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97 Cards in this Set

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An organism eats food and then digests it. Does this organism belong to kingdom Fungi? Why or why not?
No, the organism is not a part of kingdom Fungi.

Fungi digest their food before eating it. This process, called "extracellular digestion," is common to all fungi.
A farmer tries to remove a patch of mushrooms from his field by pulling all of the stalks and caps in the patch out of the ground. Why has the farmer really not gotten rid of the fungus?
The stalks and the caps are not the main parts of the mushroom. The mycelium, which is underneath the ground, is the main body of the fungus. Even though the farmer removed the stalks and caps, the mycelium is still there. It will produce more stalks and caps later on.
A fungus produces haustoria (plural of haustorium). Is it saprophytic or parasitic?
Only parasitic fungi produce haustoria, so fungus must be parasitic.

Since a haustorium's job is to invade a living cell and draw nutrients from it, there is no reason a saprophytic fungus would produce a haustorium.
What job does the fruiting body of a fungus perform?
The fruiting body holds and releases the spores for reproduction.

Once all spores are released, the fruiting body withers and dies.
Spores of a fungus give rise to offspring that are identical in every way to the parent. Where the spores were formed asexually or sexually?
The spores result from asexual reproduction, because asexual reproduction results in offspring that are identical to parents.
A mushroom is in its button stage. Has it released its spores yet?
No,

The button stage comes before the stipe and cap are formed.

Since the spores are released from the gills in the cap, a mushroom cannot release its spores until the stipe and cap are formed.
One major characteristic that separates the members of phylum Basidiomycota into different subgroups is the structure in which the fungi form their basidia. Where are the basidia formed in mushrooms? What about in puffballs? Where are they formed in shelf fungi.?
In mushrooms, basidia form on the gills of the cap. In puffballs, they form inside the membrane of the fruiting body. In shelf fungi, they form in the pores of the fruiting body.
A single-celled organism asexually reproduces by duplicating its nucleus, causing a bulge to form in its plasma membrane, transferring the copied nucleus and some cytoplasm to the bulge, and then separating the bulge into a small cell. The small cell grows to the size of the parent in a day or so. How does this compare to the budding that takes place in yeasts?
It is very similar, but not identical. For yeasts the bud typically does not detach itself until aft it is fully grown.
Bread rises because of the fermentation process. Since this process produces both alcohol and carbon dioxide, why don't you get drunk when you eat bread?
Baked bread does not have alcohol in it because the heat of the baking process evaporates the alcohol.

Thus, even though alcohol is formed during the making of bread, it is removed by the heat of the baking process
A bread mold forms a stolon for reproduction. Is it reproducing sexually or asexually?
Stolons are an asexual means of reproduction, so the mold is reproducing asexually.
A fungus forms a fruiting body. Is it likely to be a bread mold?
No, bread molds do not form a fruiting body.

In sexual reproduction, they form an underground zygospore that grows into a new mold.

They do have sporangiophores that form asexual spores, but those are not fruiting bodies; they are just specialized aerial hyphae.
A biology teacher once said, "the only thing imperfect about the imperfect fungi is our knowledge of them." What does the biology teacher mean?
The fact that a fungus is called imperfect means that we simply do not know about its sexual reproduction.

Since we do not know about an aspect of its life, our knowledge of it is imperfect.
In medical journals these days, there is a lot of concern about the overuse of antibiotics. Doctors think that since antibiotics are so effective, they are prescribed far too often for patients.
Why are doctors worried about overuse of antibiotics?
The more an antibiotic is used, the more likely the change of bacteria (or other pathogen) strains immune to the antibiotic will form.

If that strain reproduces and is spread, a new antibiotic must be made to destroy that strain of bacteria (or other pathogen).
A biologist observes a slime mold only during its feeding stage. In what kingdom will the biologist most likely classify it?
Since slime molds in their feeding stage resemble protozoa, the biologist will most likely classify it in kingdom Protista.
Suppose a biologist were to separate the fungus spores from the alga spores in a soredium. Could the fungal spores develop into a free-living fungus? Could the spores from the alga develop into a free-living alga?
The spores from the fungus could never grow into a free-living fungus, because the fungus in a lichen (that is where a soredium comes from) has no food supply without the alga.

