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57 Cards in this Set

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Define anthropometrics
The science of the physical dimensions, size, shape, and weight of the human body.
The basis for anthropometry is the careful measurement of human body dimensions of a set population. The dimensions that are measured include:
1) Height

2) Weight

3) Reach, both horizontal & overhead

4) Stoop

5) Grip strength

6) Circumferential measurements

7) Limb length
What landmarks are used for the Figure 8 measurement of the ankle/foot?
1) Tibialis Anterior tendon

2) Navicular tuberosity

3) Base of 5th metatarsal

4) Medial malleolus

5) Lateral malleolus
How would you perform anthropometric measurement for swelling at the knee?
- Mark the medial joint line and take a circumferential measurement of the knee at the medial joint line.

- Now, measure up from the medial joint line & mark the suprapatellar region & perform a circumferential measurement there.

- Repeat the procedure for the contralateral knee. Document your findings.
How would you perform anthropometric measurement for swelling at the thigh?
- Using a knee landmark (mark it) as a distance reference, measure up and mark 2-3 places on the thigh. Take a circumferential measurement at these 2-3 places.

- Measure the opposite thigh in the same location (duplicate the procedures done on the other leg.) Document your findings.
How would you perform anthropometric measurements for swelling at the low leg?
Using a landmark (mark it) as a distance reference, measure down and mark 2-3 places on the low leg.

- Take a circumferential measurement at these 2-3 places. Measure the opposite low leg in the same location (duplicate the procedures done on the other leg). Doctument your findings.
Describe how you would perform anthropometric measurement for leg length in supine?
- Place the subject in a supine position and locate the ASIS and medial malleolus (on same side).

- Measure the linear distance from the ASIS to the medial malleolus for each lower extremity.

- Document your findings
Areas observed from ANTERIOR or POSTERIOR view
1) Neck Angle - affected by size of upper trap & shoulder height

2) Shoulder levelness - dominant shoulder frequently lower

3) Rib Cage Symmetry

4) Waist Angle/Crease Symmetry - affected by spinal curves and/or pelvis levelness

5) Iliac Crests & Trochanters levelness

6) Toe-Out Angle & Width of BOS

7) Foot Position/Arch Clearance - Slight pronation is normal
ANTERIOR only view
1) Head on trunk alignment (tilt or rotation)

2) ASIS levelness

3) Patellar position/alignment

4) Knee angulation - slight valgus is normal
POSTERIOR only view
1) Spinal curves (hypo-, hyper-, or scoliosis)

2) Scapulae position - dominant shoulder frequently lower

3) PSIS levelness

4) Knee crease symmetry

5) Calcaneus alignment - inversion/eversion (slight pronation is normal)
Lateral (sagittal plane) view
1) Vertical Plumb-line Alignment (reference location for plumb line alignment is at the ankle)

2) Trunk rotation or sway/shift - take anoter look at spinal curves
Describe the sample postural impairments/deviations that are stated in the posture handout
1) pes planus/cavus

2) genu valgus/varus, recurvatum

3) anterior OR posterior pelvic tilt

4) pelvic asymmetry/unlevel

5) hyper/hypo lordosis/kyphosis

6) scoliosis & rib hump

7) scapular depression

8) scapular retraction

9) forward shoulders (scapular protraction)

10) shoulders unlevel

11) forward head

12) upper trunk or lower trunk lean (A-P)
Associations between postural deviations and impairments:
Just to name a few.

1) hamstring tightness & lumbar hypolordosis

2) hip flexor tightness & lumbar hyperlordosis

3) standing foot asymmetry & leg length difference

4) pectoral tightness & forward shoulders
Describe IDEAL sagittal plumb line alignment
- Just posterior to the ear opening

- Thru the Shoulder/GH Joint

- Thru or just behind the hip (thru trochanter)

- Thru the anterior 1/2 of the knee

- Anterior to the lateral malleolus
Why, biomechanically, is this considered "ideal posture"???
- because it results in the lowest torque demands placed on the joints and muscles. IF it is comfortable adn habitual for a person, it can be maintained by contraction of only the soleus, iliopsoas, erector spinae, neck extensors, and temporalis/masseter
Root: C5

Reflex: ?
Biceps
Root: C6

Reflex: ?
Brachioradialis
Root: C7

Reflex: ?
Triceps
Root: C5

Myotome: ?
Deltoid, (Biceps)
Root: C6

Myotome: ?
Biceps, (Wrist Extensors)
Root: C7

Myotome: ?
Triceps, (Wrist Flexion)
Root: C8

Myotome: ?
Thumb Extension, (Grip)
Root: T1

Myotome: ?
PADS & DABS
Root: C5

Dermatome: ?
Lateral Upper Arm (humeral head area)
Root: C6

Dermatome: ?
Thumb pad
Root: C7

Dermatome: ?
Middle finger pad
Root: C8

Dermatome: ?
5th finger pad
Root: T1

Dermatome: ?
medial arm
L1 Myotome
Iliopsoas
L2 Myotome
Iliopsoas
L3 Myotome
quadriceps
L4 myotome
anterior tibialis
L5 myotome
extensor hallucis longus
S1 myotome
flexor hallucis longus
S2 myotome
hamstrings
L1 dermatome
inguinal area
L2 dermatome
anterior superior thigh
L3 dermatome
anterior middle thigh
L4 dermatome
anterior knee - suprapatellar
L5 dermatome
1st - 2nd webspace
S1 dermatome
lateral foot
S2 dermatome
medial posterior thigh & calf
L3 reflex
patellar reflex
L4 reflex
patellar reflex
S1 reflex
achilles reflex
S2 reflex
achilles reflex
radiograph view for OA, AA, C1, C2 and dens
AP open mouth (sub-occipital c-spine view)
radiograph view for lower C-spine intervertebral foramina
oblique
radiograph view for lower C-spine and L-spine disk height
lateral
radiograph view for L-spine intervertebral foramina
lateral
radiograph view for angle of inclination of the hip
AP
radiograph view genu valgus or varus at the knee
AP
radiograph view medial & lateral joint space in the knee at the same time
AP
radiograph view ankle mortise
AP mortise
Which form of imaging makes up the majority of all medical imaging exams?
Plain film - about 80%
low density tissues which appear more gray or black
radiolucency
white or relatively white areas on the film such as bone; "areas of density"
Radiodensity or Radiopaque