution of the Muslim soldier, from untrained peasants to actual professionals with few ties to the society.

Earliest such assemblies were composed of mamluks, or Turkish slaves, who were trained to have unwavering loyalty to the caliphate.
iqta
administrative shortcut to aid in the collection of tax revenue, whereby a general or soldier was given the right to collect revenues directly from a certain district.
Carolingian renaissance
.
Abd al-Rahman III
Considered the greatest of the Umayyad rulers of Spain. Despite ruling during the Abbasid caliphate, Umayyad's such as Rahman enjoyed autonomy due to the far distance from the caliphate base in Baghdad.

Assumed title of caliph in 929 to defy the Abbasid caliphate.
reconquista
term for the expansion of the Christian forces in northern Spain into southern Islamic Spain, in an effort to unite the country under Christianity.

Initial landmark of the reconquista was the fall of Toledo at the hands of the Christian armies led by Alfonso VI, yet these advances were stifled by the Islamic armies of Morocco - who helped the Islamic south remain intact until the 12th century.

Christian Spain completed the reconquista in 1492.
Qayrawan
Umayyad center of government over the region of North Africa during the Umayyad caliphate - situated in modern day Tunisia.
Imami Shi'ism (Twelver)
Quietist wing of Shiism during the 9th century, who believed that the line of visible imams ended in 874 when the twelfth imam, still only an infant, had gone into hiding in Samarra, from which he would return in the fullness of time as the mahdi, a millenarian figure expected to lead the Muslim community in righteous preparation for the Las Judgement.

Also called Twelvers - they were quietist because they believed no further political action must take place, instead placing faith in the return of the twelfth imam.
Ismaili Shi'ism
Branch of Shi'ism which separated with mainstream Shi'ism over the question of the identity of the 7th Imam. The 6th Imam had chosen his son by divine command to be leader, yet following his death another came to power.

This branch arose triumphantly in the 10th century and founded the Fatimid caliphate, the most prominant Shi'ite establishment within the Islamic Empire during the time.
Zaydiyya Shi'ism
Third variant of Shiism during the 9th century, arguing that the imamate did not proceed in a particular line of descendants, but rather resided in the Alid who was most capable of providing effective leardership for his generation.

This leader happened to be the son of the fourth Imam, Zayd. This branch was mainly restricted to Yemen.
Fatimids
Most successful Ismaili movement, initiated by Ubayd Allah, who proclaimed himself imam in 902 from his base in Yemen.

Built up power in North Africa during the 10th century and eventually conquered much of North Africa and Egypt, and eventually emerge as the most powerful state in the Islamic world during the 11th century.
Druze
Offshoot of Ismaili Shiism that developed in the 12th century, which recognizes the caliph al-Hakim as divine.

Can still be found today in Syria and Lebanon.
Ismaili Assassins
offshoot of Ismaili Shiism, in the 11th and 12th centuries, became the radical terrorists of the Islamic world, striking down selected political and cultural leaders to advance the sauce of an Ismaili revolution.
Almoravid and Almohad Movements
Movements that competed for control of the Maghreb between the 11th and 14th centuries.

Both helped in unifying the Maghreb as a distinct Islamic region during the Islamic Empire, both through their efforts to unite the region through culture as well as their defense of Islamic Spain which ended in 1492.
Mamluk Regime
powerful army of Turkish slaves that took power in Egypt in 1249 following the death of the last Ayyubid Sultan.

The slaves, or mamluks, revolted and rose to take power, and ruled Egypt from 1250 until 1517.
Saladin
Famous Abbasid protector, who destroyed the Fatimid caliphate in Egypt in 1171.

Also championed the armies that defeated the Christian crusaders at the Battle of Hattin, which was followed by the reoccupation of Jerusalem.

