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473 Cards in this Set

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Q001. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Abestos
A001. Bronchogenic CA; Mesothelioma
Q002. - Most Common Cause/Association:; (nonbacterial endocarditis, affecting mitral)
A002. Libman-Sacks endocarditis
Q003. - Most Common Cause/Association:; abl gene
A003. CML
Q004. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Acanthosis nigricans (hyperpigmentation and epidermal thickening)
A004. visceral malignancy
Q005. - Most Common Cause/Association:; ACTH - ACTH-like peptide
A005. Small-cell lung
Q006. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Actinic keratosis
A006. squamous cell carcinoma
Q007. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Acute Bacterial Endocarditis
A007. Staph aureus, b Hemolytic Streptococci, E. coli; Common among drug addicts & diabetics
Q008. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Acute Cor Pulmonale
A008. Sudden right ventricular strain due to a massive pulmonary embolism
Q009. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Acute Hemorrhagic Conjunctivitis
A009. Seen w/ infections from Enterovirus & Coxsackie A
Q010. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Acute pancreatitis
A010. alcohol; gall stones
Q011. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Addison’s
A011. Autoimmune (2nd – infection)
Q012. - Most Common Cause/Association:; ADH
A012. Small cell; Intracranial neoplasms
Q013. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Adult leukemia
A013. AML
Q014. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease
A014. Commonly see liver cysts & Berry aneurysms along w/ kidney cysts. Hematuria & HTN also present. 3 cysts in ea. Kidney w/ + family history confirms diagnosis
Q015. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Aflatoxins
A015. Hepatocellular CA
Q016. - Most Common Cause/Association:; AFP and alpha-1 AT
A016. Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Q017. - Most Common Cause/Association:; AIDS
A017. aggressive malignant lyphomas (NHL) and Kaposis
Q018. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Alkaline phosphatase
A018. metastasis to bone, obstructive biliary disease, Pagets
Q019. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Alpha-Feto Protien / AFP
A019. Vitelline Yolk Sac Tumor; Hepatocellular CA
Q020. - Most Common Cause/Association:; AMI in children
A020. Kawasaki disease
Q021. - Most Common Cause/Association:; ANA
A021. SLE, not specific
Q022. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Aneurysm, dissecting
A022. Hypertension
Q023. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Angiosarcoma of the liver
A023. Vinyl Chloride; Arsenic; Thorotrast
Q024. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Anticentromere
A024. Scleroderma (CREST)
Q025. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Anti-dsDNA antibodies
A025. specific SLE
Q026. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Anti-epithelial cell
A026. Pemphigus vulgaris
Q027. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Antihistone abs
A027. drug-induced lupus. HIPP: hydralizine, isoniazid, procainamide, phenytoin
Q028. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Anti-Jo-1
A028. Polymyositis + dermatomyositis (CD8+, weakness)
Q029. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Anti+A32-microsomal
A029. Hashimoto's thyroiditis
Q030. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Anti-mitochondrial
A030. Primary biliary cirrhosis
Q031. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Anti-presynaptic Ca channels - (Lambert-Eaton Syndrome)
A031. Thymoma; Small cell lung
Q032. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Anti-Scl-70
A032. Scleroderma (diffuse)
Q033. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Anti-Smith abs
A033. specific SLE
Q034. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Aortic aneurysm, abdominal and descending aorta
A034. Atherosclerosis
Q035. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Aortic aneurysm, ascending
A035. tertiary syphilis
Q036. - Most Common Cause/Association:; APC
A036. colorectal cancer
Q037. - Most Common Cause/Association:; APC 5p
A037. Familial adenomatous polyposis, Colon CA
Q038. - Most Common Cause/Association:; APC, DCC, p53 mutation
A038. Colon Cancer tumor suppression genes
Q039. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Arsenic
A039. Squamous Cell CA
Q040. - Most Common Cause/Association:; asculitis
A040. Temoporal arteritis (risk of ipsilateral blindness due to thrombosis of ophthalmic artery)
Q041. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Autoimmune disease (Hashimotos, MG)
A041. benign and malignant thymomas
Q042. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Autosplenectomy due to fibrous and shrinkage
A042. Sickle Cell anemia
Q043. - Most Common Cause/Association:; AV fistula
A043. Penetrating knife wound.