The alga would be able to live on its own, because the fungus simply gives it support and protection.

The alga can live without that.

It will not be as prolific as it could be with the fungus, but it can live on its own.
There are some scientists who have studied the effect of air pollution on fungi. They conclude that air pollution destroys fungi at a much higher rate than it destroys other organisms. These same scientists say that if air pollution kills too many fungi, trees and other plants will begin to die as well. Why?
Because nearly 80% of plants have a symbiotic relationship with the mycelia of fungi, if fungi die off, the trees will no longer be able to participate in the symbiotic relationship.

The fungi help trees absorb vital minerals from the soil.

Without the aid of the fungi, the trees will not be able to absorb enough minerals, and they will begin to die.
Define the following term:

Extracellular digestion
Digestion that takes place outside of the cell
Define the following term:

Mycelium
The part of the fungus responsible for extracellular digestion and absorption of the digested food
Define the following term:

Hypha
A filament of fungal cells
Define the following term:

Rhizoid hypha
A hypha that is imbedded in the material on which the fungus grows
Define the following term:

Aerial hypha
A hypha that is not imbedded in the material upon which the fungus grows
Define the following term:

Sporophore
Specialized aerial hypha that produces spores
Define the following term:

Stolon
An aerial hypha that asexually reproduces to make more filaments
Define the following term:

Haustorium
A hypha of a parasitic fungus that enters the host's cells, absorbing nutrition directly from the cytoplasm.
Define the following term:

Chitin
A chemical that provides both toughness and flexibility
Define the following term:

Membrane
A thin covering of tissue
Define the following term:

Fermentation
The anaerobic breakdown of sugars into smaller molecules
Define the following term:

Zygospore
A zygote surrounded by a hard, protective covering
Define the following term:

Zygote
The result of sexual reproduction when each parent contributes half of the DNA necessary for the offspring
Define the following term:

Antibiotic
A chemical secreted by a living organism that kills or reduces the reproduction rate of other organisms
Characteristics or structures that exist for the vast majority of fungi. (Common to the majority of fungi)
Extracellular digestion
Chitin
Mycelia
Hyphae
Cells (all living creatures have them)
Rhizoid hyphae
Which characteristics or structures are present in only a few species of fungi?
Stolons (specialized hyphae)

Caps and stalks (only mushrooms have them)

Sporangiophores (specialized hyphae with enclosed spores)

Haustoria (specialized hyphae)

Motile spores (Chytridiomycota and some slime molds)

Septate hyphae (many have non-septate hyphae)
Some biologists say that a mushroom is much like an iceberg, because only about 10% of an iceberg is visible from the surface of the ocean. What do they mean?
Typically, we see only the fruiting body of a mushroom.

Like an iceberg, that visible part is only a small fraction of the total mushroom, because the mycelium, is the largest component of a mushroom.
What is the difference between septate and nonseptate hyphae?
Septate hyphae have cell walls that separate the cells while non-septate hyphae do not.
What is the function of the following specialized hyphae?

Rhizoid hyphae
Rhizoid hyphae support the fungus and digest the food
What is the function of the following specialized hyphae?

Stolon
A stolon asexually reproduces
What is the function of the following specialized hyphae?


Sporophore
A sporophore releases spores for reproduction
What is the function of the following specialized hyphae?

Haustorium
A haustorium invades the cells of a living host to absorb food directly from the cytoplasm
Of the hyphae listed (rhizoid hyphae, stolon sporophore, haustorium), which are aerial?
STOLONS & SPOROPHORES are aerial.

Aerial hyphae are not imbedded in the material upon which the fungus grows.

