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104 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the hip joint provies simulataneous movement between
lower extremity and pelvis
infants are more prone to ______ ; why?
prone to disclocation becasue hips are abnormally formed
what hip diseases are the elderly more at risk for
1) degenerative joint disease
2) increased osteoporosis and fall risk --> hip fracture
what characteristics of the hip make it suited for stability
1) head stabilized by deep socket

2) surrounded by extensive ligaments

3) large forceful muscles surrounding the joint
what is the innominate
the "hip" it means "nameless" and is the union of hte illium, pubis, and ischium
where do the R and L innominates connect 1) anteriorly and 2) posteriorly
1) anteriorly at the pubis symphysis

2) posteriorly at the sacrum
what makes up the "pelvis"
the innominate bones +the sacrum
what would determine a "normal stance" of the pelvis
if viewed in lateral view, there should be a vertical line from the ASIS to the pubic tubercle
what are the 3 features of the external surface of the innominate
1) wing of the ilium

2) acetabulum

3) obturator foramen
what is the Wing of the ilium
- aka "ala"
- large fan-shaped
- superior half of the innominate
where is the acetabulum located (and what's its shape)
just below the wing of the ilium, and it is deep cup-shaped
where is the obturator foramen
inferior and medial to the acetabulum
what covers the obturator foramen
obturator membrane
what signifies the attachment sites of gluteal muscles to the pelvis
posterior, anterior, and inferior gluteal lines
what is considered the most anterior extent of the ilium
the ASIS
where is the AIIS located
just below the ASIS
what is the most superior rim of the ilium called
iliac creast
what is the posterior end of the iliac crest
posterior superior iliac spine
what does the dimple in the skin in the low back usually mark
soft tissue connecting superficial to the PSIS
what does the posterior inferior iliaci spine mark
the superior rim of the sciatic notch
what creates the greater sciatic notch
the bones of the innominate
what creates the greater sciatic foramen
formed within the greater sciatic notch by the ligaments crossing it
what ligaments bridge the opening of the greater sciatic notch
sacrotuberous and sacrospinous ligaments
where is the iliac fossa (and its shape)
anterior surface of the ilium, smooth and concave
what muscle lines the iliac fossa
iliacus muscle
where is the AIIS located
just below the ASIS
what is the most superior rim of the ilium called
iliac creast
what is the posterior end of the iliac crest
posterior superior iliac spine
what does the dimple in the skin in the low back usually mark
soft tissue connecting superficial to the PSIS
what does the posterior inferior iliaci spine mark
the superior rim of the sciatic notch
what creates the greater sciatic notch
the bones of the innominate
what creates the greater sciatic foramen
formed within the greater sciatic notch by the ligaments crossing it
what ligaments bridge the opening of the greater sciatic notch
sacrotuberous and sacrospinous ligaments
where is the iliac fossa (and its shape)
anterior surface of the ilium, smooth and concave
what muscle lines the iliac fossa
iliacus muscle
where does the sacrum articulate with the ilium
on the auricular surface (which is on the posterior surface)
what forms the iliac tuberocity
attachments of the SI ligaments
where is the iliac tuberocity located
just posterior to the auricular surface
where is the superior pubic ramus located
anterior from the acetabulum to the body of the pubis
what forms the pubic symphysis
the body of the pubis
where is the pectineal line (on the pubis) and what is its purpose
upper surface of the superior pubic ramus, and serves as an attachment site for the pectineus muscle
where is the pubic tubercle and what is its purpose
projects anteriorly from superior pubic ramus and serves as an attachment site for the inguinal ligament
where is the inferior pubic ramus located
body of the pubis posteriorly to the junction of the ischium
what type of joint is the pubic symphysis
fibrocartilaginous joint --> amphiarthrosis
the pubic symphysis joint is:
1) composed of the articulation between....

2) lined with .....

3) held together by.....
1) articulation in the midline of the two pubic bones

2) lined with hyaline cartilage

3) held together bu fibrocartilaginous interpubic ddisc and supportive ligaments
where does the sacrum articulate with the ilium
on the auricular surface (which is on the posterior surface)
what forms the iliac tuberocity
attachments of the SI ligaments
where is the iliac tuberocity located
just posterior to the auricular surface
where is the superior pubic ramus located
anterior from the acetabulum to the body of the pubis
what forms the pubic symphysis
the body of the pubis
where is the pectineal line (on the pubis) and what is its purpose
upper surface of the superior pubic ramus, and serves as an attachment site for the pectineus muscle
where is the pubic tubercle and what is its purpose
projects anteriorly from superior pubic ramus and serves as an attachment site for the inguinal ligament
where is the inferior pubic ramus located
body of the pubis posteriorly to the junction of the ischium
what type of joint is the pubic symphysis
fibrocartilaginous joint --> amphiarthrosis
the pubic symphysis joint is:
1) composed of the articulation between....