Q044. - Most Common Cause/Association:; B HCG
A044. hydatiform moles, choriocarc, gestational trophoblastic tumor
Q045. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Bacteremia/ pneumonia (IVDA)
A045. S. Aureus
Q046. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Bacteria associated with cancer
A046. H. Pylori
Q047. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Bacteria found in GI tract
A047. Bacteroides (2nd most common is E. coli)
Q048. - Most Common Cause/Association:; bacteria in the GI tract
A048. bacteriodes (#2 = e.coli)
Q049. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Bacteria or pneumonia in an IV drug user
A049. staph aureus
Q050. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Bacterial meningitis (adults)
A050. Streptococcus pneumoniae
Q051. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Bacterial meningitis (elderly)
A051. S. Pneumoniae
Q052. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Bacterial meningitis (kids)
A052. S. pneumoniae or Neisseria meningitidis
Q053. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Bacterial meningitis (newborns)
A053. Group B streptococcus
Q054. - Most Common Cause/Association:; bacterial meningitis in young adults
A054. Neisseria meningitidis
Q055. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Baker's Cyst in Popliteal Fossa
A055. Rheumatoid Arthritis
Q056. - Most Common Cause/Association:; barretts esophagus
A056. esophageal adenocarcinoma
Q057. - Most Common Cause/Association:; bcl-2
A057. CML,; follicular and undifferentiated lymphoma
Q058. - Most Common Cause/Association:; BCR-Abl
A058. CML
Q059. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Benign breast tumor
A059. Fibroadenoma
Q060. - Most Common Cause/Association:; benign melanocytic nevus
A060. spitz nevus (most common in first 2 decades of life)
Q061. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Benign ovarian tumor
A061. serous cystadenoma
Q062. - Most Common Cause/Association:; b-HCG
A062. Hydatidiform Mole; Choriocarcinoma; Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor
Q063. - Most Common Cause/Association:; bleeding disorder with GpIb deficiency
A063. Bernard-Soulier disease (defect in platelet adhesion)
Q064. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Blindness
A064. Diabetic retinopathy
Q065. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Blindness - preventable
A065. Chlamydia
Q066. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Blood Metastasis
A066. Sarcoma, exception – renal cell CA: early venous invasion
Q067. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Bombesin
A067. Neuroblastoma; Lung; Gastric
Q068. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Bone Fever
A068. Dengue: Group B Togavirus, from the Arbovirus, transmitted by mosquitos
Q069. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Brain tumor - supratentorial (kids)
A069. Craniopharyngioma
Q070. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Brain tumor (adults)
A070. Metastasis > astrocytoma (including GM)> meningioma > shwannoma
Q071. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Brain tumor (kids)
A071. Medullablastoma (cerebellum)
Q072. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Brain tumor - supratentorial (kids)
A072. Cranipharyngioma
Q073. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Brain tumors in adults (Supratentorial)
A073. supratentorial: metastasis > astrocytoma (gliobastoma multiforme) > meningioma > schwannoma
Q074. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Brain tumors in kids (Infratentorial)
A074. Infratentorial = astrocytoma > medulloblastoma > ependyoma
Q075. - Most Common Cause/Association:; BRCA-1 17q
A075. Breast CA, Ovarian CA
Q076. - Most Common Cause/Association:; BRCA-2 13q
A076. Breast CA
Q077. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Breast cancer
A077. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (in the US, 1 in 9 women will develop breast cancer)
Q078. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Breast mass
A078. Fibrocystic change (in postmenopausal women, carinoma is the most common)
Q079. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Breast tumor (benign)
A079. Fibroadenoma
Q080. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Bronchiectasis
A080. predisposed by chronic sinusitis and post nasal drip; Supparation associated; Lower lobe > than upper lobe involvement
Q081. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Bug in Acute Endocarditis
A081. Staph aureus
Q082. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Bug in Bacterial Arthritis in young Adults
A082. Neisseria ghonorrhea
Q083. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Bug in Bacterial Meningitis – elderly
A083. Strep pneumoniae
Q084. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Bug in Bacterial Meningitis – newborns
A084. E. coli
Q085. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Bug in Bacterial Meningitis – toddlers
A085. Hib
Q086. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Bug in Bacterial Meningitis – young adults
A086. Neisseria meningitidis
Q087. - Most Common Cause/Association:; bug in debilitated, hospitalized pneumonia patient
A087. Klebsiella
Q088. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Bug in Epiglottitis
A088. Hib
Q089. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Bug in food poisoning
A089. Staph aureus
Q090. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Bug in GI Tract
A090. Bacteroides 2. E. coli
Q091. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Bug in IV drug user bacteremia / pneumonia
A091. Staph aureus
Q092. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Bug in opportunistic infection of AIDS
A092. CMV Pneumocystis carinii is most common overall
Q093. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Bug in PID
A093. N. Gonnorrhoeae or Chlamydia
Q094. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Bug in Pneumonia - Community - atypical
A094. Mycoplasma 2. Legionella
Q095. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Bug in Pneumonia - Community - typical
A095. Strep pneumoniae 2. H. influenza 3. Klebsiella
Q096. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Bug in Pneumonia - Hospital aquired
A096. Klebsiella 2. Psuedomonas 3. E. coli
Q097. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Bug in Subacute Endocarditis
A097. Strep Viridans
Q098. - Most Common Cause/Association:; C3b
A098. Involved in Opsonization (& IgG)
Q099. - Most Common Cause/Association:; C5a
A099. Involved in Chemotaxis (for Neutrophils)
Q100. - Most Common Cause/Association:; CA-125
A100. ovarian, malignant epithelial tumors
Q101. - Most Common Cause/Association:; CA-19-9
A101. pancreatic adenocarcinoma
Q102. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Calcitonin
A102. Medullary C-cell thyroid
Q103. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Calf pseudohypertrophy
A103. Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy
Q104. - Most Common Cause/Association:; C-ANCA
A104. antineutrophil. Vasculitis. Wegener's granulomatosis.