In order to perform their jobs, rhizoid hyphae and haustoria must be imbedded in the material.
What is the difference between a sporangiophore and a conidiophore?
A sporangiophore PRODUCES ITS SPORES IN AN ENCLOSURE; a conidiophore does not
Give the main characteristic associated with each of the phyla of kingdom fungi:

Basidiomycota
Form sexual spores on club-like basidia
Give the main characteristic associated with each of the phyla of kingdom fungi:

Ascomycota
Form sexual spores in sac-like asci
Give the main characteristic associated with each of the phyla of kingdom fungi:

Zygomycota
Form sexual spores where hyphae fuse
Give the main characteristic associated with each of the phyla of kingdom fungi:

Chytridiomycota
Form spores with flagella
Give the main characteristic associated with each of the phyla of kingdom fungi:

Deuteromycota
Fungi with no known method of sexual reproduction
Give the main characteristic associated with each of the phyla of kingdom fungi:

Myxomycota
Fungi that look like protozoa for much of their lives
Describe each of the stages (in chronological order) associated with the life cycle of a mushroom, starting with the formation of a mycelium.
A mushroom begins life as a small mycelium that grows from spores which have come from another mushroom.

As the mycelium begins to grow, it might encounter a compatible mycelium.

As the two mycelia begin to intertwine, their hyphae will sexually reproduce.

Eventually, the newly-produced hyphae will form a complex web and enclose themselves in a membrane.

When the hyphae are formed in the membrane, we say that the mushroom has reached the button stage of its existence.

At that point, the hyphae begin filling with water quickly, and eventually the stipe and cap (the fruiting body) of the mushroom break through the membrane.

The fruiting body of the mushroom releases its spores, which will growinto new mycelia if they land in suitable habitats.
What is the main difference between shelf fungi, puffballs, and mushrooms?
The main difference is WHERE THEY FORM THEIR SPORES.

Mushrooms form spores on basidia that exist in the gills of the cap.

Puffballs produce spores on basidia enclosed in a membrane.

Shelf fungi produce spores on basidia in pores on the fruiting body.
What is an alternate host? List a type of fungus that uses one.
An alternate host is used by a parasitic fungus at some stage in its life.

It is not the host that the fungus spends most of its life on; it is simply a temporary host that is necessary for a certain part of the fungus' development.

Rust use alternate hosts
What type of fungus is best known for fermentation? To which phylum does it belong?
Yeast are best known for fermentation.

They belong to phylum Ascomycota.
How is budding different from the asexual reproduction in bacteria?
In budding, the offspring stays attached to the parent until it has grown.

In bacterial asexual reproduction, the offspring grows on its own.
Name at least 2 pathogenic fungi and the maladies that they cause.
Rust - Crop damage

Smuts - Crop damage

Ergot of rye (Claviceps purpurea) - death

Cryphonectria parasitica - chestnut blight

Ophiostoma ulmi - Dutch elm disease

Synchytrium endobioticum - Potato wart
Describe the 3 ways a bread mold can reproduce. In each case, specify whether the reproduction is sexual or asexual.
Bread mold can asexually reproduce when a stolon elongates and eventually starts another mycelium.

It can also asexually reproduce when an aerial hypha forms a sporophore (typically a sporangiophore). Sexually, bread molds reproduce when two mycelia form a zygospore.
What puts a fungus into phylum Deuteromycota?
If we do not know what its sexual mode of spore formation is, we place the fungus in phylum Deuteromycota.
What can happen when an antibiotic is used too much?
If an antibiotic is used too much, resistant strains of the pathogen it is supposed to destroy can be formed.
Name the genus of the fungus that produces penicillin.
Penicillin is extracted from a fungus in genus Penicillium.
When a slime mold is a plasmodium, it resembles organisms from what kingdom?
In its feeding stage, a slime mold is a plasmodium.

During that time, it resembles organisms from kingdom Protista.
What is the easiest way to get rid of slime molds?
Slime molds must have water to survive.

Keep the habitat dry, and all slime molds will die.
What are the two major forms of mutualism in which fungi participate? Describe each relationship and the job of each participant in that relationship?
Fungi participate in mutualism by forming lichens and mycorrhizae.

A lichen is a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and an alga.

The alga produces food for both creatures via photosynthesis, and the fungus supports and protects the alga.

Mycorrhizae are mutualistic relationships between a fungus' mycelium and a plant's root system.

