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48 Cards in this Set

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Nonionized forms are ____ to a cell membrane.
permeable
ionized = polar= ____?
water soluble
water-soluble are _____ to a cell membrane.
not permeable
Most drugs are absorbed by ____.
Passive diffusion
Bases in the stomach will be in what form? Is this soluble?
BH+, no
In what part of the GI tract will bases be most readily absorbed?
the Duodenum and ileum
The rate of absorption is related to the _______ of the drug?
oil-water partition coeffeicient
The ____ the ratio of the oil-water partition coefficent, the more lipid soluble the drug is.
higher
higher ratio = ______ absorption.
faster
The _____ is the amount of the drug that is absorbed and used in its pharmocological effect.
bioavailability.
Food will _____ gastric emptying of the stomach.
delay
The ____ is the main organ for metabolism.
liver
bioavailability is represented as the ___ under the __________ curve.
area, concentration/time
Distribution depends on the _______ of various organs.
Blood flow
Only ____ drugs get out of circulation.
Free
bound drugs are _____ in the circulation.
Trapped
Does passage out of the capillaries have anything to do with whether the drug is charged or not?
no! Drugs go around the endothelial cells!! very leaky
_____ is a protein in the blood that has the greatest amount of binding interactions.
Albumin
_____ is responsible for binding basic drugs in the plasms.
alpha-1-acid glycoprotein
Basic drugs are ____.
positive
Acidic drugs are _____.
negative
positive sites on albumin are attracted to _____ charges.
negative (and vice versa)
cytochrome p450 will _____ drugs and inactivated them.
oxidize
Can a neonate handle large amounts of bilirubin?
no! it is very dangerous and may cause Kernicterus
The retinal barrier is just like the ____?
BBB
In the BBB, how do drugs get to the other side?
They must go through the cells(b/c of the tight jxns b/t the cells)
Only ____ soluble drugs go through the membrane.
lipid
Water-soluble drugs can go through the barrier if a ____ is present.
transporter
Atropine is a _______ agent.
antimuscarninic
Is Atropine a teriary or a quanartary amine?
Teriary
Can the B form of atropine cross the BBB?
yes
atropine drops in kids are ____ if given in high doses.
toxic
atropine can be converted to _______ which is a quaternary ammonium salt.
atropine methylsulfate
_____ is an analog of atropine given to treat asthma.
Ipatropium
All barbituates are _____.
weak acids
_____ is a good choice for initiating anesthesia, but not for treating it.
Thiopental
___ is a good choice ofor maintaining anesthesia, but not for starting it.
pentobarbital
Metabolism is the process leading to ____ of the drug.
excretion
the more ____ the more excretable.
water-soluble
Only a ___ drug can be filtered.
free
T of F: a filtered drug can be charged or uncharged--it doesnt matter.
True
A drug that is uncharged, and lipid soluble can be passively ___.
reabsorbed
charged drugs are ____.
excreted
___ _____ is the most efficient way the body has of ridding itself of a drug.
active secretion
Name 2 transporters for anions.
1- Salicylate
2-Penicillin
Name 2 transporters for cations.
1- Morphine
2- Ranitidine
For a weak acid, you want to _____ the urine.
alkalinize
______ is the 2nd most effective way a drug can be eliminated from the body.
enterohepatic shunt (2nd only to renal excretion)