Q105. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer - Leukemia - <14 yo
A105. ALL
Q106. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer - Leukemia - >60 yo
A106. CLL
Q107. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer - Leukemia - 15-39 yo
A107. AML
Q108. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer - Leukemia - 40-60 yo
A108. CML
Q109. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer associated with AIDS
A109. Kaposi's sarcoma
Q110. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer in Acanthosis Nigricans
A110. Gastric Adenocarcinoma; Viscero Malignancy
Q111. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer in Achalasia
A111. squamous esophageal cancer
Q112. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer in Actinic Keratosis
A112. SCC
Q113. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer in AIDS
A113. Non-Hodgkin's; Kaposi Sarcoma
Q114. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer in Barret's Esophagus
A114. Esophageal Adenocarcinoma
Q115. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer in Gynecologic - malignancy
A115. Endometrial Carcinoma
Q116. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer in Immunodeficient states
A116. malignant lymphomas
Q117. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer in Infancy
A117. Hemangioma
Q118. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer in Kids
A118. Leukemia 2. Medulloblastoma of brain, cerebellum
Q119. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer in Men
A119. Prostate CA
Q120. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer in Pagets disease of bone
A120. secondary osteosarcoma, fibrosarcoma
Q121. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer in Plummer Vinson syndrome
A121. squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus
Q122. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer in Women - malignant
A122. Breast CA
Q123. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Adrenal Medulla– adults
A123. Pheochromocytoma
Q124. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Adrenal Medulla– kids
A124. Neuroblastoma
Q125. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Appendix Carcinoid - rare
A125. metastasis
Q126. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Bone
A126. Metasteses from Breast & Prostate
Q127. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Bone - primary - adults
A127. Multiple Myeloma
Q128. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Brain– Child
A128. Medulloblastoma (cerebellum)
Q129. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Brain–Adult
A129. Astrocytoma (including Glioblastoma Multiforme) then: metastasis, meningioma, Schwannoma
Q130. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Breast
A130. Infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma
Q131. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Connective Tissue - benign
A131. Lipoma
Q132. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Esophagus
A132. SCCA
Q133. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Esophagus - malignant
A133. SCC (60%) > adenocarcinoma (40%)
Q134. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Esophagus (Benign)
A134. Leiomyoma
Q135. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Heart A138- adults
A135. Metasteses
Q136. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Heart - Primary– adults (Benign)
A136. Myxoma “Ball Valve”
Q137. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Heart - Primary– kids (Benign)
A137. Rhabdomyoma
Q138. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Liver
A138. Metastasis; lung > GI
Q139. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Liver - benign
A139. Cavernous hemangioma
Q140. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the liver - Primary
A140. Hepatocellular CA
Q141. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the liver - Primary, benign
A141. Cavernous Hemangioma
Q142. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Mouth
A142. SCC or Mucoepidermoid CA
Q143. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Mouth - upper lip
A143. Basal Cell CA
Q144. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Nasal cavities
A144. SCC
Q145. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Ovary - benign
A145. Serous cystadenoma
Q146. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Ovary - malignant
A146. Serous cystadenocarcinoma
Q147. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Pancreas
A147. Adenocarcinoma (usually in the head)
Q148. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Pituitary
A148. Prolactinoma (2nd – Somatotropic “Acidophilic” Adenoma)
Q149. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Placenta - benign
A149. Cavernous hemangioma
Q150. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Salivery Glands
A150. Pleimorphic Adenoma
Q151. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Skin
A151. Basal Cell Carcinoma
Q152. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Small Bowel Carcinoid - frequent
A152. metastasis from ileum
Q153. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Spleen - benign
A153. Cavernous hemangioma
Q154. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Stomach
A154. Gastric Adenocarcinoma; intestinal type or diffuse type
Q155. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Testicles
A155. Seminoma
Q156. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer of the Thyroid
A156. Papillary Carcinoma
Q157. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer that invades the Female GU tract
A157. Endometrial Adenocarcinoma
Q158. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer; malignant lymphoma in kids
A158. Burkitt's lymphoma
Q159. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer; Site of metastasis
A159. Regional Lymph Nodes
Q160. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer; Site of metastasis (2nd most common)
A160. Liver
Q161. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cancer;Genetic Alteration
A161. p53
Q162. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cardia tumor (adults)
A162. Metastasis
Q163. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cardiac primary tumor (adults)
A163. Myxoma 4:1 Left to right atrium
Q164. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cardiac primary tumor (kids)
A164. Rhabdomyoma
Q165. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cardiac tumor (adults)
A165. Metastasis
Q166. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cardiac tumor in adults
A166. Metastasis; Primary myxoma (4:1 left to right atrium, "ball and valve")
Q167. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cardiomyopathy
A167. Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Q168. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Carpal bone dislocation
A168. Lunate
Q169. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Carpal bone fracture
A169. Scaphoid
Q170. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Caseation necrosis
A170. Combination of both coagulation & liquefaction necrosis; Seen w/ M. tuberculosis & Histoplasma capsulatum infection
Q171. - Most Common Cause/Association:; CCl4 Carbon Tetrachlrodie - Cleaning Industry
A171. Centrilobular Necrosis - Hepatic
Q172. - Most Common Cause/Association:; CEA
A172. Colon; Rectal; PancrEAtic; BrEAst
Q173. - Most Common Cause/Association:; CEA and bombesin
A173. Gastric Adenocarcinoma markers
Q174. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cellulitis