The mycelium takes nutrients from the root while it collects minerals from the soil and gives them to the root.
What is a soredium?
A soredium is the specialized spore produced by most lichens. It contains spores for both the fungus and the alga.
Define the following term:

Extracellular digestion
Digestion takes place outside of the cell
Define the following term:

Rhizoid hypha
A hypha that is imbedded in the material on which the fungus grows.
Define the following term:

Stolon
An aerial hypha that asexually reproduces to make more filaments
Define the following term:

Fermentation
The anaerobic breakdown of sugars into smaller molecules
Define the following term:

Hypha
A filament of fungal cells
If a fungus forms haustoria, is it saprophytic or parasitic
it is parasitic, because the haustorium is designed to invade the cells of the host and draw nutrients from them.
What kind of hypha exists in all multicellular fungi?
Since all multicellular fungi must ave something that holds it to the material on which it grows, they all must have rhizoid hyphae.
What does chitin provide for a fungus?
It provides toughness and flexibility
Name 2 specialized aerial hyphae
The 2 most general answers are

Sporophore

Stolon
Given the phyla of kingdom Fungi: Basidiomycota, Ascomycota, Zygomycota, Chytridiomycota, Deuteromycota, and Myxomycota, classify fungi with these characteristics:

a) form spores on club-like basidia

b) have no known sexual mode of reproduction

c) form sexual spores where hyphae fuse

d) resemble both protozoa and fungi
a) Fungi that form spores on club-like basidia are in phylum BASIDIOMYCOTA

b) If we cannot determine the sexual mode of reproduction, we put the fungus in phylum DEUTEROMYCOTA.

c) fungi in phylum ZYGOMYCOTA form zygospores right where the hyphae fuse

d) If a fungus resembles both protozoa and fungi, it is in phylum MYXOMYCOTA.
What part of the mushroom (the stipe, cap, or gill) holds the basidia?
The basidia are found on the gills.
Give the means of sexual reproduction and one means of asexual reproduction employed by bread molds.
Sexually, bread molds reproduce when two mycelia form a zygospore.

Bread molds can asexually reproduce when a stolon elongates and eventually starts another mycelium or when an aerial hypha forms a sporophore.
Name 2 pathogenic fungi and the maladies that they cause.
Rust - crop damage

Smuts - crop damage

Ergot of rye (Claviceps purpurea) death

Cryphonectria parasitica - chestnut blight

Ophiostoma ulmi - Dutch elm disease

Synchytrium endobioticum - potato wart
A farmer notices that a certain crop grows much better int he presence of a certain fungi. What is the most likely explanation?
Most likely, the crop and the fungus form a mycorrhiza together.

(You could also have described the symbiotic relationship)
What useful medicine is produced by fungi in genus Penicillium? There is a general name for such medicines. What is that general name?
Penicillin.

The general name for such a medicine is antibiotic.
A biologist looks through a microscope at a single-celled life form. The microscope is not good enough to discern whether the cell is eukaryotic or prokaryotic. However, the biologist does see that the cell reproduces by budding. What is the most likely kingdom in which this organism belongs?
It is probably in kingdom Fungi.

It is most likely a yeast.
Why do slime molds appear in kingdom Protista in some biology books?
Slime molds appear in kingdom Protista in some biology books because their classification is in some dispute.

They resemble members of kingdom Protista during their feeding stage and members of kingdom Fungi during their reproductive stage.

Thus, they can belong to either kingdom.
The five features common to most fungi are:
saprophytic feeding,

