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14 Cards in this Set

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DSM-IV-TR distinguishes five categories of relational problems:
(1) relational problem related to a mental or general medical condition; (2) parent–child relational problem; (3) partner relational problem; (4) sibling relational problem; and (5) relational problem not otherwise specified.
Elder abuse:
> in women or men?
Most abuse occurs over age?
> in women
over age 75
The burden of caring for ill family members falls disproportionately on the ? in a family—???
mothers, daughters, and daughters-in-law
Research on parenting skills has isolated two major dimensions:
(1) a permissive-restrictive dimension and
(2) a warm-and-accepting versus cold-and-hostile dimension
A typology that separates parents on these dimensions distinguishes between ? (restrictive and cold), ? (minimally restrictive and accepting), and ? (restrictive as needed, but also warm and accepting) parenting styles
authoritarian,
permissive
authoritative
Children of ? parents tend to be withdrawn or conflicted
authoritarian
Children of ? parents are likely to be more aggressive, impulsive, and low achievers
permissive
children of ? parents seem to function at the highest level, socially and cognitively
authoritative
Substantial evidence indicates that marital discord leads to problems in children, from depression and withdrawal to conduct disorder and poor performance at school. This negative effect may be partly mediated through ? of the parent–child relationships, which is a process in which conflicted parents attempt to win the sympathy and support of their child, who is recruited by one parent as an ally in the struggle with the partner
triangulation
A 1997 study from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development indicated that day care was not harmful to children, when the caregivers and day care teachers provided
consistent, empathetic, nurturing care.
Children receiving less than optimal caring exhibit
decreased intellectual and verbal skills that indicate delayed neurocognitive development. They may also become irritable, anxious, or depressed, which interferes with the parent–child bonding experience, and they are less assertive and less effectively toilet trained by the age of 5.
Patterns of partner relational problem
These patterns are characterized by negative communication (e.g., criticisms), distorted communication (e.g., unrealistic expectations), or noncommunication (e.g., withdrawal),
unhappy marriage negative impact?
Epidemiological surveys show that unhappy marriages are a risk factor for major depressive disorder. Marital discord also affects physical health. For example, in a study of women aged 30 to 65 years with coronary artery disease, marital stress worsened the prognosis 2.9 times for recurrent coronary events. Marital conflict was also associated with a 46 percent higher relative death risk among female patients having hemodialysis, and with elevations in serum epinephrine, norepinephrine, and corticotrophin levels in both men and women. In one study, high levels of hostile marital behavior were associated with slower healing of wounds, lower production of proinflammatory cytokines, and higher cytokine production in peripheral blood. Overall, women show greater psychological and physiological responsiveness to conflict than men.
Rate of divorce in physicians?
25 to 30%

The highest rate of divorce occurred in psychiatrists (50 percent), followed by surgeons (33 percent) and internists, pediatricians, and pathologists (31 percent).