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77 Cards in this Set

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cytoskeleton
the network of protein threads that gives structural support to the cell.
covalent bonds
enter answer here.
why is diffusion an effective method for the movement of molecules in fluid over short distances but not long distances
Diffusion is a passive method of transport and may not be effective in transporting molecules over long distances because it doesn't produce the energy or force required to move molecules long distances. (checking with tutor)
covalent bonds
very strong bonds that share electrons.
pH scale
The way that we express the concentration of hydrogen ions within solutions. 7 is neutral (water) pH less than 7 (0-7) are acids - HIGHER Hydrogen ion concentrations and they DONATE hydrogen ions, and pH of more than 7 are bases, with lower concentrations of hydrogen ions, i.e. THEY ACCEPT HYDROGEN IONS.
protein
more than a hundred peptides joined together (a BIG polypeptide = protein.)
peroxisomes
contain powerful oxidative enzymes that destroy toxic wastes produced in the cell, such as hydrogen peroxide and alcohol. Wastes are destroyed within the peroxisome , i.e neutralized while still in the cell.
difference between diffusion and osmosis
enter answer here.
connective tissue
supports and connects other tissues and organs. includes bone, tendons, ligaments, soft connective tissue, and blood cells!
protein - tertiary structure
the overall shape of a single protein chain
Rough ER
Site of protein synthesis. Extensively folded network or membranes. Portion of the Rough ER makes up a portion of the nuclear envelope.
protein - primary structure
the amino acid sequence within the protein
mechanisms used to transport substances through & across bilayer?
diffusion, osmosis, channels, pumps, enzymes, receptors, active transport.
protein - secondary structure
the degree of twisting of the protein into a helix
protein structure - primary
actual sequence of amino acids
homeostasis
maintenance of the constancy of the internal environment of the body by physiological systems.
Transport proteins
Imbedded in the cell membrane, transport proteins transport molecules by changing shape or orientation in response to a molecule attaching them, then subsequently releasing the molecule on the opposite side, moving it from an area of high concentration to a lower concentration for that molecule.
theory
a scientific explanation to explain aspects of the world. hypotheses are used to support theories
secretory vessicles
small packages within the cell that contain products destined for export. secretory vessicles fuse with the cell membrane to secrete their products from the cell.
negative feedback
a stabilizing response of the body created and/or in response to overcome a change in the environment. For example, shivering to generate heat in response to sensing a colder atmosphere.
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid - the double-stranded molecules which store genetic material of the cell.
RNA
single stranded molecules of ribonucleic acid and the recipe for translation of DNA
gated channel proteins
integral proteins in the cell membrane, these open and close their 'gates' in response to chemical or electrical stimuli, allowing or disallowing passage through the cell membrane, of water and ions.
cell nucleus
a spherical membrane-bound organelle in the cell where genetic material (DNA) is stored.
carbohydrates
a backbone of carbon atoms, with hydrogen and oxygen attached in the same proportion as they normally appear in water
tissues
groups of cells with similar functions
protein structure - quaternary
number and type of protein chains in a structure.
ionic bonds
when oppositely charged ions are attracted to one another and join together to form neutral molecules. Not as strong as covalent bonds, so break apart easily, especially in aqueous solutions.
protein structure - secondary
degree of twisting into helix
three classes of organic molecules
carbohydrates (sugars and starches), lipids (fats and oils) and proteins.
protein structure - tertiary
overall shape of a single protein chain
nervous tissue
cells specialized for generating and transmitting electrical impulses, creating a communication network for the organism.
difference between osmosis and diffusion?
WATER moves by osmosis.
SOLUTES move by diffusion.
channel proteins, receptor proteins, glycoproteins etc
(remember how to draw. p24 text)
:
:
O O O O | | O O O O |_|
" " " " | | " " " " | |
| | | |
" " " " | | " " " " | |
O O O O | | O O O O | |
integral proteins
span entire depth of cell membrane's bilipid layer
triglycerides
the primary storage form of lipids. One molecule of glycerol covalently bonded to three fatty acids. breakdown of triglycerides releases energy that can be used. (Synthesis requires energy.)
phospholipids
Have a glycerol molecule as the backbone, and two fatty acid tails. A negatively charged phosphate group and one other group that varies. This gives them one polar end and one non-charged end, with the polar end being water soluble and the non polar lipd end being insoluble in water. This is why a lipid bilayer is the building block of cell membranes.
polypeptide
chain of many amino acids.
ribosomes
attached to ER or floating freely in the cytoplasm, site of protein synthesis in the cell. Formed of two sub-units formed in and exported from the nucleus.
Why can glucose and amino acids not diffuse directly through the phospholipid bilayer in the same way as oxygen? --> checking with tutor.
Glucose and amino acids are not lipid soluble, therefore they are not able to easily cross the bilayer by diffusing through it in the same fashion as oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Four primary tissue types
muscle, connective, epithelial, nervous.
Smooth ER
rich supply of enzymes. synthesizes lipids, including steriod hormones. packages and delivers lipids and proteins to golgi complex by pinching off vessicles.
How can information be transmitted across the cell membrane even in the absence of molecular movement across the cell membrane?
Receptor proteins are integral proteins spanning the cell membrane, and are also enzymes. They can pass chemical messages through the cell membrane by causing an effect inside the cell in response to a stimuli outside of the cell.