extra-cellular digestion,

reproduction by spores,

multi-cellular makeup (hyphae) and

cell walls containing chitin.
The cells in some hyphae are separated by cell walls. Thus are called_________. Other hyphae, called_____________, have no separations between the cells, and the nuclei are spread throughout the hypha. Even septate hyphae have _____through which ______is exchanged.
septate hypha
nonseptate hyphae
pores
cytoplasm
There are many forms of specialized hyphae. _____________are imbedded in the material on which the fungus grows, __________are not imbedded in the material on which the fungus grows. If such a hypha produces spores, it is a_________, but if it asexually produces more filaments, it is a stolon. In the case of a fungus that feeds on a living organism, a hypha that enters the cells of the living organism and draws nutrients directly from the cytoplasm of those cells is called a _________
Rhizoid hyphae
Aerial hyphae
Sporophore
Haustorium
All fungi are assumed (but not all are confirmed) to have some _______mode of spore formation.
Sexual
Sexual reproduction in fungi usually involves forming specialized spore-forming structures called_______________, which are the result of sexual reproduction between compatible__________.
fruiting bodies
hyphae
One mode of asexual reproduction in fungi involves the lengthening of a_______. After it reaches a certain length, it will begin to reproduce into hyphae that will form the ________of a new fungus.
stolon
mycelium
There are 6 major phyla in kingdom Fungi. Members of phylum Basidiomycota form sexual spores on club-like________. Members of phylum Ascomycota form sexual spores in saclike_______. Members of phylum Zygomycota form sexual spores where_________. Members of phylum Chytridiomycota form spores with_______. Members of phylum Deuteromycota have no __________________and are sometimes called____________. Members of phylum Myxomycota are placed in kingdom ____________by some biologists, because they resemble _______for much of their lives.
Basidia
Asci
hyphae fuse
flagella
known for of sexual reproduction
imperfect fungi
Protista
protozoa
Mushrooms make up most of the organisms in phylum_________. In the mushroom life cycle, mycelia grow from_______. Two mycelia will ______for sexual reproduction. The resulting mycelium will grow, crowing out the______________. Eventually, many hyphae will enclose themselves in a membrane, forming the _______stage of the mushroom. A _________will eventually emerge from the membrane, and it will be composed of three basic components:_____, _____, and______. The spores are formed on basidia found in the_____. Those basidia release spores, from which new mycelia will grow.
Basidiomycota
Spores
Fuse
parent mycelia
button
fruiting body
stipe
cap
gills
gills
The mycelium of a mushroom tends to grow outward in _____patches. Because it can run out of food in the center, the fruiting bodies of the fungus can sometimes form a__________.
Circular
fairy ring
___________are part of phylum Basidiomycota and grow spores inside a membrane. When disturbed, the spores are pushed out a _______near the top of the membrane. _________are also in this phylum and grow shelflike structures on both dead and living wood.
Puffball fungi
Hole
Shelf fungi
Rust and smuts are examples of ________fungi in phylum Basidiomycota. Such a fungus tends to live most of its life cycle on one host, which is called its_______. However, it must also spend a certain part of its life cycle on an__________.
Parasitic
main host
alternate host
________are single-celled members of phylum Ascomycota that asexually reproduce by________. They are used in_________, which anaerobically breaks down sugars into smaller molecules, such as ________and_______. The former can make bread dough_______, and the latter can be used to make ______beverages.
Yeast
budding
fermentation
carbon dioxide
alcohol
rise
alcoholic
Other members of phylum Ascomycota include _______(that have fruiting bodies which look like sponges), _______(that have fruiting bodies which look like cups), ________or __________(that feeds on rye grain and is deadly to people) and tree parasites that cause ___________and_________.
Morels
cup fungi
ergot of rye
Claviceps purpurea
Dutch elm disease
chestnut blight
The spores formed by fungi in phylum Zygomycota are called_________, which are composed of a hard, protective coating around a_______.
Zygospores
zygote
Bread _____is in phylum Zygomycota. It forms ________spores in sporangiophores.
mold
asexual
Fungi in genus ______are in phylum Deuteromycota. They produce the first ___________ever discovered, which revolutionized the treatment of infections. Some bacteria have adapted to be ________to these infection-fighting compounds, which means new ones must continually be found.
Penicillium
Antibiotic
immune
Members of phylum Myxomycota are often called____________. They tend to resemble ________during their feeding stage, and during this time, the mass of living tissue is called a_______. During their reproductive stage, these organisms resemble_______.
slime molds
protozoa
plasmodium
fungi
There is no such thing as an ______scientist.
unbiased
A _______is a _______relationship between a fungus and an alga. The alga produces ______for itself and the fungus by means of_______, while the fungus gives ________and ______to the alga. Most lichens reproduce by releasing a dust-like substance called a_______, which contains spores of both the _____and the _______in a protective case.
lichen
mutualistic
food
photosynthesis
supports
protection
soredium
alga
fungus
The ____________(or fungus root) is a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and a plant root. The fungus absorbs ________from the roots and gives the plant _________in return.
Mycorrhiza
Nutrients
minerals