2) lined with .....

3) held together by.....
1) articulation in the midline of the two pubic bones

2) lined with hyaline cartilage

3) held together bu fibrocartilaginous interpubic ddisc and supportive ligaments
where is the ischial spine located
on the posterior side of the ischium, just inferior to the greater sciatic notch
where is the lesser sciatic notch located
just inferior to the spine
what forms the lesser sciatic foramen
the sacrotuberous and sacrospinous ligaments
where is the ischial tuberosity
posterior and inferior from the acetabulum
where is the proximal attachment for many lower extremity muscles (i.e. hamstrings)
ischial tuberosity
where is the ischial ramus located
anterior from ischial tuberosity
the acetabulum is located just above what?
the obturator foramen
what forms the "socket" of the hip
acetabulum
which bones of the pelvis make up the acetabulum and in what percent
ALL three form part of the acetabulum:
ilium +ischium = 80%
pubis = 20%
the femur is the ____ and ____ in the body
longest and strongest bone in the body
what is unique about the shape of the femur
it has the "bend to it" to allow for powerful muscle action and long stride length during walking
why does the proximal femur project laterally
to prevent bony impingement along the pelvis
why does the distal femur project medially
to align the feet and knees closer to the midline of the body
what is the distinct shape of the femur in relation to stress
anterior convexity that bows when weight bearing ---> stress dissiptated through compression along post. shaft and through tension along anterior shaft
where is the femoral head
proximal end of the femur and articulates with the acetabulum
what connects the head of the femur to the shaft
the femoral neck
where is the distal attachment site for capsular ligaments
the intertrochanteric line (anterior)
where is the greater trochanter located
lateral and posterior from the junction of the femoral neck and shaft
what is the purpose of the greater trochanter
distal attachment site for many muscles
where is the trochanteric fossa and what is its purpose
the medial surface of the greater trochanter .... accepts the distal attachment of the obturator externus
where is the lesser trochanter located
sharp projection on the inferior end of the crest in posterior/medial direction
where is the major distal attachment for the iliopsoas
lesser trochanter
what is the significance of the linea aspera
1) marks middle 1/3 of the posterior shaft of the femor

2) attachment site for vasti muscles, adductors, and intermuscular fascia
what is the proximal medial split of the linea aspera
pectineal (spiral) line
what is the proximal lateral split of the linea aspera
gluteal tuberosity
what are the distal splits of the linear aspera called
lateral and medial supracondylar lines
where is the adductor tubercle
extreme distal end of the medial supracondylar line
what is the angle of inclination
angle between femoral neck and medial femoral shaft
what is the angle of inclination 1) at birth and 2) in adulthood
1) at birth 140-150
2) increases to 125 due to loading across the neck as we age --> giving optimal alignment of joint surfaces
what is coxa vara
coxa (hip) vara (bend inward)

inward bend/ angle of inclination less than 125
what is coxa valga
coxa (hip) valga (bend outward)

outward bend/ angle of inclination >125
what is the effect of a change in angle of inclination
alters the alignment between the femoral head and acetabulum
what is the torsion angle
rotation between the shaft and neck of the femur
what is normal torsion angle
between 10-15 anterior to medial/lateral axis through femoral condyles
what is excessive anteversion
torsion angle > 15 degrees
what is excessive anteversion associated with
1) congenital dislocation
2) marked joint incongruence
3) increased wear on articular cartilage
4) "in toeing" in children
what is "in-toeing" in children
excessive anteversion--- causing a walking pattern with exaggerated hip IR acting as a compensation for an anteverted femoral head
if "in-toeing" in children is not addressed what are possible consequences
1) contracture of internal rotators

2) contracture of ligaments restricting external rotation
do kids with "intoeing" walk normally ever
eventually 50% walk normal, gait pattern improves because of structural compensation in lower extermity and tibia
what is retroversion
torsion angle <15 degrees
what is the torsion angle at birth
born with 30 degrees anteversion, decreases to 15 degrees by age six
what is the OPTIMAL alignment of the hip
normal angle of inclination (125) with 15 degrees anteversion
what are the stresses produced during walking
1) tension
2) compresison
3) bending
4) shear
5) torsion on proximal femur
how is the femur able to handle such high stresses
proximal femur resists and absorbs mechanical energy through different bone compositions
what are roles of compact bone in the femur
withstand large external loads--- dense and unyielding tissue
where is compact bone located in teh femur
thick in the cortex of lower femoral neck and entire shaft.... basically areas subject to large shear and torsion
what are the roles of cancellous bone in the femur
absorb external forces
what is a trabecular network
concentrations of cancellous bone along lines of stress (i.e. on the femur the medial trabecular and the arcuate trabecular)
spongy bone =
cancellous bone