A174. Spreading infection due to streptococcus
Q175. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cerebellar tonsillar herniation
A175. Arnold-Chiari malformation (can often lead to hydrocephalus)
Q176. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cerebral Embolism
A176. MI w/ Mural Thrombi; Atrial Fib Thrombi = Marantic thrombi; L-sided Bacterial Endocarditis; Paradoxical Embolism of septal defect
Q177. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Chromosomal disorder
A177. Down syndrome (associated with ALL, Alzheimer's, dementia, and endocardial cushion defects
Q178. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Chromosome 11p
A178. Wilms tumor of the kidney
Q179. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Chromosome 13
A179. Retinoblastoma
Q180. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Chromosome 5p-
A180. Cri di Chat: mental retardation; small head; wide set eyes; low set ears; cat-like cry
Q181. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Chronic arrhythmia
A181. Atrial fibrillation (associated with high risk of emboli)
Q182. - Most Common Cause/Association:; chronic atrophic gastritis, pernicious anemia, postsurgery gastric remnants
A182. gastric adenocarcinoma
Q183. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Chronic pancreatitis
A183. Alcohol in adults; Cystic fibrosis in kids
Q184. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cirrhosis
A184. Alcohol
Q185. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cloudy swelling
A185. Failure of cellular Na pump; Seen in Fatty degeneration of the liver and in Hydropic (Vacuolar) degeneration of the liver
Q186. - Most Common Cause/Association:; c-MYC
A186. Burkitt's Lymphoma
Q187. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Coagulation necrosis
A187. Result of sudden ischemia; Seen in organs w/ end arteries limited collateral circulation) = heart, lung, kidney, spleen
Q188. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
A188. 21 hydroxylase deficiency
Q189. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Congenital cardiac anomaly
A189. VSD membranous > muscular
Q190. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)
A190. dubin-Johnson syndrome (inability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin into bile)
Q191. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Congenital early cyanosis
A191. Tetralogy of Fallot
Q192. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Congenital GI anomaly
A192. Meckel's diverticulum
Q193. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Constrictive pericarditis
A193. Tuberculosis
Q194. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Coronary arteries involved in thrombosis
A194. LAD > RCA > LCA
Q195. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cretinism
A195. Iodine deficit/hypothyroidism
Q196. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cushings
A196. Exogenous Steroid Therapy (then, primary ACTH, Adrenal Adenoma, Ectopic ACTH)
Q197. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cyanosis (early, less common)
A197. Tetralogy of fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus arteriosus
Q198. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Cyanosis (late, more common)
A198. VSD, ASD, PDA (close with indomethacin, open with misoprostol)
Q199. - Most Common Cause/Association:; DCC 18q
A199. Colon & Stomach CA
Q200. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Death in Alzheimer pts
A200. Pneumonia
Q201. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Death in CML
A201. Blast crisis
Q202. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Death in Diabetics
A202. MI
Q203. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Death in HTN
A203. AMI 2. lenticulostriate stroke 3. renal failure (benign nephrosclerosis)
Q204. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Death in SLE
A204. Lupus nephropathy
Q205. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Death in USA
A205. Ischemic Heart Disease
Q206. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Dementia
A206. Alzheimer's (2nd most common is multi -infarct)
Q207. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Demyelinating disease
A207. Multiple sclerosis
Q208. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigra
A208. Parkinson's Disease Pathology
Q209. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Deverticulum in the pharynx
A209. Zenker's diverticulum (dx with barium swallow)
Q210. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Diarrhea - children
A210. Rotavirus
Q211. - Most Common Cause/Association:; DIC
A211. Gram negative sepsis, obstetric complications, cancer, burn trauma
Q212. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Dietary Deficiency
A212. Iron
Q213. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Disk herniation
A213. L4-L5
Q214. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Dissecting aneurysm
A214. hypertension
Q215. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Dissecting Aneurysm (+/- slitlike cysts)
A215. Medial Cystic Necrosis of Erdheim
Q216. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Dissecting Aneurysm (False aneurysm, splitting of the media of the aorta)
A216. Usually accompanied w/ long history of severe hypertension, also seen w/ familial hyperlipidemia, atherosclerotic disease,
Q217. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Dissecting Aneurysm (Zones of medial necrosis)
A217. Marfan’s Collagen disease
Q218. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Down Syndrome
A218. 1) ALL; 2) Hirschprung (aganglionic megacolon); 3) Dudoenal Atresia; 4) Polyhydramnios
Q220. - Most Common Cause/Association:; DPC 18q
A220. Pancreatic CA
Q222. - Most Common Cause/Association:; dysplastic nevus
A222. malignant melanoma
Q223. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Early cyanosis (less common)
A223. Tetrology of fallot, transposition of the great vessels, truncus arteriosis
Q224. - Most Common Cause/Association:; EBV
A224. Burkitt's; Follicular Lymphoma; *** Nasopharygeal CA
Q225. - Most Common Cause/Association:; End-stage Renal Disease
A225. Diabetes
Q226. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Enzyme deficiency
A226. 21 hydroxylase; 95% of CAH
Q227. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Epidural hematoma
A227. rupture of the middle meningeal artery
Q228. - Most Common Cause/Association:; epiglottitis
A228. Haemophilus influenza type B
Q229. - Most Common Cause/Association:; erb-2
A229. Breast CA; Ovarian CA; Gastric CA
Q230. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Esophageal cancer
A230. Squamous CC (worldwide); Adenocarcinoma (U.S)
Q231. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Fat necrosis
A231. Result of lipase actions liberated from pancreatic enzymes; Seen w/ Acute pancreatitis = saponification results
Q232. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Fatal genetic defect in Caucasians
A232. Cystic Fibrosis
Q233. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Fatty degeneration
A233. Made up primarily of triglycerides; Most commonly due to alcoholism which commonly leads to hepatic cirrhosis; Associated w/ CCl4
Q234. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Fibrinoid necrosis
A234. Seen in the walls of small arteries; Associated w/ malignant hypertension, polyarteritis nodosa, immune mediated vasculitis
Q235. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Fibrinous Pericarditis
A235. Associated w/ MI: Dressler’s
