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15 Cards in this Set

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Give examples on a web of STANDARDS.
Laws, regulations, best practice guidelines, benchmarks
When some topics are still in the development stage, or when formal standards are inappropriate, what would guide operation?
Frameworks, models, sets of guidelines, taxonomies to influence and direct practice.
What are the motives of setting STANDARDS?
To control or limit the degree of variation in the system, to improve efficiency derived by constructing routines based around standards, or to derive greater benefit for all rather than for a few.
Standards limit the degree of variation in a system while providing efficiency and greater understanding through which known benefits can be more widely enacted. All standards therefore both constrain and enable so that there are some generally universal characteristics of standards that hold true even with the current variety in areas of standardisation.
In KM there exists an important issue about STANDARDS. What is it?
A chance for different standardization concepts and processes, as well as different forms and styles of standards.
The politics of arriving at categories and standards can often be the result of negotiation and conflict. Moreover, Bowker and Star (1996) observe that standards are often deployed in the context of making things work together e.g. computer protocols and often enforced by legal bodies or at least endorsed by authoritative entities. They note also that there is no natural law that says that the best standard will be agreed upon but that, once determined, standards have inertia and are difficult to change.// The rapid rate of change driven by technological advances in the current global market place contrasts with the slow process of achieving agreement on standardised practices that enables it all to work efficiently and effectively.// The announcement by GKEC (see Knowledge Digest) of a international standards effort in knowledge management raises a fundamental question of why we need standards, plus many supplementary ones, of how should they be developed, validated and used.
What is the dictionary definition of the word "STANDARD"?
Anything taken by general consent as the basis of comparison, an approved model, a grade of excellence, a determination of fitness for purpose, or behaviour that is socially desirable.
What is the dictionary definition of the word "framework"?
A conceptual structure composed of parts fitted and united together to give coherence.
What is the dictionary definition of the word "model"?
Any useful representation of reality.
What is the dictionary definition of the word "taxonomy"?
It is often used for a review of a new area to classify or arrange the collection of emerging frameworks.
Give 2 examples on STANDARDS that we can't live without.
(1) Computer-based networks. They allow people to communicate easily without thinking of how to make the physical connections work. (2) Accountancy standards grew organically out of what were proven to be good practices for businesses of all kinds.
What are some presentation of FRAMEWORKS?
Frameworks can be anything from a simple diagram to a comprehensive documentation of best practice to a generalised model or taxonomy resulting from extensive research.
What are some characteristics that make STANDARDS vary extensively?
Standards can emerge through converging practice, through the dominance of one player in the market or through the work of an official SDO. Standards can sometimes be prescriptive to be enforced by laws or regulations. Others are descriptive best practice guidelines or simply a timely informed description of the current landscape in an emerging area. For some, high visibility is critical while others should be ubiquitous, underpinning interoperability with other classifications schemes and standards.
Do business standards and frameworks tend to be more descriptive or prescriptive?
Business standards and frameworks tend to be more descriptive than prescriptive. However some instances of spectacular business collapses often precipitate the call for the more regulatory standards that may prevent the misuse of trust and power that can cause widespread harm in the business world. Some industries develop self-regulatory sets of guidelines for the ethical conduct of their business.
In the field of business methods, standards are mostly concerned with "best practice". The best example is the ISO 9000 and its related quality standards. A standard can be more or less precise. Over time, best practice may be codified into a set of rules, for example, the rules and regulations for ship design of Lloyd's Register, that have evolved continuously since 1760. And if they are recognized as valuable by the wider (e.g. buying) community, or even backed up by the force of law, then it may be difficult to operate outside these standards.
What is the main rationale of Australian KM STANDARD?
There is a disjuncture between the revolutionary pace driven by technology and the evolutionary pace of systems of rules and the system is not stable. Developing KM as a discipline, in the fundamental sense of the word - a system of rules of conduct or method of practice - presents us with an opportunity to add stability."
Why there is a broad consensus for a need for some STANDARDS in KM since the turn of the millennium, although there is much contention on both the form that the standards should take and the process by which they are created?
There exists a requirement by some for a formal means to accredit KM professionals, as well as a less formal but equally important requirement to provide guidance and direction.
In many organizations people with many backgrounds are being asked to perform KM and truth with no real understanding of how to do it and so lack confidence and capability in ways to proceed. There is a desire to know more and be more confident of success. This has created a demand, if not for a 'Standard', then at least for some authoritative 'Guide Book' or 'Framework'.
For those who practice KM, why some STANDARDS are required?
They have other reasons to support the development of a KM standard or at least a comprehensive taxonomy of rigorously developed frameworks.
Research takes place at a more deliberate pace than practice but there has been a great surge of researchers from many fields taking an interest in KM. The development of a standard would help to legitimise KM as a field of study. KMPro, association has also publicised its desire to help build the body of knowledge. One of their aims is to create and popularize a robust, accredited KM education system and a top-quality, certification program to overcome this 'fear', to provide much increased likelihood of success and thereby directly promote one's career and indirectly, ultimate KM success.