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27 Cards in this Set

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What is the most important/most influential force on the upper limb?
gravity
Give relative (percent) weights fo the arm and hand (of total body weight)
- arm 5%
- hand 0.6%
Kinesiology definition of orthotics
Application of forces to correct abnormal forces acting on the limb - often to protect tissues, prevent abnormality or promote function
General purpose of upper limb orthotics
provide stability to PROXIMAL structures for increased function at distal structures
Give an example of redundant and uniques forces in the upper limb
- redundant: tenodesis for wrist extention
- unique: shoulder abduction (if deltoid is weak, not much can substitute)
List four purposes of therapeutic orthotics
- stabilize
- mobilize
- aid in healing
- prevent or reduce contractures
List five purposes of functional orthotics
- stabilize proximally
- enhance or maximize muscle action
- assist movement
- substitute for muscle action
- serve as a base for attaching functional tools
List five types of therapeutic orthotics
- static
- drop-out (gravity)
- articulated
- dynamic
- static progressive/serial
Give general description of the wrist cock-up splint
- stabilize the wrist in about 20 degrees of extention
- goal is more effective finger function
List typical differences in materials used for permanent vs. temporary splints
- permanent: metals, high temp plastics; usually start with plaster molding
- temporary: plaster of paris, low temperature thermoplastics
General description of first order lever
- balance around a fulcrum
- fulcrum in the middle
General description of second order lever
- mechanical advantage
- force over long lever arm
- load in the middle
- provide a supporting force
General description of third order lever
- mechanical disadvantage
- force over short lever arm
- supportive force in the middle
Give the general rule for pressure tolerance for UE orthotics
Cover 2/3 of the available space
How should you adjust the surface area of a splint if a patient has increased tone?
increase the surface area (more tone = more force)
General guideline for length in the hand to allow functional finger movement
Don't go distal to the palmar crease
Give and example of upper limb orthosis for 1st, 2nd and 3rd degree levers
- 1st degree: wrist cock-up
- 2nd degree: mobile arm support
- 3rd degree: shoulder sling
General features of a long opponens splint
- wrist in about 15 degrees of extention
- ideally contours to palm
- c-bar allows thumb to slide if there is function
- material is light to minimize extra forces
General features of a short opponens splint
- lumbrical bar
- locks thumb for prehension
General features of a RIC tenodesis splint
- used to train for tenodesis splint
- provides 5-6# of tenodesis pinch pressure
- short opponens component
- cord from fingers to foarearm piece for pinch
General features of a wrist driven flexor hinge splint
- uses more mechanical advantage
- provides more options in terms of wrist position, etc
***only UE splint with longevity of use over 18 months
What is the only UE splint that has shown longevity of use over 18 months?
wrist driven flexor hinge splint
General features of a radial nerve palsy splint
- asist with wrist and finger extention (pt still has active flexion)
4 Key features to remember about the upper limb
- complex tool
- open kinetic chain
- proximal stability for distal mobility
- assits with balacing of body
Describe hand position and vascular flow
Maintaining the contours/arches of the hand allows for maximal venous and lymphatic flow
General features of an articulated therapeutic UE orthosis
Usually have locking mechanisms to guide a specific plane of movement
Most important feature of dynamic therapeutic UE splints
Use LOW load forces for a prolonged period of time (no more than 100-300 grams)