Q236. - Most Common Cause/Association:; FMR1 Gene Defect
A236. Fragile X Syndrome: macro -orchidism; long face; large jaw; large everted ears; autism, mental retardation
Q237. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Food poisoning
A237. S. Aureus
Q238. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Form of Amyloidosis
A238. Immunologic Bence Jones protein in multiple myeloma is also called the Amyloid Light Chain
Q239. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Form of Tularemia
A239. Ulceroglandular
Q240. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Gas Emboli
A240. Caisson disease
Q241. - Most Common Cause/Association:; gene involved in cancer
A241. p53 tumor suppressor gene
Q242. - Most Common Cause/Association:; GI obstruction
A242. Adhesions 2. Indirect inguinal hernia
Q243. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Glomerulonephritis
A243. IgA nephropathy aka Berger's
Q244. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Glomerulonephritis (adults)
A244. IgA nephropathy (berger's disease)
Q245. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Group affected by cystic fibrosis
A245. Caucasians (fat soluble vitamin deficiencies, mucous plugs/ lung infectious)
Q246. - Most Common Cause/Association:; gynecologic malignancy
A246. endometrial cancer; ovarian; cervical (in US)
Q247. - Most Common Cause/Association:; hCG
A247. Pregnancy; Hydatidiform Mole; Choriocarcinoma; dysgerminoma/seminoma
Q248. - Most Common Cause/Association:; heart murmur
A248. Mitral valve prolapse
Q249. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Heart valve (rheumatic fever)
A249. Mitral valve (aortic is 2nd)
Q250. - Most Common Cause/Association:; heart valve in bacterial endocarditis
A250. mitral
Q251. - Most Common Cause/Association:; heart valve in bacterial endocarditis in IVDA
A251. Tricuspid
Q252. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Heart Valve in bacterial endocarditis IV drug users
A252. Tricuspid
Q253. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Helminth infection (U.S)
A253. Enterobius vermicularis (Ascaris lumbricoides is 2nd most common)
Q254. - Most Common Cause/Association:; hemachromatosis
A254. multiple blood transfusions
Q256. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Hematoma (epidural)
A256. Ruputure of Middle meningeal artery (arterial bleeding is fast)
Q257. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Hematoma (subdural)
A257. Ruputure of bridging veins (trauma; venous bleeding is slow)
Q258. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Hemochromatosis
A258. Multiple blood transfusion (can result in CHF and increase risk of hepatocellular carcinoma)
Q259. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Hemorrhagic Pericarditis
A259. Associated w/ TB or neoplasm
Q260. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Hep B and C
A260. Hepatocellular CA
Q261. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Hepatic cirrhosis
A261. EtOH
Q262. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Hepatocellular carcinoma
A262. Cirrhotic liver (often associated with hep. B and C)
Q263. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Hereditary bleeding disorder
A263. Von Willebrand's
Q264. - Most Common Cause/Association:; hereditary harmless jaundice
A264. Gilbert's syndrome (benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)
Q265. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Hereditary Nephritis
A265. Alport’s syndrome. X linked; Renal disease w/ deafness & ocualr abnormalities
Q266. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Hernia
A266. Indirect
Q267. - Most Common Cause/Association:; HHPV8
A267. Kaposi Sarcoma
Q268. - Most Common Cause/Association:; HLA-A3
A268. hemochromatosis
Q269. - Most Common Cause/Association:; HLA-B27
A269. Psoriasis; Ankylosing spondylitis; IBD; Reiter's syndrome
Q270. - Most Common Cause/Association:; HLA-B8
A270. Graves' dz, celiac sprue
Q271. - Most Common Cause/Association:; HLA-DR2
A271. Multiple Sclerosis; Hay fever; SLE; Goodpasture's syndrome
Q272. - Most Common Cause/Association:; HLA-DR3
A272. Diabetes mellitus type 1
Q273. - Most Common Cause/Association:; HLA-DR3 or DR4
A273. DM type I, RA, SLE
Q274. - Most Common Cause/Association:; HLA-DR4
A274. Diabetes mellitus type 1; Rheumatoid arthritis
Q275. - Most Common Cause/Association:; HLA-DR5
A275. Pernicious anemia; Hashimoto's thyroiditis
Q276. - Most Common Cause/Association:; HLA-DR7
A276. steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome
Q277. - Most Common Cause/Association:; hospital acquired pneumonia
A277. Klebsiella
Q278. - Most Common Cause/Association:; HPV
A278. Cervical NIC
Q279. - Most Common Cause/Association:; HTLV-1
A279. T-cell Hairy Cell Leukemia; Adult T-cell Leukemia
Q280. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Hydropic degeneration
A280. Severe form of cloudy swelling
Q281. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Hypercalcemia
A281. hyperparathyroidism
Q282. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Hyperparathyroidism - Primary
A282. Adenomas (followed by: hyperplasia, then carcinoma)
Q283. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Hyperparathyroidism - Secondary
A283. Hypocalcemia of Chronic Renal Failure
Q284. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Hypertension
A284. Essentail (95%) 2. Renal disease
Q285. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Hypertension; children
A285. Renal disease; cystic disease, Wilm's tumor
Q286. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Hypertension - young women
A286. Oral contraceptives
Q287. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Hypertension, secondary
A287. Renal disease
Q288. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Hyperthyroidism
A288. Graves' Disease
Q289. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Hypoparathyroidism
A289. Thyroidectomy
Q290. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Hypopituitarism
A290. Adenoma
Q291. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Hypopituitarism - adults
A291. Nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma
Q292. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Hypopituitarism - kids
A292. Craniopharyngioma
Q293. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Hypothyroidism
A293. Hashimoto's thyroiditis
Q294. - Most Common Cause/Association:; IL-1
A294. Squamous lung; Metastasis to bone; mutiple myeloma; Breast; RCC
Q295. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Infection in blood transfusion
A295. Hep. C
Q296. - Most Common Cause/Association:; infection in burn victims
A296. Pseudomonas
Q297. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Intussusception
A297. terminal ileum into cecum
Q298. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Keratomalacia
A298. Severe Vit A deficiency. See Bitot’s spots in the eyes = gray plaques = thickened, keratinized ET
Q299. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Kidney stones
A299. Calcium = radioopaque (2nd most common is ammonium = radiopaque; formed by urease positive organisms such as proteus vulgaris or Staphylococcus
Q300. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Langerhan Cell Histiocytosis
A300. Letter Siwe syndrome; Hand Schuller Christian Disease; Eosinophilic Granuloma; Birbeck granules are present = tennis racket shape
Q301. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Late cyanosis (more common)
A301. VSD, ASD, or PDA
Q302. - Most Common Cause/Association:; LDH1 & LDH2