Following his death, his followers, called the Ayyubid's, ruled Egypt until 1249.
Great Seljuk Empire
Period of time when Turkish peoples held the most power within the Abbasid caliphate, spreading throughout Anatolia and present day Turkey, as well as conquering much of the Byzantine Empire.
Battle of Ayn Jalut
Site of Mongol defeat in 1260 CE in Palestine - effectively preventing continued destruction of the Islamic Empire.

Mongols were defeated by the newly established Mamluk Empire, which was based in Egypt at the time.

While Egypt, the center of the Islamic world at this time remained intact, the Abbasid caliphate was severed as the last of the Abbasid caliphates was executed in 1258 amidst the Mongol invasion.
Hanafism
Founded by a Persian, Imam Abu hanifah near 768, this school sought to create possiblities for the integration of local practices into the Law as much as possible.

Maintains the largest number of followers in the present day, including outside of the Arab World.
Ja'fari Law
written by the sixth Imam of Shiism Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq and articulates the Twelve Imam Shiite Law.
Malikism
Founded by Imam Malik ibn Anas near 795, this school is based mostly on the practice of Medina and is very conservative in its approach to the Law.

Commonly found as the unifying school of North Africa not including Egypt, most likely explaining the strong homogenous identity of the Maghreb.
Shafiism
Founded by a student of Iama Abu Hanifah, Imam Muhammad al-Shafii near 820, this school centers around Shafii's completion and perfection of the methods of jurisprudence in Islamic Law.
Hanbalism
Founded by Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal near 855, this school has based itself solely on the Quran and Hadith and has given a very strict interpretation of the Shariah.

Less popular now than in the height of the Islamic Empire, this school has more modern roots in the articulation of Wahabism.
Mean of Discrete Probability Distribution (Statistics)
Summation of x value multiplied by probability of x value
Variance of Discrete Probability Distribution (Statistics)
Summation: (x-mean)squared multiplied by probability of x
Mean of Binomial Distribution (Statistics)
constant N x probability (pi)
Variance of Binomial Distribution (Statistics)
constant N x probability (pi) x (1-probability(pi))
Mundell equivalency
trade in factors (capital and labor) and trade in goods will have the same effect and can fully substitute for one another
Muhammad al-Mahdi
believed to be the twelfth and final imam in Twelver Shiite circles - and is in a state of occultation and will someday return to establish peace.
binomial experiment
Chance experiment with the following features:

1. experiment consists of repeated, independent trials
2. Each trial has two possible outcomes, success or failure
3. probability for success is the same for each trial, denoted by pi.
outcome
result of a chance experiment
empty set
set with no possible outcomes
probability distribution
distribution where all probabilities lie between 0 and 1, and the sum of each value's corresponding probability equals 1.
binomial distribution
probability distribution with two possible responses, but many possible response strings - such as a yes/no poll.

P(x) = pi to the x power multiplied by (1-pi) raised to the n-x power -- where n is the number of response strings with x successes and n-x failures.
normal distribution
probability distribution where probabilities are calculated using a density function.

P(a<x<b) = area under the normal density graph between a and b.

1. Function determined by mean and standard deviation values

2. bell-shaped curve symmetric about the mean

3. highest point of the graph occurs at the mean

4. inflection points for the graph occur at x = mean plus or minus standard deviation
standard normal distribution
special case of a normal distribution where the mean is 0 and the standard deviation is 1.
background space
set of all possible response strings of a chance experiment (or usually a binomial experiment)
random variable
numerical function of the result of a chance experiment
discrete vs. continuous random variables
a random variable is a numerical function of the result of a chance experiment, and is discrete is the sample space is discrete - or continuous if the sample space is unbounded.
z-score of a random variable
number of standard deviations x is from the mean.

x - mean divided by standard deviation (square root of variance)
simple random sampling with replacement vs. without replacement
sampling with replacement allows for each event to be independent, whereas without replacement leads to conditional probability.
Empirical Rule for normal distributions
If x is normally distributed, then:

1. P(-1<z<1) = 68%
2. P(-2<z<2) = 95%
3. P(-3<z<3) = 99.7%
Yes/No Polls
common binomial experiment, where yes is pi (success) and no is (1-pi)
Syrian Alawis
dominant political sect in modern day Syria, influenced heavily by pre-Islamic principles, although claims to be a branch of Shi'ism
Druze
located today mainly in the Levant, this sect broke from Fatimid Isma'ilism by considering the seventh Fatimid caliph, al-Hakim bi'Llah to be a divine incarnation.
Ibadis
modern survivors of the Kharijite branch of Islam - located mainly in Oman
Safavids
established themselves as rulers of Persia in 1499.

Also had influence of Pakistan, Caucasia, and Central Asia. Was opposed by the Ottoman Turks.
Mahdiism
belief that a time will come when the Mahdi, or final Imam will return from a state of occultation for a period of cleansing prior to the day of Judgement.

Believed by both Shi'ite and Sunni denominations, although Shi'ites claim that it is in fact the twelfth Imam Mahdi.

Such a belief has been central to more fundamentalist Islamic leaders during the last few centuries, especially as a reaction to the colonial experience.
Ash'arite School
school of kalam (theology) that arose in Baghdad in the 10th century with the aim of creating a middle ground on many questions such as the use of reason in religious matters.

Became the most widely held school of kalam in the Sunni world until the contemporary period.
orthopraxy
the correct manner of practicing and reaching religious truth.
orthodoxy
possession of religious truth
Abode of Islam
term used to unite the various regions where Islam has taken root over the centuries. Regions include:

1. Arab Middle East
2. Arab North Africa
3. Persian Iran/Caucasia
4. Turkish Middle East/Europe
5. Southwest Asia/India
6. Sub-Saharan Africa
7. Malay South Pacific
Battle of Lepanto
1571 - decisive naval battle between European forces and the Ottoman Empire that resulted in the Turks losing influence in the Mediterranean.
Siege of Vienna
1683 - failed attack by the Ottoman Empire on European forces.

Marks the beginning of the decline of the Ottoman Empire as a great world power.
Napoleonic Invasion of Egypt
1798 - marks the beginning of the damaging colonial experience of the European powers in the Middle East and particularly against Islam.
Salafiyya
form of puritanical Islam that emerged during the colonial period that rejected other Islamic denominations in favor of following the ways of the earlier predecessors and rejecting modern development and successes.
expansionary monetary policy
lowering interest rates
lowering federal Reserve rate
buying bonds

goal is to increase the money supply.
expansionary fiscal policy
increasing taxes
increasing government spending
contractionary monetary policy
increasing interest rates
increasing federal reserve rate
selling bonds

goal is to reduce the money supply in the market.
contractionary fiscal policy
lowering taxes
lowering government spending
monetary system
refers to the world system of interacting currencies when dealing with trade in real goods.
financial system
refers to the world system of interacting currencies when dealing with portfolio investments.
seignorage
refers to the bonuses that an economic hegemon maintains when commanding a global currency. These bonuses include the ability to print money, to be immune from collapse since currency is widely dispersed, etc.
beggar thy neighbor policies
refers to the policies of competitive devaluation that occurred during the early part of the 20th century - with the intention of artificially lowering prices to in effect command a larger share of global exports.
gold standard
international monetary standard used between Bretton Woods and 1973.

Within this system, the dollar was denoted as the international currency and all countries were pegged to the exchange rate of the dollar.

The dollar was pegged at 35 dollars an ounce based on gold reserves, that helped maintain ER stability.

Broke down in 1973 when the U.S. moved to a floating ER.
Tobin tax
tax on short term financial investments proposed by economist James Tobin.
SDR's
special drawing rights - alternative to gold standard. Is essentially an IMF bond.
moral hazard
risk associated with uncertain behavior that fluctuates depending on the degree of safety net.