Distinguish between smooth and rough ER & their products - how do materials get from ER to golgi?
extensively folded network of membrane, but rough ER forms part of nuclear envelope, is covered with ribosomes, making it look rough. Manufactures proteins. smooth ER also folds of membrane, but no ribosomes. SER contains enzyumes, synthesizes lipids, incl. steriod hormones. packages and delivers lipids and proteins to golgi via vessicles pinching off.
diff. between lysosomes and peroxisomes?
lysosomes contain digestive enzymes, fuse with vacuoles to digest foreign objects (e.g. bacteria, old organelles) within the cell. when digestion complete, they become residual bodies and deposit contents outside cell. peroxisomes contain oxidative enzymes that destroy toxic wastes produced in cell (e.g. alcohol/hydrogen peroxide)detoxification process occurs entirely within peroxisome.
membrane carbohydrates
extend from some of the glycoproteins of the cell membrane, only from the outer surface of the cell. these carbohydrates allow the attachment of adjacent cells.
base
Bases have a pH of more than seven, accept hydrogen ions, and have much lower hydrogen ion concentrations. example: baking soda
acid
have pH of less than seven, higher hydrogen ion concentrations, and donate hydrogen ions. Examples: vinegar, orange juice.
positive feedback
a destabilizing physical response of the body that takes the natural environment of the body further away from normal in response to an environmental change. The physical responses enhance the effects within the body, of that environmental change
cytosol
the gell like material that fills the cavity of the cell.
hydrogen bonds
the weak attractive force between oppositely charged regions of molecules containing covalently bonded hydrogen atoms. (i.e. water holding together.) This is what allows water to flow - the hydrogen bonds are so weak that the bonds continually break and re-form.
hierarchy of a complex organism
atomic->molecular->cellular->tissue->organ->organ systems-> organism
golgi complex
contains enzymes that process products of ER into final form, adding sugards to proteins and lipids producing glycoproteins and glycolipids, which are packaged into vessicles for distribution in the cell.
microtubules & microfilaments
Small tube or elements of protein fibres of the cytoskeleton that serve to structurally support the cell and organelles.
receptor proteins
act to communicate with the environment of the cell transmitting chemical signals across the membrane, usually by triggering chemical events within the cell in response to a chemical stimuli from outside the cell.
ATP
Adenosine Tri-phosphate - the main energy source for the cell.
glycoproteins
have carbohydrate groups within them, allowing for attachment of the cytoskeleton within the cell, or for other cells to attach to the outer cell wall.
what would happen if an animal cell was placed in pure water?
diffusion of water is always towards a region with higher concentration of solutes, so the water would enter the cell, causing it to swell. If the cell didn't have a way of reducing the solute concentration, it would burst.
osmosis
diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
homeostasis
the maintenance of the constancy of the internal environment of the body by the physiological body systems.
plasma membrane structure
which water soluble, which not?
O O O O | polar heads:
| water soluble
" " " " | tails:
" " " " | fatty acids
O O O O | hydrophobic
lipid bilayer
The double layer of phospholipid cells which makes up the cell membrane.
hydrolysis
the addition of a water molecule hydrates and breaks a bond between two monosaccharide molecules, breaking down the complex sugars into their component parts.
epithelial tissue
groups of cells which form sheets to cover or line organs (i.e. stomach lining, skin, kidney tubules.) Many epithelial cells are highly specialied for transporting materials across the cell layer, such as transfering nutrients from intestines into the bloodstream, and waste products from bloodstream into urine.
enzymes
proteins that facilitate chemical reactions in living cells, causing the reactions to become substantially more efficient.
Protein pumps
embedded in the cell membrane, these are efficient proteins involved in active transport of molecules across a membrane, in both directions, and at times with multiple molecules. The Na+-K+ pump is an example.
dehydration synthesis
connecting simple sugars by removing the equivalent of one water molecule. (Two hydrogen and one oxygen.)
protein - quaternary structure
the number and type of chains of a protein.
diffusion
net movement of particles from one region to another as a result of random thermal motion, from a region of high concentration to a region of lower concentration. Requires this concentration difference.
peptide
when, through dehydration synthesis, two or more amino acids are linked.
membrane channels
Water channels, and chemically or electrically gated channels that pass through the cell membrane allowing or disallowing the passage of water and ions. "pipes" through the cell membrane, some open, some closed, some with "valves.
muscle tissue
specialized for contraction, divided into skeletal muscle (moves skeleton), cardiac (moves blood by pumping heart), smooth muscle tissue (surrounds organs, blood vessels, gastro intestinal tract.)
Enzymes
Enzymes are also imbedded within the cell membrane, acting as catalysts for cellular reactions.
facilitated diffusion
hydrophyllic molecules attach to a membrane protein which then changes shape or orientation in response, to deposit the molecule on the opposite side of the membrane.
mitochondria
produce the useable energy for the cell. have a smooth outer membrane and a highly contorted inner membrane. create energy by converting food energy into ATP.
lysosomes
membrane-bound package of digestive enzymes important in digesting objects which need to be removed from the cell, such as bacteria.
Water Channel proteins
Integral proteins that span the cell membrane, these proteins have a water channel through them, allowing for the transport of water through them but, due to small water passage, not allowing ions.