A302. Myocardium. LDH1 higher than LDH2 = Myocardial Infarction
Q303. - Most Common Cause/Association:; LDH3
A303. Lung tissue
Q304. - Most Common Cause/Association:; LDH4 & LDH5
A304. Liver cells
Q305. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Leukemia (adults)
A305. AML
Q306. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Liquefaction necrosis
A306. Rapid enzymatic break down of lipids; Seen commonly in Brain & Spinal cord (CNS) injuries; Seen in suppurative infections = pus formation
Q307. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Liver disease
A307. Alcoholic liver disease
Q308. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Liver infection
A308. Viral Hepatitis - HVA
Q309. - Most Common Cause/Association:; L-myc
A309. lung tumor
Q310. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Lobar pneumonia
A310. Due to Strep. Pneumoniae infection (5% due to Klebsiella)
Q311. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Lobular Bronchopneumonia
A311. Due to Staph aureus; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Klebsiella; E. coli; Abscess formation is common
Q312. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Location of Adult brain tumors
A312. Above Tentorium
Q313. - Most Common Cause/Association:; location of brain tumors (adult)
A313. Supratentorial
Q314. - Most Common Cause/Association:; location of brain tumors (kids)
A314. Infratentorial
Q315. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Lymph Metastasis
A315. Carcinoma, exception – renal cell CA: early venous invasion
Q316. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Lysosomal storage disease
A316. Gaucher's disease
Q317. - Most Common Cause/Association:; male cancer
A317. Prostatic carcinoma
Q318. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Malignancy associated with noninfectious fever
A318. Hodgkin's disease
Q319. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Malignant ovarian tumor
A319. Serous cystadenocarcinoma (assoc with psammoma bodies)
Q320. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Malignant skin tumor
A320. Basal cell carcinoma (rarely metastasizes)
Q321. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Membranoproliferative GN
A321. Can be secondary to complement deficiency; chronic infections; CLL; See tram tracking
Q322. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Mental retardation
A322. Down’s or Fragile X , Fetal alcohol syndrome
Q323. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Metabisfite Test
A323. Suspending RBCs in a low O2 content solution; Can detect Hemoglobin S, which sickles in low O2
Q324. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Metastasis to bone
A324. Breast, lung, thyroid, testes, prostate, kidney
Q325. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Metastasis to brain
A325. Lung, breast, skin (melanoma), kidney (renal cell carcinoma), GI
Q326. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Metastasis to liver
A326. Colon, gastric, pancreatic, breast and lung carcinomas
Q327. - Most Common Cause/Association:; MI
A327. Atherosclerosis
Q328. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia
A328. Can be due to Hemolyitc Uremic Syndrome & Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP); See Helmet cells
Q329. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Mitral Insufficiency
A329. Ruptured papillary muscle
Q330. - Most Common Cause/Association:; mitral valve stenosis
A330. rheumatic heart disease
Q331. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Mobitz I
A331. Usually due to inferior MI. Rarely goes into 3rd degree block. Txt w/ Atropine or Isoproterenol.
Q332. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Mobitz II
A332. Often goes to 3rd degree AV block. Usually due to anterior MI.
Q333. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Mononucleosis
A333. Due to EBV infeciton; If Mono is treated w/ Ampicillin, thinking that it is a strep pharyngitis, a rash will occur.
Q334. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Motor neuron disease
A334. ALS
Q335. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Myocarditis
A335. Coxsackie B
Q336. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Necrotizing Fasciitis
A336. Group A Streptococci
Q337. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Neoplasm (kids)
A337. ALL (2nd most common is cerebellar medulloblastoma)
Q338. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Nephritic syndrome (kids)
A338. Minimcal change disease (associated with infections/vaccinations; treat with corticosteroids)
Q339. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Nephrotic syndrome
A339. Membranousglomerulonephritis
Q340. - Most Common Cause/Association:; NF1
A340. Neurofibromatosis 1; neurofibromas; fibrosarcomas; cafe au lait; iris hamartoma
Q341. - Most Common Cause/Association:; NF-1 17q
A341. Neurofibromatosis type 1
Q342. - Most Common Cause/Association:; NF2
A342. Neurofibromatosis 2; Acoustinc neuromas; Juvenile cataracts
Q343. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Nitrosamines
A343. Esophagus; Stomach
Q344. - Most Common Cause/Association:; N-myc
A344. neuroblastoma
Q345. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Obstruction of male urinary tract
A345. BPH
Q346. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Ochronosis
A346. Alkaptonuria; Error in tyrosine metabolism due to Homogentisic acid (oxidizes tyrosine); Involving intervertebral disks = Ankylosing Spondilitis = Poker spine; See dark urine; dark coloration of sclera, tendons, cartilage
Q347. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Opportunistic infection in AIDS
A347. Pneumocystitis carinii pneumonia
Q348. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Organ receiving metastasis
A348. Adrenal glands (due to rich blood supply)
Q349. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Organ sending metastasis
A349. Lung > breast, stomach
Q350. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Osteomyelitis
A350. S. Aureus
Q351. - Most Common Cause/Association:; osteomyelitis in IV Drug Abuser
A351. Pseudomonas
Q352. - Most Common Cause/Association:; osteomyelitis in patients with sickle cell disease
A352. Salmonella
Q353. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Ovarian tumor (benign)
A353. serous cystadenoma
Q354. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Ovarian tumor (malignant)
A354. Serous cystadenocarcinoma
Q355. - Most Common Cause/Association:; p16
A355. melanoma
Q356. - Most Common Cause/Association:; p53
A356. Li-fraumeli - Ataxia Telagiectasia
Q357. - Most Common Cause/Association:; p53 17p
A357. Most human Cancers
Q358. - Most Common Cause/Association:; P-ANCA
A358. antineutrophil. vasculitis. PAN
Q359. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Pancreatic tumor
A359. Adenocarcinoma (head of pancreas)
Q360. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Pancreatitis (acute)
A360. EtOH and gallstones
Q361. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Pancreatitis (chronic)
A361. EtOH (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)
Q362. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Paradoxical embolism
A362. Right to Left shunt allows a venous embolism to enter arterial circulation; Patent ovale foramen or Atrial septal defect
Q363. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Parainfluenza
A363. Croup (Laryngotracheobronchitis)
Q364. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Parvovirus B19