Can be counterintuitive, due to the fact that more safety nets can increase the ammount of risky behavior.
islam (one)
ontological principle of universal submission of all things to God.
islam (two)
principle of conscious submission of humans to God.
Islam (three)
refers to the specific religion of Islam, that incorporates the first two levels of islam as well as the belief in Muhammad as the prophet of God, the corresponding faiths that tie to such a belief, and the social responsibilities that allow for a just and beautiful existence.
Islam (four)
refers to the actual practices that allow for the proper observance of Islam three.

adherence to the five pillars.
vertical relationship
refers to the relationship between God and an individual during the salat.

For this reason, cleanliness is important and symbolizes the removal of profane influence during the acknowledgement of the vertical relationship - which reduces the world to God (who is above and all) and the individual (who is below and nothing).
iman
spiritual aspect of Islam - literally means faith or divine knowledge. Such knowledge revolves around the concepts of tawhid (God, angels, measuring out), prophecy (prophets, books) and the return.
kufr
the opposite of both iman and shukr (gratitude) - literally means "truth-concealing"

characterized by denial in the heart and refusal to display gratitude through both voice and submission to God.
shirk
literally means to "share," but is incredibly negative in Islamic theology due to its antonymity with "tawhid."

Shirk rejects oneness of God, in favor of other elements and gods or forces that influence the world.

To practice shirk is to literally reject one's humanity, since humanity is granted to those who understand tawhid and act in accordance with the understanding that people are nothing without God.
tawhid
term in Islamic theology that refers to the oneness of God.

Can best be understood as the symbiosis between the understanding of God, the angels, and the measuring out.
caprices
synonymous with the Arabic word hawa, meaning wind.

refers to internal winds that lead people astray in Islamic theology.
aya
Arabic word for "sign" - referred to in the Koran numerous times as ayas of God.
prophetic sign
sign of God revealed through prophets or holy texts, such as Muhammad or the Koran.

Two subcategories include: oral or written signs (scripture) and physical signs (miracles).
natural sign
sign of God that can be seen through the observation of all of God's creatures.

Two subcategories: external signs (pertaining to the world around us) and internal signs (pertaining to our own selves).
5 pillars of Islam
1. Shahadah
2. salat
3. zakat
4. fasting (Ramadan)
5. hajj
hajj
5th Pillar of Islam - Muslims must make the pilgrimmage to Mecca sometime in their lifetime.

Vertical relationship has changed in recent years, but before modern transportation, such a journey was usually life-threatening, and displayed a complete rejection of the profane world in favor of the journey to God's house, the holiest site in Islamdom.

Horizontally, just a journey was made with others who were attempting the trip, adding a strong sense of Muslim community. Also, once in Mecca, various rituals are acted out making Mecca one of the strongest Muslim communities in the world. Also, the title of Hajji is bestowed upon anyone who successfully makes a journey, a title that remains and must be uttered before the name for the rest of their lives.
fasting
4th Pillar of Islam - during the month of Ramadan Muslims must fast during the day for 30 days.

Vertical relationship occurs through the personal trial that fasting will create within. It is a very intimate and private affair for most, since it is ultimately up to the individual to resist sneaking food or water or acting inappropriately. It instills a constant sense of awareness of the Divine for those who can complete it.

Horizontally, it unites the community in day and night. In the day, others are sacrificing as you are, which helps in dealing with difficulty. At night, parties are frequent and the community comes together to eat and share experiences, as well as read sections of the Koran.
salat
2nd Pillar of Islam - means prayer. Five prayers are required each day, in the morning, midday, afternoon, evening, and night.

Vertical relationship is articulated through the ritualistic act of submission that occurs throughout the day - one must literally stop their day to day profane lives to acknowledge the vertical relationship with God.

Horizontally, the salat is often a communal event - and is easier to comply to in a Muslim community where everyone practices the salat. There is also congregational prayer - all of these elements help unite the Muslim community.
Shahadah
1st Pillar of Islam: "There is no god but God and Muhammad is His Prophet."