A364. Fifth Disease: Erythema Infectiosum (ssDNA). Linked w/ sicle cell anemia
Q365. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Patient with ALL/CLL/AML/CML
A365. ALL=child, CLL=adult>60, AML = Adult >60, CML= adult 35- 50
Q366. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Patient with AML
A366. adult > 60 years
Q367. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Patient with CLL
A367. adult > 60 years
Q368. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Patient with CML
A368. adult 35-50
Q369. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Patient with Hodgkins
A369. Young male (except nodular sclerosis type -female)
Q370. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Patient with minimal change diesase (podocyte foot process fusion)
A370. young child
Q371. - Most Common Cause/Association:; patient with reiter's
A371. male with HLA-B27
Q372. - Most Common Cause/Association:; pelvic inflammatory disease
A372. neisseria gonorrheae (monoarticular arthritis)
Q373. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Peripheral Neuropathy
A373. Diabetes
Q374. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Philadelphia Chromosome
A374. CML
Q375. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Phlebothrombosis
A375. From a vein of lower extremities, of a pregnant uterus, in Congestive heart failure, bed ridden pt,; As a complicaiton in a pt w/ Pancreatic CA due to -d blood coagulability
Q376. - Most Common Cause/Association:; PID
A376. Neisseria gonorrhoeae (monoarticular arthritis)
Q377. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Pituitary tumor
A377. Prolactinoma (2nd-somatotropic "acidophilic" adenoma)
Q378. - Most Common Cause/Association:; PML’s infectious agent
A378. JC Virus (Papovavirus = dsDNA, naked icosahedral capsid)
Q379. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Pneumonia in cystic fibrosis, burn infection
A379. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Q380. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Pneumonia, hospital acquired
A380. Klebsiella
Q381. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Portal Hypertension
A381. Cirrhosis
Q382. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Preventable blindness
A382. Chlamydia
Q383. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Preventable cancer
A383. Lung cancer
Q384. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Primary adrenocortical deficiency
A384. Addison's disease
Q385. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Primary amenorrhea
A385. Turner's syndrome (XO)
Q386. - Most Common Cause/Association:; primary bone tumor
A386. Adults = multiple myeloma; Kids = osteosarcoma; Benign = osteochondroma
Q387. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Primary bone tumor (adult)
A387. Multiple myeloma
Q388. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Primary cardiac tumor of kids
A388. Rhabdomyoma (assoc with tuberus sclerosis)
Q389. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Primary hyperaldosteronism
A389. Adenoma of adrenal cortex
Q390. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Primary hyperparathyroidism
A390. Adenomas (followed by hyperplasia, then carcinoma)
Q391. - Most Common Cause/Association:; primary liver cancer
A391. hepatocellular carcinoma (hepatoma)
Q392. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Primary liver tumor
A392. Hepatoma
Q393. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Protozoal Diarrhea
A393. Giardia
Q394. - Most Common Cause/Association:; PSA
A394. Prostate Specific Antigen = elevated in prostatic CA
Q395. - Most Common Cause/Association:; PTH -rp
A395. Squamous lung; RCC; Breast; Multiple myeloma; Bone metastasis
Q396. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Pulmonary embolism
A396. Most commonly thrombus from lower extremity vein
Q397. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Pulmonary HTN
A397. COPD
Q398. - Most Common Cause/Association:; ras
A398. colon carcinoma
Q399. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Rb 13q
A399. Retinoblastoma, Osteosarcoma
Q400. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Renal Failure
A400. Acute tubular necrosis
Q401. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Renal tumor
A401. Renal cell carcinoma; associated with von Hippel-Lindau and acquired polycystic kidney disease, paraneoplastic syndromes (erythropoietin, renin, PTH, ACTH)
Q402. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Restrictive Cardiomyopathy
A402. Aka infiltrative cardiomyopathy that stiffens the heart; Due to amyloidosis in the elderly; also see schaumann & asteroid bodies in young (<25 yoa).
Q403. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Ret
A403. MEN II and III; including:; Pheochromocytoma; Medullary thyroid carcinoma; Parathyroid (IIa); Cutaneous and gangilio neuromas (III)
Q404. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Right Heart Failure
A404. Left heart failure
Q405. - Most Common Cause/Association:; right heart failure due to a pulmonary cause
A405. Cor pulmonale
Q406. - Most Common Cause/Association:; RSV
A406. Bronchiolitis in infants
Q408. - Most Common Cause/Association:; S-100
A408. Melanoma; APUD tumors
Q409. - Most Common Cause/Association:; secondary hyperparathyroidism
A409. Hypocalcemia of chronic renal failure
Q410. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Secondary Hypertension
A410. Renal disease
Q411. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Serous Pericarditis
A411. Associated w/ nonbacterial; viral (Coxsackie) infection; immunologic reaction.
Q412. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Sexually transmitted disease
A412. Chlamydia
Q413. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Sheehan's syndrome
A413. Postpartum pituitary infarction secondary to hemorrhage
Q414. - Most Common Cause/Association:; SIADH
A414. small cell carcinoma of the lung
Q415. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Single Gene Disorder
A415. Thalassemia
Q416. - Most Common Cause/Association:; site of Aneurysm
A416. Abdominal aorta
Q417. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Site of Aneurysm of Circle of Willis
A417. Anterior communicating artery; bitemporal hemianopsia
Q418. - Most Common Cause/Association:; site of atherosclerosis
A418. abdominal aorta (AAA) > coronary (MI) > popliteal (claudication) > carotid (stroke)
Q419. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Site of diverticula
A419. Sigmoid colon
Q420. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Site of metastasis
A420. Regional lymph nodes
Q421. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Site of metastasis (2nd most common)
A421. Liver
Q422. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Sites of artherosclerosis
A422. Abdominal aorta > coronary> popliteal > carotid
Q423. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Skin cancer
A423. Basal cell carcinoma
Q424. - Most Common Cause/Association:; STD
A424. chlamydia (50% females are asx); ghonorrhea
Q425. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Stomach cancer
A425. Adenocarcinoma
Q426. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis
A426. a Hemolytic Streptococci (S. viridans) = usually in pt w/ pre -existing heart problem
Q427. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Subdural hematoma
A427. rupture of the bridging veins
Q428. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
A428. Obstructed due to bronchogenic carcinoma. Causing swollen face & cyanosis.
Q429. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Surgical Emergency
A429. Acute Appendicitis
Q430. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Swimming Pool Conjunctivitis
A430. Adenovirus (types 3 & 4)
Q431. - Most Common Cause/Association:; t(11;14)
A431. Mantle cell lymphoma; involving BCL1 (cyclin D1) and IgH
Q432. - Most Common Cause/Association:; t(11;18)(q21;q21)
A432. MALT lymphoma; API2 and MLT
Q433. - Most Common Cause/Association:; t(11;22)
A433. Ewing's sarcoma
Q434. - Most Common Cause/Association:; t(14;18)
A434. Follicular B cell
Q435. - Most Common Cause/Association:; t(14;18)(q32;q21)
A435. Follicular lymphoma (FL); bcl-2 gene (18) translocated to Ig gene(14)
Q436. - Most Common Cause/Association:; t(15;17)(q22lq12 -21)
A436. Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APML)
Q437. - Most Common Cause/Association:; t(2;5)(p23;q35)
A437. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL); ALK and NPM
Q438. - Most Common Cause/Association:; t(3;14)(q27;q32)
A438. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; bcl-6/IgH
Q439. - Most Common Cause/Association:; T(8;14)
A439. Burkitt’s lymphoma = c-myc oncogene overexpression
Q440. - Most Common Cause/Association:; T(9;22)
A440. CML = c-abl/bcr gene formation = Philadelphia translocation
Q441. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Testicular tumor
A441. Seminoma
Q442. - Most Common Cause/Association:; TGF-beta
A442. Squamous lung; metastasis to bone; RCC; Breast; Multiple myeloma
Q443. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Thiamine deficiency
A443. Wet Beri Beri heart. Dilated (congested) cardiomyopathy due to chronic alcohol consumption; Dyr Beri Beri = peripheral neuropathy; Wernicke-Korsakoff = ataxia; confusion; confabulation; memory loss
Q444. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Thyroid cancer
A444. Papillary carcinoma
Q445. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Thyroid disease
A445. Goiter
Q446. - Most Common Cause/Association:; TNF-alpha
A446. Squamous lung; Metastasis to bone; RCC; Breast; Multiple myeloma
Q447. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Tracheoesophageal fistula
A447. Lower esophagus joins trache/upper esophagus -blind pouch
Q448. - Most Common Cause/Association:; TRAP - (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase)
A448. Hairy B cell Leukemia
Q449. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Trisomy 13
A449. Patau’s: small head & eyes; cleft lip & palate; many fingers
Q450. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Tuberculoid granuloma
A450. Collection of macrophages w/o caseation; Seen w/ Sarcoidosis (non-caseating); Syphilis; Brucellosis and Leprotic infections
Q451. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Tumor associated with Hashimoto's Disease; Myasthemia Gravis
A451. Thymoma
Q452. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Tumor in cirrhosis
A452. hepatocellular carcinoma
Q453. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Tumor in infancy
A453. Hemangioma
Q454. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Tumor in Sjogrens syndrome
A454. B cell lymphoma
Q455. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Tumor in Tuberous Sclerosis
A455. Astrocytoma; Cardiac Rhadomyoma
Q456. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Tumor in ulcerative colitis (Crohns)
A456. colonic adenocarcinoma
Q457. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Tumor in woman
A457. Leiomyoma (estrogen dependent)
Q458. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Tumor of adrenal medulla (Adults)
A458. Pheochromocytoma (benign)
Q459. - Most Common Cause/Association:; tumor of adrenal medulla (kids)
A459. Neuroblastoma (malignant)
Q460. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Tumor of infancy
A460. Hemangioma
Q461. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Tumors in tuberous sclerosis (facial angiofibroma, seizures, MR)
A461. astrocytoma, cardiac rhabdomyoma
Q462. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Type of Hodgkin's
A462. Nodular sclerosis (vs. mixed cullularity, lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion)
Q463. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Type of non-Hodgkin's
A463. Follicular, small cleaved
Q464. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Type of pituitary adenoma
A464. Prolactinoma
Q465. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Uric acid
A465. Leukemia; Lymphomas; Chemotherapy
Q466. - Most Common Cause/Association:; US helminth infection
A466. Enterobius Vermicularis; Ascaris lumbircoides; (tx both with mebendizole)
Q467. - Most Common Cause/Association:; UTI
A467. E. Coli
Q468. - Most Common Cause/Association:; UTI (young women)
A468. E coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus
Q469. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Vasculitis
A469. Temporal arteritis (risk of ipsilateral blindness due to thrombosis of opthalmic artery)
Q470. - Most Common Cause/Association:; VHL 3p
A470. Von Hippel Lindau, Renal Cell CA
Q471. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Vinyl Chloride; Arsenic; Thorotrast
A471. Angiosarcoma of the liver
Q472. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Viral encephalitis
A472. HSV
Q473. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Vitamin deficiency (U.S)
A473. Folic acid (pregnant women are at high risk; body stores only 3 to 4 month supply)
Q474. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Worm infection in US
A474. 1. Pinworm 2. Ascaris
Q475. - Most Common Cause/Association:; WT-1 11p
A475. Wilm’s tumor
Q476. - Most Common Cause/Association:; Xeroderma Pigmentosum
A476. 1) BCC (basal); 2) SCC (squamous); Also Melanoma; Problem in DNA Repair Enzyme, Thymine Dimers
Q477. - Most Common Cause/Association: Micronodular pigment cirrhosis; Bronze Diabetes; Skin pigmentation
A477. Hemochromatosis Triad; due to Fe3+ deposition