One becomes Muslim when this is uttered in front of two or more people - it is the most basic articulation of one's submission to God, AND that Muhammad was the correct prophet to transmit the true message to his followers.

Vertical relationship is established by the individual submission to God.

Horizontal significance occurs through the growth of the Muslim community and the required presence of others during its first utterance.
zakat
3rd Pillar of Islam - refers to giving alms to the less fortunate of society.

Vertical relationship is articulated by acknowledging that wealth is not individually accumulated, but rather is God's - and should thus be easily parted with in favor of living beautifully.

Horizontal relationship with the community is articulated through the social welfare that is fostered through such acts.
Shariah
literally translates as "path to water."

Codified orthopraxy for Islam that Muslims are obliged to follow in order to follow the correct path towards salvation.

Drawn primarily from the Koran and the Sunna, as well juristic discretion. This often occurs through scholarly consensus or analogy.
simple ignorance
term in Islamic theology referring to a person's understanding that they are incapable of "knowing" or understanding God.
compound ignorance
term in Islamic theology referring to a person's inability to understand that God cannot be understood - often refers to people who believe they understand God and then reject it's existence.
angels
The angels are the messengers of God, and exist to transmit God's message. They are embodiments of God's light, and are therefore the closest beings to God.

They are part of the unseen world, yet provide the light that allows all of God's creations to be seen by the naked eye.

It is said that every drop of water has its own angel.
measuring out
often considered synonymous with predestination, the measuring out refers to the path which has been chosen for each of God's creations by God.

To understand tawhid is to have faith or knowledge of the measuring out - that all of God's creations live at intervals of God's choosing, and that both struggle and success are part of God's plan.
shukr
Arabic word for gratitude - feeling that is essential towards practicing Islam and understanding tawhid: since all things are created by God, God's creations should always express gratitude for their existence.
99 names of God
names of God listed in the Koran, ranging from Merciful to Beautiful to Real.

Names describe the nature of God, illuminating both relatable characteristics as well as incomprehensible states (such as Real, or Indepedent) - two "essences" of God that only serve to illuminate the oneness and indivisibility of God.
essence of God
the wholly otherness of God - the pinnacle of tawhid, described in the names of God such as the Real, the Independent, and the One. Such names cannot be understood as being divisible, and are therefore only abstract concepts that embody God and nothing else.
attributes of God
The positive characteristics or qualities of God that are dispersed by God to all of creation. Such are observable characteristics like hardness, compassion, mercy, anger, etc. God possesses these attributes in their infinity, but such attributes in their finitude define all living things.
acts of God
the actualizations of God's attributes - referring to all things in creation, ranging from dirt to humans to jinn to angels.
tanzih
Arabic word to describe the infinite distance from God. A diagram for such an idea is illustrated by a single point (God) surrounded by concentric circles that vary in closeness but never approach the center.
tashbih
Arabic term for the nearness to God. Such a diagram would focus on God as a single point, with lines emitting from the point to signify God's relationship to all of creation.
batin
.
zahir
.
the unseen
refers to God and the angels in Islamic theology.
heaven vs. earth
higher realm of existence, inhabited by angels - often referred to in the plural. Characteristic of light and goodness.

Earth by contrast, is a place characteristic of darkness and distance from God - is visible only through the dim light that is emanating from a distant God.
earth
.
light
embodiment of divine knowledge - composition of both spirits and angels. Light increases the closer one comes to God, who is composed of all light to an infinite level.

God is Light, and the opposite of light is nonexistence - therefore darkness implies distance from God since light is very weak in darkness.
darkness
.
clay
considered an opposite of light (obviously not complete opposite). But it is dark and dense and without knowledge.

Also what human bodies are made from.
fire
.
good vs. evil
.
Azrael
.
spirit
.
Iblis
.
jinn
.
soul
.
trial
.